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Israel Palestine crisis

Israel Palestine crisis

  1. 1. Israel-Palestine Crisis 3530 Toshio Sekine 3539 Eri Tayama 3607 Yu Ishii
  2. 2. Table of Contents <ul><li>Basic Facts about Israel and Palestine </li></ul><ul><li>The Four Conflicts </li></ul><ul><li>History </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Jewish Immigration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Zionism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Britain’s multi-diplomacy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1920s ~1967 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Peace Process </li></ul><ul><li>Current Events </li></ul><ul><li>More about Palestine </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hamas and Fatah </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>West Bank/Gaza Strip </li></ul></ul><ul><li>More about Israel </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Foreign Relations of Israel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Other problems Israel has </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Conclusion </li></ul><ul><li>Works Cited </li></ul>
  3. 5. State of Israel <ul><li>Jews 76.4%, non-Jews 23.6% (mostly Arab) </li></ul><ul><li>official language: Hebrew </li></ul><ul><li>capital: Jerusalem </li></ul><ul><li>state religion: Judaism </li></ul><ul><li>world’s only Jewish state </li></ul>
  4. 6. Palestine Liberal Organization <ul><li>Muslim 87%, Jew 7% </li></ul><ul><li>official language: Arabic and English </li></ul><ul><li>state religion: Islam </li></ul><ul><li>divided into the Gaza Strip and the West Bank </li></ul>
  5. 7. The Four Conflicts East Jerusalem capital West and East Jerusalem as an everlasting capital Withdrawal of Israeli settlements Israeli settlements annexation of Israeli settlements repatriation of the refugees and compensation for them Palestine Refugees Refugees of 1948- willing to negotiate for repatriation Refugees of 1967- Not willing to negotiate withdrawal of Israeli troops territory keep the border that was set in 1967 Palestine Conflicts Israel
  6. 8. Jewish Immigration <ul><li>Jews mostly from Eastern Europe fleeing to Palestine, then a province of the Ottoman Empire, due to antisemitism and pogrom </li></ul><ul><li>1882-1903 First Aliyah </li></ul><ul><li>1896 publication of Theodor Herzl's The State of the Jews </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>sets the stage for Zionism </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>1897 World Zionist Organization founded </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>to build an infrastructure to further the cause of Jewish settlement in Palestine </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>1904-1914 Second Aliyah </li></ul><ul><li>1919-1923 Third Aliyah </li></ul>
  7. 9. What is Zionism? <ul><li>Zionism is an ideology which expresses the yearning of Jews over the world for their historical homeland - Zion, the Land of Israel. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The core of the Zionist idea appears in Israel's Declaration of Independence (14 May 1948), which states that: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>&quot;The Land of Israel was the birthplace of the Jewish people. Here their spiritual, religious and political identity was shaped. Here they first attained to statehood, created cultural values of national and universal significance and gave to the world the eternal Book of Books. After being forcibly exiled from their land, the people kept faith with it throughout their dispersion and never ceased to pray and hope for their return to it and for the restoration in it of their political freedom.&quot; </li></ul></ul>
  8. 10. U.K. and Its Secret Diplomacy <ul><li>1915 Hussein-McMahon Correspondence </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>promises Arab state in return for revolt against the Turks </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>May 1916 Sykes-Picot Agreement </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>agreement between Britain and France that partitions the territory of the Ottoman Empire </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Palestine to remain under international administration </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Nov 1917 Balfour Declaration </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Britain supports “the establishment in Palestine of a national home for the Jewish people” </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 12. 1920s <ul><li>Jul 1922 League of Nations grants Britain a mandate </li></ul><ul><li>to administer Palestine </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>to place “the country under such political, adminstrative and economic conditions as will secure the establishment of the Jewish national home” </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>1924-1929 Fourth Aliyah </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>due to anti-Semitism in Hungary and Poland </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>1929-1939 Fifth Aliyah </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>due to the rise of Nazism in Germany </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 13. Post WWII <ul><li>Feb 1947 U.K. withdraws from the Mandate of </li></ul><ul><li>Palestine </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>unable to arrive at a solution acceptable to both Jews and Arabs </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Nov 1947 UN Partition Plan </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>divides the country into two states, one Arab and one Jewish </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Jerusalem to be designated an international city administered by the UN to avoid conflict over its status </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>the Jewish community accepts the plan, but the Arab leadership rejects it </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  11. 14. Creation of Israel <ul><li>May 14, 1948 </li></ul><ul><li>declares independece from British rule, before the expiration of the British Mandate of Palestine </li></ul>
