The Taper Effect - The art and science of coaching


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The Taper Effect - The art and science of coaching

  1. 1. The Taper Effect:The Art and Science of Coaching An aspiring coaches review of the Tapering technique. Images Courtesy of Google Image Search Brendon Potter: u3062468
  2. 2. Contents: What exactly is tapering?So why Taper, what benefits have been shown? The sports science of taperingWhich athletes may use the tapering technique? The varieties of taper coaching Don’t go anywhere coach Its all in your head Conclusion References *Mick Fanning 2012 ASP Rip Curl Pro Champion Brendon Potter: u3062468
  3. 3. So what exactly is tapering?Tapering by definition is,‘A progressive non-linear reduction in the training loadduring a variable period of time, in an attempt to reducethe physical and psychological stress of daily training andoptimise sports performance’. *Olympic White Water Rafting Brendon Potter: u3062468
  4. 4. So what exactly is Tapering (Continued):In simple terms, tapering is the practice of reducing exercise and training inthe days leading into competition. Tapering is widely used for endurancesports, such as marathons, athletics and swimming. Tapering is designed forthe athlete to reach optimal performance for competition. * Australian Olympic Gold Medallist Steve Hooker Training at his personal Red Bull Facility Brendon Potter: u3062468
  5. 5. The three main variables of a coaching program: Frequency of training sessions Intensity of training session Duration of the training session *Cross Fit Training Exercise Brendon Potter: u3062468
  6. 6. So what are the benefits of tapering?Statistics obtained from laboratory, field and competition results show thatathletes who have tapering before competition, showed a 2-4% increase inperformance.Tapering the training program before competition, allows the athlete to feelrested, healthy, energetic and confident, whilst overcoming any injuries thatmay hinder performance. *Miami Heat Players: Dwayne Wade, Lebron James & Chris Bosh Brendon Potter: u3062468
  7. 7. The Sports Science behind Tapering:Maximal Oxygen Consumption (VO2max)Studies have reported an unchanged result in VO2 performance after thetapering period. Sub-maximal training maintains VO2 Levels withoutnoticeable reductions.Blood Balance:Variables commonly used as indicators of Sub-maximal exercise efficiency inathletes include oxygen uptake, heart rate, blood lactate and stroke distance.Studies have reported no differences in post-exercise blood balance (lactate,pH and bicarbonate), and heart rate. *UFC Light Heavyweight Champion Jon Jones Brendon Potter: u3062468
  8. 8. The Sports Science (Continued):Skeletal muscleMuscle studies in runners and cyclists have demonstrated a consistentelevation in muscle glycogen (15-35%) with tapering. Studies also showedincreases in oxidative enzymes with the use of a taper, this provides a hugebenefit to endurance performance athletes.Muscular powerAs a result of endurance training, muscular power is decreased because of theresidual fatigue or inhibition of neural or intrinsic muscle properties. Becauseof the training elite athletes undergo, muscular power would be expected toreduce. It would appear, though, that sufficient tapering allows restoration ofpower while maintaining the endurance-related metabolic benefits gained. *NFL Carolina Panthers QB Cam Newton Brendon Potter: u3062468
  9. 9. The Sports Science (Continued):Hormonal effectsChanging the balance between anabolic and catabolic hormones may improverecovery after exercise and decrease the length of fatigue. Coaches mustconsider reducing any type of stress, even stress can reduce the level of cortisolin the athlete and affect positive change.Muscular ReactionsIt is appropriate to stop resistance training during the Taper period to allow foradequate time for the muscle to rebuild and regenerate before the beginning ofthe competition. It is also advisable to avoid eccentric muscle contractions(applying tension while lengthening the muscle) during taper as this type ofmuscle stress can cause micro-tears that take time to repair. *9x SLSA Flags Champion Simon Harris (Blue) Brendon Potter: u3062468
  10. 10. The Sports Science (Continued):Immune response effectsTapering has shown an increase in the cell counts for white blood cells andlymphocytes. This suggests that there is an improvement in the body’s capacityto resist illness during taper.SleepDuring the taper period athletes should be encouraged to sleep 9 hours a night,compared to 7.5 hours during the training period. The improvement in sleepduration is important, as there is a growth hormone that releases during stageIII and IV sleep and naturally released growth hormone acts to repair muscletissue and speed recovery. Brendon Potter: u3062468
  11. 11. Which Athletes use the Tapering Technique?The use of a Taper can be applied to a variety of sports.Individual Athletes adopt a Taper after a long training period in preparation forup coming competitions. Individual Athletes will use the Tapering period tofocus more on technique and attempt to optimize nutritional gain.Teams also adopt a Tapering technique, but it is used on a weekly basis.Coaches implement the Taper to allow players to recover both before and aftergames. Most teams have 7 days between games during the season. Afterrecovery and Taper, teams will only have four days of serious training available. *NHL Pittsburgh and Canadian Captain Sidney Crosby Brendon Potter: u3062468
