Biomotor Development for the Speed-Power Athlete

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This is Dr. Mike Young's presentation on biomotor development for the speed-power athlete from the 2013 NSCA BC Provincial Clinic at the Richmond Olympic Oval.

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Biomotor Development for the Speed-Power Athlete

  1. 1. BIOMOTOR DEVELOPMENT FORSPEED-POWER ATHLETESMikeYoung, PhDWhitecaps FC -Vancouver, BCAthletic Lab - Cary, NC
  2. 2. While primarily a soccer fitness coach andsport scientist now, in my previous life Icoached national & international competitorsin a variety of speed-power related activities
  3. 3. Power Output is thecommon denominator
  4. 4. NEEDS ANALYSIS
  5. 5. FUNDAMENTAL CONCEPTS
  6. 6. BIOMOTOR ABILITIES
  7. 7. BUILDING ENGINES
  8. 8. YEARLY PLANNING
  9. 9. So, tell me what youwant to accomplishwith training....What is mostimportant?I want to understandhow to make people fast& powerful!All of it?
  10. 10. ACCELERATIONCHARACTERISTICS• Velocity @10m: ~8.2 m/s• Ground ContactTime: ~0.17 sec• Height of foot @ 1st step: 12-30cm• Stride Frequency: 3.6-4 Hz• Stride Lengths: ~1.5m first step
  11. 11. MAXIMAL VELOCITYCHARACTERISTICS• Maximal Velocity: ~12.8 m/s• Ground Contact Time: ~0.08 sec• Stride Frequency: ~5 Hz• Stride Velocity: ~300 deg / sec• Stride Lengths: 2.25-2.7m
  12. 12. What do theexpertshave to say?
  13. 13. Loren Seagrave
  14. 14. Charlie FrancisTo go faster, youneed more force
  15. 15. The main characteristic of elitesprinting is....transportingelastic energy from one leg tothe other in the flight phase anddirecting the GROUNDREACTION FORCES in stance.Frans Bosch
  16. 16. The key to human speed issimple: applying large mass-specific forces to theground quicklyDr. Peter Weyand
  17. 17. TheForce isPowerful!
  18. 18. FUNDAMENTALCONCEPTS
  19. 19. The goal is tokeep the goalthe goal
  20. 20. F=MA
  21. 21. THE MEATMACHINE• Absorb shock and control verticalcollapse during support• Balance and control of upperextremity• Forward and upward propulsion• Control direction changes in centerof mass
  22. 22. The Nervous System....hardwiring forsuccess
  23. 23. To Sprint Faster.... Sprint!
  24. 24. maximum-maximorum.com
  25. 25. NEWTON’S 4th LAWFat (or any excess body mass) don’t fly
  26. 26. Strength ≠ Speed
  27. 27. BiomotorAbilities
  28. 28. StrengthBIOMOTOR ABILITIES
  29. 29. StrengthSpeedBIOMOTOR ABILITIES
  30. 30. StrengthSpeedFlexibilityBIOMOTOR ABILITIES
  31. 31. StrengthSpeedFlexibilityEnduranceBIOMOTOR ABILITIES
  32. 32. StrengthSpeedFlexibilityEnduranceBIOMOTOR ABILITIESCoordination
  33. 33. StrengthSpeedFlexibilityEnduranceBIOMOTOR ABILITIESCoordination
  34. 34. Could severalcapacities fallunder a singleumbrella?
  35. 35. instead of thinking this...
  36. 36. Think this...Maximum Strength SpeedFewTimeConstraintsConcentricDominantExtremeTimeConstraintsEccentricDominantLessReflexiveMoreReflexiveOvercomingInertiaMaintainingInertia
  37. 37. EmphasizingIndividualCapacities....
  38. 38. EmphasizingIndividualCapacities....Looking forCommonalitiesof Stimulus....
