Chad: Alfonso Camacho
Country Development Plan Gabriela Meza
Chad has many environmental and social problems. To fix these, we must provide the necessities of life before anything
else. Cleaner water is the most important necessity, a cleaner environment is a necessity. SWIS will aim to make these
dreams a reality for the refugee camps inside of Chad.
We are targeting a refugee camp because they are over populated and unsanitary. We are specifically targeting
Breijding because the camp has 32 thousand people and is packed in to a small land space. The only shelter they have are
tents. They have no access to a cleaner water source. Their waste is not disposed of correctly, creating an unsanitary and
unsuitable environment for any human inhabitants. These Unsanitary actions along with the overpopulated camp creates
an environment for waterborne and airborne diseases to thrive. These diseases are deadly with no medical treatment, Brei-
djing has no medical treatment. Diarrhea for example causes people to be dehydrated, so those people with Diarrhea drink
more water because they have no other choice but it causes them to become ill because the water is unsanitary. SWIS will
change the environment and save lives by creating a cleaner water source.
The project SWIS proposes to do is to build 5 wells in the 1200ft by 600ft refugee camp that is Breidjing. One in
the the center and others 100 yards Northeast, Southeast, Southwest, and Northwest of the central well. From those five
wells we will have PVC pipes running from the wells so other people farther from the wells will have much easier access
to the water. We will create the wells by highering some of the refugee inhabitants so they will have a feeling of responsi-
bility and ownership for the wells. We will also be teaching them how to clean the pipes with cholrine and bleach to keep
the water sanitary. After Building the wells the refugee camps will become a more civilized and clean environment. We
hope to see other chad inhabitants adopt our well constructions and create their own wells in their towns and camps.
In 1965 the government of Chad Tombalbaye was
overthrown and killed. He was overthrowned and
The name Chad was derived from designation of killed because he banned opposition parties and
the great lake Chad. Which original name was Kuri. made a one party system.Tombalabye was over-
Chad is a country that ia located in central, north- thrown by the Chadians. Libya was involved in
ern africa. Chad has a lake located in the south. Chad’s civil war. Chad was in civil war because the
Lake Chad is the largest wetland in the country French troops that was in N’Djanmena didnt come
and the second largest wetland in Africa. Chad has to an agreement.Libya invaded Chad before they
200 different ethnic groups. In Chad Arabic and signed a symbol of peace in 1990. The rebellion
French are the most fluent language. People who that broke out in Chad in 1998 cause problems
live in Chad are able to pratice any religion. Islam witht he peace agreement and the rebels. The
and Christianity are the most practiced religion.
7000 years ago the region wasnt arid. Chad didn’t
exist before the French conquest of 1900, but was
an area of important state formation. The Islams
arrived in 1085.Before Chad was imperialised it
had cave paintings everywhere. It also had alot of
animals such as elephant, rhinoccroses, giraffes,
and camels. Around Chad people lived and farmed
around the shores of the lake, in the north central
basin of the Sahara.
In 1883 to 1893 the Sudanese adventurer Rabin
Zubayr conquered 3 kingdoms which were Qua-
dai, Baguirni and Kanem-bornu.Those 3 kingdoms
were grouped together and put into this one area.
The area that the kingdoms were put in is now
called Chad. After that happen the french came
and they defeated Zubayr army. This is when there
plan to conqure chad has been completed. Chad
had became a french overseas territory with its
own territorial parliament and representation in
the French National Assembly.
Chad was offically conqured by France during the
territory grab in 1920. Chad was imperialized by
France because the French wanted to compete
with Great Britain. But that isnt the only reason
France conquered Chad, they also had a long-
standing interest in the countries that were board-
ing the Mediterranean Sea. The French sent troops
to Chad so they can protect there territory. The
French needed to protect their territory from the
attacks of Sudan. The president of Chad, Francois
Toombalbaye was forced by France to sign an co-
operation document. This document gave France
the power to build a military base in Chad. France
sent over 1000 troops to Chad to defend the impe-
Chad gained independence on August 11, 1960.
Chad was a very poor country.
Timeline Chad Timeline 2006 May - President Deby is declared the winner of presidential elections. The main opposition parties boycott
•1883-1893 - Sudanese adventurer Rabih al-Zubayr conquers Chad.
2006 January-June - Thousands of refugees flee eastern areas as marauding Arab Janjaweed militia from
•1900 - France defeats al-Zubayr’s army. Sudan’s Darfur region penetrate deeper into Chad.
