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Week 6 developing muscular fitness
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Week 6 developing muscular fitness


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  • 1. Chapter 6Sport Physiology for Coaches
  • 2.  Please review the following Training Principles from Chapter 2. ◦ Overload and recovery ◦ Specificity ◦ Individuality ◦ Maintenance and reversibility ◦ Progression, variation and periodization
  • 3.  Muscle Balance ◦ Maintaining a balance in the strength between the pairs of opposing muscles  Biceps vs. triceps  Quadriceps vs. Hamstrings Repetition Max ◦ The maximum number of times you can lift a given weight.  1RM – max weight you can lift 1time
  • 4.  Isometric ◦ Static contraction / no change in muscle length ◦ Contraction against an immovable object ◦ Does not have the dynamic strength necessary for sport performance Isotonic ◦ Contractions against a consistent resistance.  Dynamics constant external resistance (DCER) more accurate terminology  Concentric vs. eccentric  Free weights vs. machines (Table 6.1 page 87)
  • 5.  Isokinetic ◦ Contraction against a resistance that is varied throughout the range of motion while speed remains relatively constant. ◦ Advantages  High resistance training through whole range of motion  Training at speed similar to sport  More concentric contractions / less muscle soreness ◦ Disadvantages  Expensive equipment  Limited ranges of motions and movements
  • 6.  Rep ◦ On complete cycle of an exercise ◦ Includes concentric and eccentric phases Set ◦ A number of reps completed with out rest Circuit training ◦ A method of putting sets together such that an athlete does one set of each exercise before repeating sets of any exercise. Set-rep training ◦ A method of organizing training into multiple repeated sets of one exercise before the next exercise.
  • 7.  Intensity ◦ Refers to amount of weight lifted. ◦ Influences by speed of rep. Rest period ◦ The amount of time allowed between sets for recovery. ◦ Longer rest periods are beneficial for strength and power development.
  • 8.  Goals and Needs Assessment ◦ Necessary to know where you are and where you want to go. ◦ Using fitness test to establish these needs. ◦ With good information and goals, you can design programs to improves areas of weakness and maintain strengths. Core Stability ◦ Trunk and hips ◦ Part of the chain in power development. ◦ Improved performance and reduction in injuries ◦ Examples in Appendix B
  • 9.  Exercise Selection ◦ Major exercises  Greatest influence on strength development ◦ Assistant exercises  Specific training effect for a particular sport ◦ Supplementary exercise  Carefully selected, sport specific exercises ◦ Specialty exercises  Selected according to the athlete’s needs Table 6.2 (page 90-97)provides some sport specific examples.
  • 10.  Exercise Specificity ◦ Sport specific and athlete specific ◦ Modify existing programs to be more sport specific Exercise order ◦ Warm-up ◦ Large muscle groups before smaller groups ◦ Multi-joint before single joint ◦ High intensity before low intensity Frequency ◦ Depends on goals, athlete fitness level, intensity and recovery. ◦ 2-4 sessions per week per muscle group Velocity ◦ Speed of movement decreases as resistance is increased ◦ Strength development – slow movement with higher resistance ◦ Power development – moderate to fast speeds.
  • 11.  The normal progression of resistance training: ◦ Strength ◦ Power ◦ Power Endurance
  • 12.  Beginning strength athletes ◦ Resistance of about 60% - 70% 1RM ◦ 8-12 reps Advanced strength athletes ◦ Resistance of about 80% - 100% 1RM ◦ 2-5 reps Variety in load has been shown to be beneficial Volume (Sets) will variety for individual athletes. Rest periods ◦ Longer rest periods – beneficial to development of strength Summarized in Table 6.3 (page 100)
  • 13.  Power is the rate of doing work. Traditional strength training focus on strength at slow speeds not speeds required for athletic performance. Power Training – light to moderate loads at high speeds, effectively increase sport specific power. Must have adequate strength before developing power.
  • 14.  It is necessary to continue some strenght work-outs to maintain base strength. Table 6.4 (page 102) gives guidelines for developing power while maintaining strength.
  • 15.  Athletic events require different ratios of strength, power and power endurance. It is optimal of duplicate the speed and motion used in the sport. Table 6.5 (page 103) ◦ Short-term power endurance ◦ Intermediate power endurance ◦ Long-term power endurance Table 6.6 (page 103) ◦ Guidelines for developing power endurance
  • 16.  Progression ◦ Planned increases in training Periodization ◦ Scheduled alterations in training loads that ensure adequate time for recovery. ◦ Variation is programed at different levels: daily, weekly, seasonal, and career. ◦ Resistance training programs are periodized into:  Preparatory  Strength  Power  Power Endurance
  • 17.  Learn proper lifting techniques Prepare the muscles and connective tissue to handle the strain of Strength Training. Individualize several exercises for each athlete. Determine RM for each exercise, then decide on appropriate training preparatory resistance.
  • 18.  Dependent on needs of athlete and sport. During the first 6-8 weeks changes will be metabolic and improved muscle fiber recruitment. Refer back to Table 6.3 (page 100) for guidelines Figure 6.3 (page 107) – Gives guidance for daily periodization.
  • 19.  High power sports may require 7-12 weeks of power training, followed by 2-3 weeks of taper. Table 6.4 (page 102) for power training guidelines
  • 20.  The athlete focuses more on repeated overloading of specific muscles and movements while maintaining movement speeds similar to those used in competition. Little changes in muscle hypertrophy seen, most changes are increases the ability of individual fibers to maintain the required energy system for longer. Table 6.5 and 6.5 (Page 108) offer guidelines for power endurance training.
  • 21.  The higher the fitness level, the more training is required to maintain the fitness level. Paradox for high intensity athletes to maintain high fitness while avoiding overtraining.
  • 22.  Relative strength, power and endurance of opposing muscle groups. Opposing muscle balance ◦ Balance between primary and antagonist muscle groups. Bilateral balance ◦ Similar development on the two sides of the body. Table 6.7 (page 110) ◦ Presents a few commonly accepted muscular strength balance values for major joints.
  • 23.  Speed implies acceleration from a starting point. Acceleration implies power and maintenance of speed. Speed is an interplay of the various energy systems. We will talk about these energy systems in the next section. Power and power endurance training are essential to the development and maintenance of speed.
  • 24.  Athletes perform speeds that they practice Requires time and patience Interval speeds should be 1-5 % above race speeds. Allow adequate rest between intervals. Athletes should be well rested prior to speed training. During peaking - short max intervals on limited basis.
  • 25.  Technique is the neural coordination necessary for proper execution of a skill. “Practice makes Permanent”
  • 26.  Training methods that develop power and quickness. Training the preload and elastic recoil present in many sport skills. Eccentric stretch stores up energy that is quickly released during contraction. Permit faster more powerful changes in direction. Table 6.8 (page 115) sample plyometric program.
  • 27.  Most effective time to stretch is after activity. Connective tissue is more plastic when warmed by activity. Fatigue muscle also benefits from increased length with stretching following exercise.
  • 28.  Static ◦ Slow controlled – positions held for 10 seconds ◦ Post-exercise – effective for increasing flexibiliy. Dynamic ◦ Mimic dynamic sport movements. ◦ Help to warm-up PNF ◦ Combination of contract-hold-relax
  • 29.  Agility – the ability to change direction quickly while maintaining control of the body. Balance – the ability to maintain equilibrium.