  39. 39. PUTTING IT ALLTOGETHER
  40. 40. THE REAL REASON WETRAINAlmost every physical quality relevant to speed & power fallsunder the umbrella of (neuromuscular) coordinationBy considering physical qualities as outcomes of inter &intramuscular coordination we simplify the training methodand place stimuli on a continuum rather than in differentbubbles
  41. 41. Building a Bigger Engine
  42. 42. Building Lowend Power
  43. 43. Training for Low-End Power*General SpecificWeight Train HillsSled Push Resisted SprintsShort Jumps / Multi-Throws Acceleration SprintsQuad / glute dominant, Horizontal vector, Concentric, Longer RFD*sprint specific
  44. 44. GENERAL MEANS FORDEVELOPING LOW-END POWER
  45. 45. RESISTANCE TRAINING
  46. 46. “Do I really need to lift?”
  47. 47. “...there is sufficient evidence forstrength training programs tocontinue to be an integral part ofathletic preparation.”“Do I really need to lift?”
  48. 48. OLYMPIC LIFTSfrom floor. power clean emphasis. 1-3 reps / set. 5-10 sets.
  49. 49. Exercise Absolute Power (Watts)Absolute Power (Watts)100kg Male 75kg FemaleBench Press 300Back Squat 1100Deadlift 1100Snatch 3000 1750Snatch 2nd Pull 5500 2900Clean 2950 1750Clean 2nd Pull 5500 2650Jerk 5400 2600POWER DEVELOPMENT*Total pull: Lift-off until maximal vertical velocity**2nd pull: Transition until maximal vertical barbell velocity
  50. 50. Exercise Absolute Power (Watts)Absolute Power (Watts)100kg Male 75kg FemaleBench Press 300Back Squat 1100Deadlift 1100Snatch 3000 1750Snatch 2nd Pull 5500 2900Clean 2950 1750Clean 2nd Pull 5500 2650Jerk 5400 2600POWER DEVELOPMENT*Total pull: Lift-off until maximal vertical velocity**2nd pull: Transition until maximal vertical barbell velocityEven if use of Olympic lifts areinappropriate due to lack ofequipment, low teachingexpertise, or athleteinexperience; the basicprincipals should still beincorporated (externallyloaded, multi-joint, lower bodyexplosive movement)
  51. 51. SQUATSall variants. full depth. 2-6 reps / set. 4-7 sets.
  52. 52. RESISTANCE TRAININGUPPER BODY PULL, PUSH, CORE, AND UNILATERAL STRENGTH
  53. 53. SLED PUSHMasquerading as Acceleration Development Since the 90s
  54. 54. SLED PUSHEffective Strength & Conditioning Tool if Used Appropriately
  55. 55. SHORT JUMPSSLJ, STJ, etc. overcoming inertia. 10-30 jumps / contacts.
  56. 56. MULTI-THROWSOHB, BLF, etc. full effort. 10-30 throws.
  57. 57. Multi-throw Routines
  58. 58. SPECIFIC MEANS FORDEVELOPING LOW-END POWER
  59. 59. Sled Sprints
  60. 60. •Resisted sprints can improve speed*•When load is appropriate kinematics are unaffected•Optimal load produces ~10-20% speed decrement
  61. 61. •Length: 10-40m•Load: Base on quality of movement & speed•Rest: 30-60 sec / 10m•Volume: 200-360m•~10% Rule
  62. 62. <40m per rep ~1’ rest / 10m<300m total volume
  63. 63. B U i l d i n ga S t i f f e rS p r i n g
  64. 64. Vertical force production isthe key component of top-endspeed and that in turninfluences the ability tomaintain a slight increase instride length and stridefrequencyDan Pfaff
  65. 65. Vertical forces become predominantin the maximal velocity phase. Muchof the horizontal momentum needshave been established, so verticalforce generation becomes critical.These vertical forces enhancestride length and posture.Boo Schexnayder
  66. 66. Muscle Activity
  67. 67. Training for Stiffness*General SpecificWeight Train Downhill RunningOlympic Lifts Assisted SprintsStiffness Jumps Maximum Velocity SprintsHip extensor dominant, Vertical vector, Eccentric, Short RFD, Elastic / reflexive*sprint specific
  68. 68. GENERAL MEANS FORDEVELOPING ELASTICITY
  69. 69. RESISTANCE TRAINING
  70. 70. Olympic Liftsfloor & hang. power clean & snatch. 1-2 reps / set. 5-10 sets.
  71. 71. ECCENTRIC OVERLOAD110-120% MAXIMAL LOAD. NOT FOR NOVICES.
