Summary of Africa Today


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Summary of Africa Today

  1. 1. Africa Today Summary of Chapters 5 and 6 By Mr. Rooney’s World Cultures Students November, 2011
  2. 2. 5.1 Winning Independence <ul><li>By early 1900’s nationalism took root in Africa. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nationalism is a sense of pride and devotion to one’s country. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nationalism grew out of European rule. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Colonial powers had drawn national boundaries that included diverse ethnic groups. </li></ul><ul><li>The effects of colonial rule lasted long after African nations won independence. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Europeans left behind a legacy of anti-colonialism. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Colonial rulers had made some positive changes. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>They set up the framework for nations to build upon. </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. 5.1 Winning Independence <ul><li>Many nationalists embraced the idea of Pan-Africanism which called for unifying all of Africa. </li></ul><ul><li>In the 1930’s, a Senegalese poet Léopold Sédar Senghar led the “négritude movement,” which encouraged Africans to value their heritage. </li></ul>
  4. 4. 5.1 Winning Independence <ul><li>End of WWII led to independence movements in Africa. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ghana, North Africa, Kenya and Southern African nations emerged. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>During the 1950’s & ‘60’s, African demands for freedom led to the birth of many new nations. </li></ul><ul><li>Some African nations won their freedom rather peacefully, using organized strikes and boycotts. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ghana, Libya, Tunisia, and Morocco. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Others used boycotts - refusal to buy certain goods. </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. 5.2: Steps Toward Development <ul><li>When African countries gained independence, many of them faced challenges on how to set up governments and build national unity. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Governments were organized under one-party rule and military rule, in the belief that competing political parties created divisions. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Governments that remained stable made the most economic progress. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>African countries experienced various forms of government such as socialism, mixed economies and multinational corporations. </li></ul><ul><li>Wars left Africa deeply divided and economically weak. </li></ul>
  6. 6. 5.2: Steps Toward Development <ul><li>A major goal of African nations was to build factories and produce goods for their own use. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Doing this reduces dependence on foreign imports. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Debt, drought, disease, civil war and international conflict all work against economic progress. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Government programs neglect subsistence farmers’ needs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>African nations have tried to limit costly imports because they have had difficulty repaying their debts. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Because African traditions promoted large families, the population dramatically increased. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>AIDS, however, slowed down the birth rate. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Overpopulation caused a strain for jobs and made Africans rethink the size of their families. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Although there were many obstacles blocking progress made in Africa, Africans were “determined to make good on the promises made at independence.” </li></ul>
  7. 7. 5.3: Changing Patterns of Life <ul><li>Population growth and the growth in industry have contributed to rapid urbanization. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Better jobs, improved housing, better schools & more healthcare attract people to city life. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rural poverty drives people to stop farming and move to cities. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>City life has disadvantages; jobs are scarce and people live in shanty towns. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Effects of urbanization in colonial days; elite were the white officials and business owners. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Other effects: changes in family life, westernization, changes in religion. </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. 5.3: Changing Patterns of Life <ul><li>Women in cities have a greater opportunity to enter the work force, but most women’s lives have changed little. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>They feed & care for families, care for farms, support needs of family members. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Traditional bonds of lineage and kinship are weakening. </li></ul><ul><li>Technology changed farming, herding and fishing. </li></ul><ul><li>Rural patterns -- despite migration to cities, many Africans still live in rural areas. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Many farmers continue to use non-mechanical methods of farming. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Schools & universities - schools are a force for cultural change. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gov’ts. support education programs. </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. 5.4: Nigeria <ul><li>Geography and people: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Good resources such as tin, iron and coal. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Got its name from the Niger River. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>There are more than 250 ethnic groups and they speak 6 languages. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Political development: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>After WWII, nationalism grew stronger. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Religious, economic, and ethnic divisions flared after independence. This led to civil war. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Nigeria has diverse ways to be prosperous: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Developed industries like steel mills, but also exported key crops. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Oil wealth helped prosperity, but caused pollution. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Concern that they are too dependent on oil revenues. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prosperity made gap between rich and poor larger. </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. 5.4: Nigeria <ul><li>Culture: In dance halls and on street corners, bands play juju music based on the traditional “talking drums,” which have special features that allow the drummer to vary the pitch. Drummer can imitate the tones of African languages. </li></ul><ul><li>Population Growth </li></ul><ul><ul><li>More than 127 million people today. