Please review the following Training Principles from Chapter 2. ◦ Overload and recovery ◦ Specificity ◦ Individuality ◦ Maintenance and reversibility ◦ Progression, variation and periodization
Muscle Balance ◦ Maintaining a balance in the strength between the pairs of opposing muscles Biceps vs. triceps Quadriceps vs. Hamstrings Repetition Max ◦ The maximum number of times you can lift a given weight. 1RM – max weight you can lift 1time
Isometric ◦ Static contraction / no change in muscle length ◦ Contraction against an immovable object ◦ Does not have the dynamic strength necessary for sport performance Isotonic ◦ Contractions against a consistent resistance. Dynamics constant external resistance (DCER) more accurate terminology Concentric vs. eccentric Free weights vs. machines (Table 6.1 page 87)
Isokinetic ◦ Contraction against a resistance that is varied throughout the range of motion while speed remains relatively constant. ◦ Advantages High resistance training through whole range of motion Training at speed similar to sport More concentric contractions / less muscle soreness ◦ Disadvantages Expensive equipment Limited ranges of motions and movements
Rep ◦ On complete cycle of an exercise ◦ Includes concentric and eccentric phases Set ◦ A number of reps completed with out rest Circuit training ◦ A method of putting sets together such that an athlete does one set of each exercise before repeating sets of any exercise. Set-rep training ◦ A method of organizing training into multiple repeated sets of one exercise before the next exercise.
Intensity ◦ Refers to amount of weight lifted. ◦ Influences by speed of rep. Rest period ◦ The amount of time allowed between sets for recovery. ◦ Longer rest periods are beneficial for strength and power development.
Goals and Needs Assessment ◦ Necessary to know where you are and where you want to go. ◦ Using fitness test to establish these needs. ◦ With good information and goals, you can design programs to improves areas of weakness and maintain strengths. Core Stability ◦ Trunk and hips ◦ Part of the chain in power development. ◦ Improved performance and reduction in injuries ◦ Examples in Appendix B
Exercise Selection ◦ Major exercises Greatest influence on strength development ◦ Assistant exercises Specific training effect for a particular sport ◦ Supplementary exercise Carefully selected, sport specific exercises ◦ Specialty exercises Selected according to the athlete’s needs Table 6.2 (page 90-97)provides some sport specific examples.
Exercise Specificity ◦ Sport specific and athlete specific ◦ Modify existing programs to be more sport specific Exercise order ◦ Warm-up ◦ Large muscle groups before smaller groups ◦ Multi-joint before single joint ◦ High intensity before low intensity Frequency ◦ Depends on goals, athlete fitness level, intensity and recovery. ◦ 2-4 sessions per week per muscle group Velocity ◦ Speed of movement decreases as resistance is increased ◦ Strength development – slow movement with higher resistance ◦ Power development – moderate to fast speeds.
The normal progression of resistance training: ◦ Strength ◦ Power ◦ Power Endurance
Beginning strength athletes ◦ Resistance of about 60% - 70% 1RM ◦ 8-12 reps Advanced strength athletes ◦ Resistance of about 80% - 100% 1RM ◦ 2-5 reps Variety in load has been shown to be beneficial Volume (Sets) will variety for individual athletes. Rest periods ◦ Longer rest periods – beneficial to development of strength Summarized in Table 6.3 (page 100)
Power is the rate of doing work. Traditional strength training focus on strength at slow speeds not speeds required for athletic performance. Power Training – light to moderate loads at high speeds, effectively increase sport specific power. Must have adequate strength before developing power.
It is necessary to continue some strenght work-outs to maintain base strength. Table 6.4 (page 102) gives guidelines for developing power while maintaining strength.
Athletic events require different ratios of strength, power and power endurance. It is optimal of duplicate the speed and motion used in the sport. Table 6.5 (page 103) ◦ Short-term power endurance ◦ Intermediate power endurance ◦ Long-term power endurance Table 6.6 (page 103) ◦ Guidelines for developing power endurance
Progression ◦ Planned increases in training Periodization ◦ Scheduled alterations in training loads that ensure adequate time for recovery. ◦ Variation is programed at different levels: daily, weekly, seasonal, and career. ◦ Resistance training programs are periodized into: Preparatory Strength Power Power Endurance
Learn proper lifting techniques Prepare the muscles and connective tissue to handle the strain of Strength Training. Individualize several exercises for each athlete. Determine RM for each exercise, then decide on appropriate training preparatory resistance.
Dependent on needs of athlete and sport. During the first 6-8 weeks changes will be metabolic and improved muscle fiber recruitment. Refer back to Table 6.3 (page 100) for guidelines Figure 6.3 (page 107) – Gives guidance for daily periodization.
High power sports may require 7-12 weeks of power training, followed by 2-3 weeks of taper. Table 6.4 (page 102) for power training guidelines
The athlete focuses more on repeated overloading of specific muscles and movements while maintaining movement speeds similar to those used in competition. Little changes in muscle hypertrophy seen, most changes are increases the ability of individual fibers to maintain the required energy system for longer. Table 6.5 and 6.5 (Page 108) offer guidelines for power endurance training.
The higher the fitness level, the more training is required to maintain the fitness level. Paradox for high intensity athletes to maintain high fitness while avoiding overtraining.
Relative strength, power and endurance of opposing muscle groups. Opposing muscle balance ◦ Balance between primary and antagonist muscle groups. Bilateral balance ◦ Similar development on the two sides of the body. Table 6.7 (page 110) ◦ Presents a few commonly accepted muscular strength balance values for major joints.
Speed implies acceleration from a starting point. Acceleration implies power and maintenance of speed. Speed is an interplay of the various energy systems. We will talk about these energy systems in the next section. Power and power endurance training are essential to the development and maintenance of speed.
Athletes perform speeds that they practice Requires time and patience Interval speeds should be 1-5 % above race speeds. Allow adequate rest between intervals. Athletes should be well rested prior to speed training. During peaking - short max intervals on limited basis.
Technique is the neural coordination necessary for proper execution of a skill. “Practice makes Permanent”
Training methods that develop power and quickness. Training the preload and elastic recoil present in many sport skills. Eccentric stretch stores up energy that is quickly released during contraction. Permit faster more powerful changes in direction. Table 6.8 (page 115) sample plyometric program.
Most effective time to stretch is after activity. Connective tissue is more plastic when warmed by activity. Fatigue muscle also benefits from increased length with stretching following exercise.
Static ◦ Slow controlled – positions held for 10 seconds ◦ Post-exercise – effective for increasing flexibiliy. Dynamic ◦ Mimic dynamic sport movements. ◦ Help to warm-up PNF ◦ Combination of contract-hold-relax
Agility – the ability to change direction quickly while maintaining control of the body. Balance – the ability to maintain equilibrium.