  12. 15. 1948 Arab-Israeli War <ul><li>May 1948 1948 Arab-Israeli War </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cause </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>founding of Israel </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Egypt, Syria, Jordan, Lebanon, Iraq attack Israel </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>700,000 Palestinian Arabs become refugees </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>expansion of the borders of the Jewish state beyond those in the UN Partition Plan </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>1949 1949 Armistice Agreements </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>a set of agreements signed in 1949 between Israel and Egypt, Jordan, Lebanon, and Syria </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ended the 1948 Arab-Israeli War </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>established lines between Israel and the West Bank until the 1967 Six-Day War </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  13. 17. Suez Crisis <ul><li>Oct 1956 Suez Crisis </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>cause </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Egypt’s decision to nationalize and close the Suez Canal </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>European countries had economic and trading interest in the Suez Canal </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Israel wanted to reopen the canal for Israeli shipping </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Israel invades Egypt’s Sinai Peninsula with the support of France and Britain </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Mar 1957 withdrawl of Israeli forces from the Sinai Peninsula </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>end of the Suez Crisis </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  14. 18. Creation of the PLO <ul><li>Palestine Liberation Organiation founded on February 3, 1964 in Cairo by the Arab League to preserve the Palestinian entity </li></ul><ul><li>goal as the destruction of the State of Israel through armed struggle, and replacing it with an &quot;independent Palestinian state&quot; between the Jordan River and the Mediterranean Sea </li></ul>
  15. 19. Six-Day War <ul><li>Jun 1967 Six-Day War </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>causes </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Egyptian naval blockade of the Gulf of Aqaba </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>military buildup in the Sinai Peninsula </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Syrian support for Fedayeen (= Arab guerilllas, esp. those operating against Israel) incursions into Israel </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Israel defeats the comibined forces of Egypt, Syria, Jordan, and Iraq </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Israel captures more land </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The Sinai Peninsula and the Gaza Strip from Egypt </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>East Jerusalem and the West Bank from Jordan </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The Golan Heights from Syria </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>more Palestinian refugees </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Sep 1967 Khartoum Resolution </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>8 Arab countries adopt the “Three No’s” </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>No peace with Israel </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>No recognition of Israel </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>No negotiations with Israel </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  16. 20. Changes in the Territories
  17. 21. Yom Kippur War <ul><li>Oct 1973 Yom Kippur War </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>cause </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>to regain Egyptian land that Israel captured in 1967 </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Syria and Egypt surprise-attack Israeli forces in the Golan Heights and the Sinai Peninsula </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Jordan, Iraq, and other Arab nations join in and/or support the Arab war effort </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  18. 22. Post Yom Kippur War <ul><li>Oct 1974 The Arab League recognizes the PLO as sole </li></ul><ul><li>representative of the Palestinians </li></ul><ul><li>Sep 1978 Camp David Accord </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>signed by Israeli Prime Minister Begin and Egyptian President Sadat </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Israel’s withdrawal from the Sinai Peninsula in exchange for peace and a frame work for future negotiation over the West Bank and Gaza Strip </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Mar 1979 Israel-Egypt Peace Treaty </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Egypt becomes the first Arab country to officially recognize Israel </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  19. 