1913 - French conquest of Chad completed. Chad becomes a French colony. 2006 November - State of emergency imposed in eastern areas bordering Sudan’s Darfur region after a spate of
•1960 - Chad becomes independent with a southern Christian, Francois - later Ngarta - Tombalbaye, as presi-
dent. 2006 December - Private newspapers stop publishing and several radio stations alter their programming to
protest against state censorship under the state of emergency.
•1963 - The banning of political parties triggers violent opposition in the Muslim north.
2007 February - UN refugee agency warns that violence against civilians in Chad could turn into a genocide.
•1966 - Northern revolt develops into a fully-fledged guerrilla war.
2007 May - Chad and Sudan agree to stop conflict spilling across their borders but critics fear the agreement is
•1973 - French troops help put down the northern revolt, but Frolinat continues guerrilla operations through- unlikely to reduce the violence.
out the 1970s and 1980s with the help of weapons supplied by Libya.
2007 September - UN Security Council authorises a UN-European Union peacekeeping force to protect civilians
•1979 - Malloum forced to flee the country; a coalition government headed by a Muslim northerner, Goukouni from violence spilling over from Darfur in neighbouring Sudan.
Oueddei, assumes power.
•1980 - Libya sends in troops to support Oueddei in his fight against the Army of the North, led by a former 2008 February - Rebel offensive reaches the streets of N’Djamena, coming close to the presidential palace;
prime minister, Hissene Habre. France sends extra troops. Rebels are repulsed in fighting that leaves more than 100 dead.
•1981 - Libyan troops withdraw at Oueddei’s request. 2008 March - The presidents of Chad and Sudan sign an accord in Senegal aimed at halting five years of hostili-
ties between the two countries.
First democratic elections
2008 May - Violence between Chadian and Sudanese militias flares up, leading to Sudan cutting diplomatic
•1996 - Deby wins Chad’s first multi-party presidential election. relations and Chad responding by closing its border and cutting economic ties.
•2001 - Deby declared winner in controversial presidential poll. 2008 July - Security forces say they killed more than 70 followers of Muslim spiritual leader Ahmat Israel Bichara,
who had threatened to launch a holy war, in fighting in southeast Chad.
2002 January - Government and Movement for Democracy and Justice in Chad (MDJT) rebels sign Libyan-bro-
kered peace deal intended to end three-year civil war. 2009 January - Eight rebel groups unite to form new rebel alliance, the Union of Resistance Forces (UFR), with
Rally of Democratic Forces leader Timan Erdimi as its leader.
2009 May - UN Security Council condemns a major anti-government rebel offensive in the east.
2004 January-February - Thousands of Sudanese refugees arrive in Chad to escape fighting in Darfur region of
western Sudan. 2009 November - UN accuses Dudan of supporting URF rebels in Chad with arms and ammunition.
2004 April-May - Chadian troops clash with pro-Sudanese government militias as fighting in Sudan’s Darfur Six international aid groups, including the International Red Cross, suspend work in eastern Chad, citing risk of
region spills over the border. their staff being abducted or killed
2005 December - Rebels attack the town of Adre, near the Sudanese border. Chad accuses Sudan of being be- 2010 March - Chad agrees to let UN peacekeeping force (Minurcat) to stay on for two months beyond the end
hind the incident. of its mandate in mid-March, despite repeated criticism of its performance.
2006 April - Rebels seeking to oust President Deby battle government forces on the outskirts of the capital.
Hundreds of people are killed. Chad cuts diplomatic ties with Sudan, accusing it of backing the rebels.
Millenium Development Goals
Eradicating poverty and Population living below Oil pipelines are under
hunger $1. a day in 000 : % construction to improve
Prevalence of malnutririon
in 000: % of children
Achieving Universal primary education Primary school comple- PARSET is a project to
tion rate in 000: 1% achieve basic education
and advance technology
Promoting gender equality Ratio of girls to boys in Nothing is currently being
primary and secondary done in this issue.
Reducing child mortality Under- Five mortality rate The MOPH is helping to
in 000: 1% provide clean food and
Immunization against water and to teach medi-
measles ( 1 - years of cal services.
age) in 000: %
Improving maternal health Maternal mortality rate inThe MOPH has begun to
000: 1.% teach medical approach-
Adolescent birth rate of es and process for child
women ages 1-1 in 000: birth and labor.