  12. 12. Varieties of Tapering:There are several ways are coach can implement a Taper into an athletesprogram. The stereotypical style is to simply reduce the athletes workloadwhilst continuing with regular training activities, this allows the athlete toremain focused on technique and skills.Coaches can take an unconventional approach adopting alternative trainingmethods that require a lighter intensity and can effectively allow the athlete toachieve the overall goal of entering competition relaxed, healthy and energetic. *Underwater Training, aimed increased Lung Capacity Brendon Potter: u3062468
  13. 13. Varieties of Tapering (Continued):Tapering programs can also vary in length and occur in stages. Coaches mayelect to divide the Tapering program into select stages reducing the athletestraining load over a longer period. The average length of a Taper is 14 days inlength. The length of a Taper can be determined by the duration, load andintensity of the main preparation program, if a program contained high levels ofparticipation with all variables then the Taper period may be increased toensure full recovery before competition. *Australian Men’s 8 Rowing Team Brendon Potter: u3062468
  14. 14. Varieties of Tapering (Continued):The following diagram displays the various methods, coaches can use for a 14day Taper. Coaches should choose an appropriate Taper that will best suit theathletes training history and competition needs. Brendon Potter: u3062468
  15. 15. Don’t go anywhere coach:The taper phase is the critical time for coaches, it is when seasonalplanning, training and preparation are all put to the test as coachesmake thosefinal adjustments to the years training that will lead to significantimprovements in performance.The challenge for coaches is to use their knowledge and experience tohelp the athletes make that final adaptation and reach their fullpotential. *Novak Djokovic trains whilst his coach watches on Brendon Potter: u3062468
  16. 16. Don’t go anywhere coach (Continued):When preparing a Taper plan for an athlete there are many variables that mustbe considered. (Note: Coaches training a group of athletes must be aware thatyou cannot plan one Taper to suit every athletes requirements).Coaches must assess each athletes training progress, event type, physicalrequirements, injuries, fatigue, gender, age, etc to ensure all potential variablesare indentified. A Taper should not be designed to be a complete rest fromtraining. Training should still require a certain intensity, but decline in volumeand increase in rest time. *Coach Roger Decoster & AMA Motocross Champion Ryan Dungey Brendon Potter: u3062468
  17. 17. Don’t go anywhere coach (Continued):Athletes fitness components can respond differently to theimplementation of the Taper. Coaches should be responsible formonitoring and evaluating athletes fitness capabilities throughout theTaper cycle and employ suitable changes if a noticeable deteriorationoccurs. *Formula One Driver Mark Webber and Fitness Coach Roger Cleary Brendon Potter: u3062468
  18. 18. Its All In Your Head:For younger athletes taper is 90% mental. But as athletes mature, the morethat mental taper needs be supported with physical evidence. Regardless ofthe methods, the most important thing about taper is belief. A coaches mainresponsibility during the Taper is to provide reassurance and positivereinforcement, this way the athlete can rest knowing they have done all theycan and now is the time for preparation. *UFC Fighter Urijah Faber Weighs in Brendon Potter: u3062468
  19. 19. It’s All In Your Head (Continued):Research suggests that mental practice is just as important as physical practicewhen aiming to enhance performance. A combination of goal setting, imageryand relaxation techniques will allows the athlete to optimise their performanceduring preparation for competition. A programs ineffectiveness can commonlybe contributed an athlete having poor psychology. Blake Griffin - If you can dunk over a car, you can dunk over anything Brendon Potter: u3062468
  20. 20. Its All In Your Head (Continued):The relationship between mood state and performance within the sportingenvironment is well documented. Many studies have been conducted on theimpact of the quality of the coach athlete relationship on an athlete’s ultimateperformance. A quality coach-athlete relationship does not happen instantly,instead it needs to develop over time. One of the most fundamental aspectswithin the coach’s role is to understand their athletes behavioural patterns andtheir individual personality. *Kentucky Coach John Calipari NCAA National Championship Coach Brendon Potter: u3062468
  21. 21. Conclusion:Tapering has been proven to assist athletes with achieving their peakperformance levels and take their results to their next level.If a coach can manage an athletes training correctly and maintain a strong andhealthy personal relationship, he/she can play a vital role in an athletessuccess.A coach has to assume the role of caretaker, as the athlete enters the taperperiod. A good coach will be able to indentify variables that could hinder theathletes preparation and performance. *LSU Tigers Head Coach Les Miles Celebrates Brendon Potter: u3062468
  22. 22. References: improve-athletic-performacnce.htm Brendon Potter: u3062468