24. First Intifada <ul><li>Dec 1987 First Intifada </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>violence, riots, general strikes, and civil disobedience campaigns by Palestinians spread across the West Bank and Gaza Strip </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Israeli forces respond with tear gas, plastic bullets, and live ammunition </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Yassin creates Hamas in Gaza </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Nov 1988 State of Palestine </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>proclaimed by the Palestinian National Council meeting in Algiers </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Arafat recognizes the State of Israel </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Aug 1993 Declaration of Principles on Interim Self-Government </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>signed by Arafat and Rabin in Oslo </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>end of the First Intifada </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Aka Oslo Accords </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  20. 25. Peace Process <ul><li>After the Middle East War… </li></ul><ul><li>1967 SCR 242 </li></ul><ul><li>Camp David </li></ul><ul><li>Madrid Conference </li></ul><ul><li>Israeli-Syrian talks </li></ul><ul><li>Oslo Accords </li></ul><ul><li>Camp David </li></ul><ul><li>2001 Taba </li></ul><ul><li>2002 Saudi plan </li></ul><ul><li>2003 Road Map </li></ul><ul><li>Geneva Accord </li></ul><ul><li>2005 Sham el-Shekh Summit </li></ul>
  21. 26. Oslo Accords <ul><li>Main Points </li></ul><ul><li>Transfer of Powers to the Palestinians </li></ul><ul><li>The Oslo Accords does not prejudge the Permanent Status </li></ul><ul><li>Security remains an Israeli responsibility </li></ul>・ Finalized      : Oslo, Norway Aug, 20,1993 ・ Subsequently officially signed at a public ceremony       : Washington D.C. Sep, 13,1993 Israel’s reaction   -> a strong debate took place; the left wing supported, while the right wing opposed. Palestinian’s reaction   -> The Fatah accepted, but the &quot;refusal organizations&quot;, objected
  22. 27. Road Map The Quartet United States European Union Russia United Nations Israel Palestinian Authority George Bush…(24/6/2002) “ The road map represents a starting point toward achieving the vision of two states, a secure State of Israel and a viable, peaceful, democratic Palestine. It is the framework for progress towards lasting peace and security in the Middle East…”
  23. 28. Process <ul><li>Process </li></ul><ul><li>Phase I: End to Palestinian violence </li></ul><ul><li>Phase II: International Conference </li></ul><ul><li>-> to support Palestinian economic recovery </li></ul><ul><li>Phase III: Second International Conference </li></ul><ul><li>-> permanent status agreement and end of conflict </li></ul>
  24. 29. Current Events <ul><li>Oslo Accords (=Declaration of Principles on Interim Self-Government Arrangements) </li></ul><ul><li>Israel-PLO 4 May 1994 Cairo Agreement on the Gaza Strip and the Jericho Area </li></ul><ul><li>Israel-PLO 28 September 1995 Interim Agreement </li></ul><ul><li>Israel-PLO 15 January 1997 Protocol Concerning Redeployment in Hebron </li></ul><ul><li>Israel-PLO 23 October 1998 Wye River Memorandum </li></ul><ul><li>Israel-PLO 4 September 1999 Sharm el-Sheikh Agreement </li></ul><ul><li>-> Transfer of Authority </li></ul><ul><li>1999 Ehud Barak elected as Prime Minister (Israel) </li></ul><ul><li>Direct negotiation starts </li></ul><ul><li>/7 Camp David Summit </li></ul><ul><li>2000/9 Second Intifada </li></ul>
  25. 30. Second Intifada <ul><li>Both Palestinian & Israel, deeply disappointed by the result of the Oslo Accord </li></ul>Oslo War Arafat’s War Second Intifada(2000) ・ Sharm el-Sheikh Summit ・ Truce agreed ・ Israeli West Bank Barrier
  26. 31. Current Events <ul><li>2001 Ariel Sharon elected as Prime Minister (Israel) </li></ul><ul><li>2002 Israel starts building barrier at the West Bank </li></ul><ul><li>2004/4 Road Map ->postponed indefinitely </li></ul><ul><li>2004/11 Arafat’s death </li></ul><ul><li>       ↓ </li></ul><ul><li>2005/1 Abbas elected PA president </li></ul><ul><li>2005/2 Sharm el-Sheikh Commitment </li></ul><ul><li>2005/9 Israel completes the engagement plan </li></ul>withdraw from the Gaza Strip & spearhead the construction of the Israeli West Bank barrier
  27. 32. Unilateral Disengagement Plan <ul><li>2004/4 ・・・ by Ariel Sharon </li></ul><ul><li>-> Remove all of its civilian and military presence in the Gaza Strip </li></ul><ul><li>(21 Jewish settlements there and 4 in the northern West Bank) </li></ul><ul><li>・ Sharon “this plan was designed to improve Israel’s security and international status in the absence of political negotiations to end the Israeli-Palestinian conflict” </li></ul><ul><li>・ Criticism </li></ul><ul><li>-> a betrayal of his previous policies of support of settlement </li></ul><ul><li>-> nothing more than a mode of stalling negotiations and increasing Israeli presence in the West Bank </li></ul>2005/8/15 deadline 2005/9/12 completed in Gaza Strip 9/22 completed in West Bank Israeli citizens that refused to vacate their homes were evicted by Israeli security forces over a period of several days. About 8000~9000 Israeli residents moved.