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most of Nigeria’s population is under 15 years old. </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. 5.5: Zimbabwe <ul><li>Zimbabwe is a small, landlocked nation. It is mostly a high plateau with a mild climate and regular wet and dry seasons. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>80% of people - Shona; 19%-Ndebele; 1%-whites/Asians </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Was the center of an ancient gold trading kingdom. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>British called the colony Rhodesia and declared independence in 1965. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>UN imposed economic sanctions because they didn’t’ recognize their independence on black nationalist groups. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>After independence, the government had changed and whites were no longer favored in education, health care, and farm aid. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>First leader after independence was Robert Mugabe. He urged blacks and whites to set aside their differences. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In 1980 most of the best land belonged to whites, leaving little or none for blacks. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mugabe passed a law in 1992 that allowed the government to seize the land for blacks. Whites felt betrayed. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>One of Mugabe’s chief goals was to provide basic services to all citizens. </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. 5.5: Zimbabwe <ul><li>Initially, Zimbabwe had an industrialized economy with many foreign businesses investing in it. But after Mugabe’s policies, many companies left the country. </li></ul><ul><li>Black landholders tended to be crowded onto land less favorable to farming. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A 1922 law allowed the government to buy land to give to peasants. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The government of Zimbabwe played a large role in the economy. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Goods have to be sent through neighboring countries because of damaged roads and railroads. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Minerals such as chromium, coal, copper, nickel and gold are exported. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cash crops: tobacco, cotton, corn. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Road to independence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In the 1960’s many independent African nations, including Rhodesia, emerged. </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. 6.1: Regional & Global Issues <ul><li>Across the continent, there were cries for peace and independence. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Organization of African Unity (1963) was formed. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Most of Africa united through organizations such as the OAU, AU, and SADCC. </li></ul><ul><li>Every African nation joined the UN. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Some joined organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They work for international cooperation on issues such as the environment, education and agricultural development. </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. 6.1: Regional & Global Issues <ul><li>African nations won independence after/during the Cold War, but keeping peace was difficult. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Africa did not take sides in the Cold War, but the US & USSR sometimes interfered in African affairs. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>African Union was formed in 2002. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Other regional groups were formed. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Many African nations are in deep debt. </li></ul><ul><li>More than 25 million people in Africa have AIDS. </li></ul><ul><li>African nations trying to lmit family size and increase food production for growing populations. </li></ul>
  15. 15. 6.2: The Republic of South Africa <ul><li>Apartheid segregated the races </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Had to carry passbook for access </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inequality in public services & education </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Blacks & other South Africans opposed </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ANC, Desmond Tutu, Albert Luthuli were nonviolent protestors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Government responded with violence anyway </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Other nations boycotted South Africa </li></ul><ul><ul><li>United Nations placed an arms embargo on S. Africa </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Other nations cut off trade & financial dealings </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Nelson Mandela </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Went to prison because he opposed apartheid. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>When freed, he became South Africa’s first black president. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>South Africa’s future </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mandela strove to rectify apartheid </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Despite hardships, South Africa overcame apartheid with help from Mbeki, new president after Mandela </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. 6.3: Literature & the Arts <ul><li>African literature, </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Oral literature very important-stories handed down through generations by griot (storyteller). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Written works often emphasize how to preserve traditional practices and blend them with technological progress. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Drama and film </li></ul><ul><ul><li>African playwrights and filmmakers follow the tradition of the griots. They also address traditional views and modern issues. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Filmmakers sometimes use historical events, like the massacre of African soldiers by the French army, or they might retell popular village tales. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Visual arts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Art has both religious and practical purposes. Carved masks were used in dances. African artists known for their sculpture. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>African art today -- many artists experimenting with painting, which used to be reserved for fabrics. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>One artist, Kane Kwei, creates really cool coffins, believe it or not. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Music - popular music builds on many traditions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Popular instruments - thumb piano; xylophones, “talking drums.” </li></ul></ul>