Ensuring environmental sustainability. Percentage of people The GEF is working to
who have access to an inform the community of
improved water source: the problems and is help-
% ing to manage irrigational
projects and systems
Combating disease Prevalence of HIV (peo- The AIDS control project
ple ages (1-): .% is controlling the spread
Percentage of people with by changing the behavior
tuberculosis: 0% of the people and by pro
moting the use of con-
There are many major human rights in Chad.
These problems are physical abuse to women
children, forcing children to work for no money, and
FGM in women. The problems are neverending. The
refugees of Sudan are a major problem in Chad. The 3
major problems in Chad are womens issues, childrens
issues, and problems of Sudanese refugees. There are
many problems that happen in Chad with these issues
being a part of the daily lives of these people.
Womens issues are one of the biggest prob-
lems in Chad. Women have a process of FGM that are
mainly forced upon them. They go through this at
a young age. FGM stands for female genital mutila-
tion. This means that the women’s genitals are exter-
nally taken out, or partially taken out, and sown shut.
Women undergo this horrible action any time from
just after birth to some time during the first pregnancy.
Although most cases occur between the ages of four
and eight. Most of the time this procedure is done
with out the care of medically trained people, due to
poverty and lack of medical facilities in Chad, and the
use of anesthesia is rare. This means the girl has to
be awake during the whole process. The girl is held
down by the older women to prevent her from moving beg for food, forced to do labor, but most of all for sexual exploitation.
around. As high as 60% of women have this violation
done to them. In Chad it is a normal process. Women in In Chad the refugee’s from Sudan come into Chad and cause a lot
Chad can’t even go to the store alone. They must be ac- of problems. They take over many villages in Chad, and take children to
compined by their husband, but if their husband is not make them become their own soldiers. They rape the women they find at
there, the woman’s son must go with her. Most women the villages. The refugee’s kill many people in Chad. There was many abuses
and girls in Chad are subject to rape and other forms to Chad including killing, abducting, injuring, and raping civilians; use of
of violence both inside and outside refugee camps. child soldiers; and attacks against humanitarian workers.
Outside the camps, they face a range of abuses from the consent of their parents, and are forced to work as
harassment and threats, to physical attacks, rape and a soldier. Education for girls is more limited than for
other forms of violence. Some women are even raped the boys. Most children don’t even attend secondary
by their own family members. The men who do these school. Fewer girls go to school than boys. Children
violent acts are rarely ever brought to justice. Women who attended certain Islamic schools are often forced
do not have equal rights of education and training so it to beg for food and money. Childen are often abused
is harder for them to get regular jobs. by teachers. Girls are forced to get married between
the ages of 11-12 years old. Armed bandits kidnap
There are many issues for children in Chad. boys to make them a part of their military. Many
From boys being forced to be soldiers to girls being children are trafficked to work and forced into sexual
raped. Boys in Chad are sold a lot to work for adults exploitation. Children are often sold to be servents,
and into military service. Boys are mostly sold under
The environment in Chad is in terrible condition. Chad has unclean water, terrible air quality, deforestation,
pollution and animals are becoming extinct. The Chadian’s live their life like this on a daily basis. The water
quality is bad not only because of the fact that they don’t have enough, but also because they aren’t getting
rid of the waste right way. Since they don’t get rid of waste properly, it leads to having bad soil and water pol-
lution, so fish are dying. Getting fresh water is a major problem in Chad. Water is effected by salination. The
percentage of drinking water that is safe to drink is very low. Approximately 31% of urban dwellers and 26%
of people other towns have access to clean water. Since there isn’t enough water in Chad the other prob-
lems are droughts and how lands plagued by salt water. In Chad there are also waterborne diseases. These
diseases corrupt the function in the liver and is spread by the waste of the unsanitary water that is in Chad.
Waterborne in this case was caused by the after armed attacks. There’s about 28,000 Chadians in the eastern
towns affected by it.
There are many animals in Chad that are being eliminated or becoming more vulnerable due to the
fact of deforestation and poaching. Animals are being killed illegally which causes them to became threat-
ened species. There are five types of birds, twelve mammals, and eighteen reptiles that about to be extinct.
Chad loses about 79,300 hectares of the forest per year. The rate of deforestation is about 0.60% in five years.
Chad also lost 9.1% of the forest and woodland habitat. The natural resources that they have are gold, lime-
stone, sand and gravel, salt, fish, and kaolin. On a deeper level, Chad is losing water and there seems to be
more sand everywhere. It’s inhumane about what is going on in Chad’s environment.
Date: November 18, 2004 UNCLASSIFIED
Geography 22°E 23°E 24°E 25°E 26°E 27°E
Names and boundary information are not necessarily authoritative.