  28. 33. Current Events <ul><li>Fatah and Hamas called a cease-fire on attacks on Israel </li></ul><ul><li>2006/1 Hamas wins the control of the Palestinian Legislative Council (PLC) </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Israel, the U.S., EU, and other countries cut off their aid to the Palestinians </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hamas is viewed as a terrorist organization </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>2006/6~ violence on both sides escalated </li></ul><ul><li>2007/3 Fatah and Hamas form a new unity government </li></ul><ul><li>↓ </li></ul><ul><li>Collapses </li></ul><ul><li>↓ </li></ul><ul><li>Hamas took over full control of the Gaza Strip </li></ul><ul><li>Fatah retains control of the West Bank </li></ul>
  29. 34. Hamas and Fatah <ul><li>Hamas </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a Palestinian Islamic militant organization and political party </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>was created in 1987 in Gaza at the beginning of the First Intifada </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>calls for the destruction of the State of Israel and its replacement with a Palestinian Islamic state </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>listed as a terrorist organization by the EU, Japan, Israel, and the U.S. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>does not renounce violence and refuses to honor previous peace agreements between Israel and Palestine </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fatah </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a major Palestinian political party and the largest organization in the Palestine Liberation Organization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>supported by the U.S. and the EU </li></ul></ul>
  30. 35. The Problems in Palestine The United States of America Israel Palestine Hamas oppression suicide bomb protest Arab League Moderates Radicals Egypt, Jordan,Saudi Arabia Syria support criticism
  31. 36. <ul><li>WEST BANK FACTS </li></ul><ul><li>Unemployment rate: 24.3 % </li></ul><ul><li>1/3 of households live below the poverty line </li></ul>West Bank…Who’s the leader? Population 2.3 million Palestinians 400,000 Israeli settlers Palestinian-controlled areas 59% Israeli civil & security control 23% Palestinian civil control Israeli security control 18% Governed by Palestinian
  32. 37. West Bank Barrier 670km long Most of the barrier is wire fence at least 3m high, reinforced with a ditch and coils of razor wire. A few sections considered high-risk have been built from concrete blocks. ・ Why build it? -> to protect Israeli from Palestinian terrorism ・ Main Objection -> epitomizes everything that is wrong with Israel’s occupation -> 210,000 Palestinians would be cut off from social services, schools and places of work ・ Where does America stand? -> views the barrier as problematic ・ What is the UN’s position? -> Barrier is illegal. Tantamount to “an unlawful act of annexation”
  33. 38. Gaza Strip Economic Condition <ul><li>GAZA FACTS </li></ul><ul><li>Unemployment rate: 35.4 % </li></ul><ul><li>2/3 of households live below the poverty line </li></ul>
  34. 39. Foreign Relations of Israel <ul><li>only three members of the Arab League have normalized relations with Israel </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Egypt, Jordan, and Mauritania </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ties with Morocco have been on the upswing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>enemy countries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lebanon, Syria, Saudi Arabia, Iraq and Yemen </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>close allies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>U.S. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>first to recognize the State of Israel </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>shared political and religious values </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Turkey </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Germany </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>to make amends for the Holocaust </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>strong economic parterners </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>India </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>strong military and cultural partership </li></ul></ul></ul>
  35. 40. Conclusion <ul><li>The Israel-Palestine crisis has been going on for more than 50 years now and we have not come to a solution yet. In this presentation, we only talked about important treaties and wars. However, there have been suicide bombs and riots every single day, killing thousands of innocent people. We, as a group, think that international community should cooperate in resolving this crisis so that both Israel and Palestine can respect and acknowledge each other as independent states . </li></ul>
  36. 41. Works Consulted <ul><li>“ Palestine-Israel Timeline: Learn About: Palestinian-Israeli Conflict” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Israel-Palestine History and Conflict timeline” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Hamas” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Fatah” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Israeli-Palestinian Conflict” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Timeline of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict” </li></ul><ul><li>“ A Definition of Zionism” </li></ul><ul><li>“ BBC NEWS Special Reports Israel and the Palestinians” </li></ul><ul><li>“ CIA-The World Factbook—Israel” </li></ul><ul><li>“ CIA- The World Factbook—Gaza Strip” </li></ul><ul><li>“ CIA- The World Factbook—West Bank” </li></ul><ul><li>“ ZIONISM- Background” </li></ul>
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