  72. 72. COMPLEXESwork downstream on F-V curve. rest between sets. low volumes
  73. 73. I like STRONG buttsand I can not lie....
  74. 74. TRAIN THE CHAIN (THE POSTERIOR CHAIN)
  75. 75. PLYOS
  76. 76. DEPTH DROPSlow drops. minimize amortization. low volumes.
  77. 77. DEPTH JUMPSextreme heights unnecessary. low volumes.
  78. 78. VERTICAL EMPHASIS PLYOSemphasize vertical displacement of the COM not the feet
  79. 79. STIFFNESS JUMPSminimal amortization. short contact.
  80. 80. SPECIFIC MEANS FORDEVELOPING ELASTICITY
  81. 81. DOWNHILL RUNNINGminimal grade. overspeed. supra-maximal eccentric.
  82. 82. Maximum Velocity Sprinting•Means:•Flying Sprints•Variable Speed Sprints•Short Speed Endurance•Length (in MaxV): 10-40m / rep•Rest: 20-60 sec / 10m•Volume: 200-300m
  83. 83. Yearly Planning
  84. 84. PLANAHEA
  85. 85. •Overload•Rest & recovery•Biomotor Balance•Compatible & complimentaryTraining is a Process
  86. 86. OverloadOVERLOAD
  87. 87. Rest & Recovery
  88. 88. UNDERSTAND THIS
  89. 89. RE-EXAMINING HARD / EASYTraditional training methods have alternated hard andeasy days to facilitate recoveryNew technology and better understandings of thebody and training stimulus permit better options
  90. 90. ALTERNATION OFTRAININGMEANS• By alternating high and low CNS an athlete can allow somesystems of the body to rest while others are recovering• Alternatively, one could split activities by eccentric andconcentric dominance
  91. 91. High-Low CNS• High CNS: higher intensity,maximal efforts of higher load orspeed of movement• Low CNS: lower intensity, aerobic,higher work capacityEcc-Conc Demand• Eccentric dominant: typicallyhigher velocity involvingdecelerative forces• Concentric dominant: typicallyhigher force, lower velocityinvolving accelerative forces
  92. 92. BIOMOTOR BALANCE
  93. 93. Mobility?
  94. 94. STATIC FLEXIBILITY?
  95. 95. HURDLE MOBILITY
  96. 96. ENDURANCE FORTHE SPEED-POWER ATHLETE
  97. 97. • Current understandings of energy systems indicate that there is anaerobic stimulus from many activities previously deemed purelyanaerobic• Aerobic training plays a support role to the speed-power athlete butcan quickly be overemphasized• Intermittent activities rather than steady state are a preferred optionAEROBIC FITNESS
  98. 98. WORK CAPACITY is afar more relevant formof endurance for thespeed power athlete
  99. 99. WORK CAPACITY is afar more relevant formof endurance for thespeed power athleteBody Weight StrengthGeneral Endurance CircuitsWeight CircuitsKettlebell ComplexesMed Ball Circuits
  100. 100. SPRINT DEVELOPMENT DRILLS
  101. 101. ORGANIZATION OFTRAINING MEANS
  102. 102. Do you likeSea Food?
  103. 103. Do you like seafood ice cream?
  104. 104. Things that are good separately maynot be good together!Make sure training components arecompatible & complimentary
  105. 105. ORGANIZATION OFTRAINING MEANS
  106. 106. Everyone has the “bricks”
  107. 107. How you arrange training modules is justas important as what you arrange
  108. 108. Some things you shouldnever do
  109. 109. Some things you shouldnever dodedicated steady state aerobic conditioningtoo much anaerobic-glycolytic trainingmixing stimulus...interference effectneglecting the role of restunscripted, poorly planned static flexibility training
  110. 110. Know what capacitiesneed to be trained &what trains themSimplify by placing allphysical capacities on asingle continuumMove from general to morespecific training meansFocus on quality ofmovement & effortKeep the goal the goalAttain biomotor balance
  111. 111. MIKE@ATHLETICLAB.COMTWITTER.COM/MIKEYOUNGFACEBOOK.COM/MIKEYOUNGATHLETICLAB.COMELITETRACK.COMHPCSPORT.COM

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