21,547 Refugees Oure Cassoni
15,120 Refugees Iridimi Umm Berro
16,265 Refugees Maliha
15°N Touloum Tine
13,529 Refugees Amna Bak
Mille Guereda Gharb Darfur El Dur Sanihaya
Koulbous (Western Darfur) Abdel Shakor
Hillilat Damrt Elsheikh
Bali Kutum Um Sayala
Am Zoer Umajaja
Taziriba Fata Barno Mellit
Seleya Bin Hussein Masry Daba Toga
14°N Goroumba 14°N
Sirba Sandada Garah Fargwiya
Kebkabiya Shamal Darfur
AL JUNAYNAH Riyad EL FASHER
Breidjing Serif Omra Abughusoon Tawilla Zam Zam
32,212 Refugees Adre Kerenik Mailo Um Burongga
Treguine Um Tagouk
Masteri Camp Sisi Abata
Kanvo Azoum Gulu
Gorno Guldo Shangil Tobayi
Korei Thur Mellam Mershing
Beida Habuba Manawashi
Tanako Gemeiza Korma Kirwa Korole
Mangarsa Deleij Kass
Garsila Yara Duma
Um Kher Singita
Djabal Shataya Taisha
Foro Burunga Guba
Mukjar Degoussa NYALA
Goz Amer Kalma Muhajuria
18,855 Refugees Artala Kubum
Abu Ajura (Southern Darfur) Abu Karinka
Sanam Ed Daein
Safia El Naga
El Ferdous Khor Omar
Rehed al Berdi
10°N Department of State 10°N
21°E 22°E 23°E 24°E 25°E 26°E 27°E
UNCLASSIFIED 0 25 50 100 Kilometers
Description of Need
Water sources are not only to satisfy the
thirst of the people, having water will benefit the
people in so many ways. By having more water
people will also have more food because they will
be able to produce crops. They will also have a
more stable economy because they will be able
to grow cash crops and they won’t have to rely on
and full of water-borne diseases. Only 40% of Chad’s
rainfall. Families will be financially secure. There
Chad has many problems within the country, including population has access to a cleaner water source. The
is also conflict for natural resources when there
poverty, hunger, diseases, and environmental prob- lakes and rivers that run through chad are drying up
are very little resources but if we distribute water
lems. Above all other problems, the most dire and in or have already dried up. Lake Chad, the biggest lake
we will eliminate conflict for water as a resource.
need of attention is the lack of clean water resources. in Chad is now only 5% of it’s original size. Serious
With cleaner water we can also eliminate diseases
The absence of water plays a major role in many of droughts are a very important aspect of why water
and stop them from spreading. Unicef has done
the country’s problems. However we can improve is a scarce resource for many people. Another reason
research which shows that only 9% of people in
conditions in Chad by providing the ability to access a why people have no access to clean drinking water
Chad have access to improved sanitation facilities.
cleaner water source for the people. Before anything is because of the Darfur region across the border of
Diarrhea is a major cause of death for children in
else can be helped in Chad, people need to have the Sudan and Chad. People who lived near the Darfur
Chad. Diarrhea is a water-borne disease which
basics in order to survive. Water is the most basic yet region in Chad are now fleeing because of attacks and
actually causes dehydration and kills the victim or
most important and fundamental resource for the raids on their towns and villages. This migration to
host of the virus if not properly treated. By sim-
social and economic infrastructure of Chad. the west is causing other villages and towns to share
ply helping to distribute and clean water we can
resources with too many people. The environment and
eradicate many problems in chad.
Not all people in Chad have access to clean the society cannot cope or function well with so many
water. In fact most people have no access to water at people in one area. Many villages are expanding ten-
all for miles, they have to walk for hours in order to get fold. There is not enough water in such a small region
water. The water they have access to is brown water to quench so many people’s thirst.
Project Proposal each direction from each well. This will
provide more locations for the people
of Chad to obtain a clean water source.
SWIS is mostly targeted at
small remote cities. Breidjing is a great
Clean water is a huge necessity in Chad and place to start our project. It is located
that’s exactly what they don’t have. Breidjing is a nearby a great groundwater supply.
great refugee camp to target for out project. Our The wells will give these human be
project called, SWIS (Sanitary Water Is Standard) ings a chance on life to have clean
has been created to change that. It will address healthy water. Allthough the location
the unsanitary water and attempt to create clean is small, there are thousands of refu-
water sources. gees living here that need water. We
propose to give them a chance in life.
SWIS will create ground water wells so people Many people of Chad never have a
will be able to retrieve clean, healthy water. The choice on having clean water. On the
wells will be inside of the village or cities,usually otherhand, SWIS aims to give them a
towards the center to create easy access to all choice.
people living in the area. The wells will also be
hand-pumped so people will always be able to
operate the wells and they won’t be so complex
that the citizens won’t be able to use it. SWIS will
have a community based employment system
meaning we will employ people from the com-
munity to help construct the wells. We choose to
employ members of the community not only to
lower expenses but to make the people feel like
the well is actually their’s and it will create a sense
of responsibility for the well among the commu-
nity. SWIS will also build the wells out of compos-
ite materials like adobe, stone, wood and other
materials that are easily made or acquired by the
community. By creating the wells out of these
materials, the community will be able to repair
and sustain the wells by themselves. The wells are
not only for drinking water but clean water for
washing clothes or cooking as well. We know how
important water is for society and our goal is to
give the cities and villages who are in dire need
of water, access to it whenever and for what ever
purpose they may have.
We will start this project in Breidjing,
Chad. There is a great groundwater source around Breidjing. A refugee camp in Chad. All the refugees have came
from Sudan. The population in this camp is about 32,212. The wells we will be creating will be tested daily. It
goes through a process in the well that clears the water of contamination and bacteria. This process will happen
everytime new water comes through the well for the people of Breidjing. To clean the wells it takes a process of
a couple days. It’s a fairly simple process that the people of Breidjing can easily learn. All it takes in chlorine and
bleach. We will construct wells approximately 300 feet Northeast, Southwest, Northwest and Southeast of the
main well in the center of Breidjing. From these wells we will be running PVC pipelines approximately 40 ft in
Impact Analysis than it would destroy because people would need to maintain the wells. People would also be paid to build wells in
surrounding areas. One positive impact would be the death rate for dehydration plummeting. Another effect would
be decreasing the number of deaths because of diarrhea . Sanitary water would also improve all sanitation around the
overpopulated cities and villages. Easy access to water would also mean that water would be used more often, creat-
ing a clean environment and cleaner homes and clothes. More water also means more agriculture meaning that the
economy would be more stable because of irrigation and the ability to control the amount of water used to grow cash
crops. Not only could the people grow cash crops but other crops too, decreasing the malnutrition and hunger-related
death rates. The wells and pipeline systems we create will only serve the community around it, however by teaching
the construction, maintenance and water sanitation processes used, people would begin to create and develop their
own wells and plans for other cities and villages.
Most of Chad’s population has no access to a clean water source. Our goal is to change that but like any other action
taken there are impacts and effects from those actions whether positive or negative. SWIS will mostly have positive
effects however, this plan effects so many people that it could have a negative side.
There are very minimal negative effects. An effect being that whoever supplied the little water being re-
ceived by the people would be out of a job. Another possible negative effect could be that the project could bring
more refugees in to Chad. They might be encouraged to stay because of the new water source and better living con-
ditions, however we hope to see people leaving Chad to go back to Sudan throughout the coming years after issues
in Darfur are resolved and after
There would be many positive impacts upon completing SWIS’s goal. SWIS would actually create more jobs
Year # 1: In the firsr year our goal is to find the water sources underground and create the blueprints in order
to begin building by the second year. The water sources will be the foundation of a well and a pipeline system.
Year # 2: In the second year we’d like to have built wells for the people in the refugee camps. We will higher
people from the refugee camps in order to build these wells. By hiring the inhabitants of the refugee camps
they will have a sense of responsibility and aprreciation for the wells. We will also teach them how the wells
are being built so they will have the knowledge and know-how to build them if necessary. We also hope the
knowledge on building them will spread to other refugee camps.
Year # 3: During the third year our goal will be to build a pipeline system connecting to the wells in order
to distribute the water without building more wells ( the blueprints for the system will be made during the
first year). The system will serve as a sanitary water source for any purpose including irrigation and sanitation.
Year # 4: During year 4 we want to teach people in the refugee camps to maintain the wells in order to
keep them functional and sanitary. We will teach them the process of cleaning the water by using cholrine
and filtering the water,
Year # 5: During the fifth year we’d like to see other refugee camps beginning to build their own wells by
seeing the benefits of having cleaner water source. The project will influence other refugee camps to build
wells and through that they camps will become much more sanitary and have better living conditions.
By the tenth year We want to drastically improve the “access to a cleaner water source” percentage. We
want to and plan to meet the millenium development goals inside the refugee camps.