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INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS
PROJECT
PAK - INDIA TIES:
Group members:
 Samrana Gultasab
 Saman Zahoor
12/24/2016 12:26 PM 1
PAK - INDIA TIES:
Relationship between Pak &
India
These two states of South Asia share
• Historic
• Cultural
• Geographic
• Economic links
...
History
Some major conflicts and disputes between Pak
and India are:
• Partition of British India in 1947
• Kashmir disput...
History(Cont)…
• In the early 20th century, the Two Nation Theory
proposed by Jinnah
• Jinnah and Gandhi’s overheated disc...
Stumbling Blocks
• After Independence, India and Pakistan had
formed diplomatic relations
• Partition and territorial conf...
Steps taken for betterment
Steps taken to better the relation inlcudes:
• Agra Summit
• Shimla Summit
• The Lahore Summit
Conflicts
After 1980, hostility between
two nations mainly because of:
• The Siachen conflict
• The worsening of the Kashm...
Borders between India and
Pakistan
Radcliffe Line:
• From the Arabian sea, the
naval border follows the
course of Manora I...
Borders(cont)
Line of Control (LoC):
• Refers to the military control
line which separates the Indian
Jammu Kashmir and Az...
Borders(cont)
International Border (IB):
• Separates the Indian states
and the four provinces of Pak
• Running from the Li...
Borders(cont)
Wagah border:
• Lies on the Grand Trunk Road
between the cities of Amritsar
in Punjab, India and Lahore in
P...
DIPLOMACIES
Diplomacies
TRACK TWO DIPLOMACY
• First meeting held in Neemrana Fort in Rajhasthan(1991)
• More than twelve Track Two gro...
Diplomacies (Cont)
• CULTURAL DIPLOMACY
• Pakistan India cultural relationship can be analyzed
in terms of
 Media,
 Lite...
Diplomacies (Cont)
CRICKET DIPLOMACY
• Pakistani President General Zia-ul-Haq visit to
India to watch a Test match in 1987...
Diplomacies (Cont)
TRADE DIPLOMACY
ONION DIPLOMACY
• A crippling shortage of onions in India now and then, due to drought
...
Diplomacies (Cont)
BACK CHANEL DIPLOMACY
• Started in 2004-2007
• Establish conditions of peace based on the principle of ...
Wars
12/24/2016 12:26 PM
Kashmir War(1947-49)
• Kashmir had to accede to either Pakistan or India
based on geographic location and on demographics
...
Kashmir War(1947-49)
Operation Venus
• On Dec 14, by bombardmentBeri Pattan bridge area
was destroyed
• At midnight on 30
...
1965 War
• Indian forces intruded in Rann of Kutch in
April 1965
• Indian forces were ejected, an agreement was
signed: th...
1965 War(continue)
• Past midnight on 5/6 September
• Indian Army crossed the border
• Attacked Lahore and Kasur fronts
Th...
1965 War(continue)
• The air battle:
On 7 September, Squadron Leader
M.M.ALAM(Sitara-i-Juraat) in
his F-86 Sabre shot down...
1971 War
•Tragic year
• India support for independence
of Bangladesh
12/24/2016 12:26 PM
1971 War(continued)
• In November India’s massive build up on East
Pakistan border
• 23rd Nov, state of emergency
• 180 Bo...
1971 War(continued)
Mitro Bahini(Allied forces between Indian
army and Mukti Bahini)
• The land battle :
India captured ar...
1971 War(continued)
• The air battle:
In the east, the small air contingent of Pakistan
Air Force No. 14 Sqn was destroyed...
1971 War(continued)
• India took approximately 93,000 prisoners
• The Simla Agreement
79,676 uniformed 13,324 civilians
80...
Kargil War
• Took place between May and July 1999 in the Kargil
district of Kashmir
• The infiltration of Pakistani soldie...
Kargil War(Cont)
• Pakistan occupied portions of Indian Territory in the
Kargil area
• India defeated Pakistan
• Relations...
TREATIE
S
12/24/2016 12:26 PM
Karachi Agreement
Date of Agreement:
27th of July, 1949
Signed in:
Karachi
Signed by:
Pakistan’s Minister Mushtaq
Ahmed Gu...
Karachi Agreement(Cont)
Objective:
A cease-fire agreement in Kashmir
After the first war between India and Pakistan
this a...
Liaquat-Nehru Pact
Date of Agreement: 8th of April, 195o
Signed in: New Delhi
Signed By:
Indian Prime Minister, Jawahar La...
Objective:
The safe return of the
properties of refugees and
the rights of minorities in
both countries after the Partitio...
Date of Agreement:
19th of September, 1960
Signed in:
Karachi
Signed by:
Pakistani President, General Muhammad
Ayub Khan
I...
Sindh Taas Agreement(Cont)
Objective:
To settle the water dispute between the
two countries.
Result:
As a result of the pa...
The Simla Agreement
Date of Agreement:
2nd of July, 1972
Signed in:
Himachal Pradesh
Signed by:
The Prime Minister of Paki...
The Simla Agreement(Cont)
Objective:
To establish peace.
Result:
India released more than
90,000 Pakistani military
prison...
The Non-Nuclear Aggression
Agreement
Date of Agreement:
21st of September, 1988
Signed in:
Islamabad
Signed by:
Prime Mini...
The Non-Nuclear Aggression
Agreement(Cont)
Objective:
It was a bilateral and nuclear weapons control treaty
between the tw...
The Lahore Declaration
Date of Agreement:
21st of February, 1999
Signed in:
Lahore
Signed by:
Prime Minister of Pakistan N...
The Lahore Declaration
Objectives:
Under the terms of the treaty, a mutual
understanding was reached towards the
developme...
PAK - INDIA TIES:
FOREIGN POLICY
12/24/2016 12:26 PM
PAK - INDIA12/24/2016 12:26 PM 46
Foreign policy refers to the sum total of
principles, interests and objectives which
a country promotes while interacting ...
Quaid-e-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah,
outlined the goals of Pakistan’s foreign
policy.
 The foreign policy of Pakistan seeks...
Relationship with New Delhi
Issues of Kashmir.
In 2013 and 2014, Pakistani Foreign Ministry did
not take any initiative...
Periods of normal relations
generally conflict changes of tough statements
three major wars
conflicts at Loc (Line of ...
 Three major wars,
 A nuclear arms race,
 The dispute over Kashmir and
 Strains over water sharing rights.
 Issues of...
Pt. Jawahar Lai Nehru, outlined foreign
policy of India.
Peaceful co-existence with its
neighbour’s the rest of the worl...
Neighbourhood first policy
mini SAARC summit
12/24/2016 12:26 PM
 Complete border dominance should be
achieved.
 Rebooting former Prime Minister offer of
diplomatic overtures for dialog...
 Strengthen the United Nations
 Establish the principle of
equality among nations
12/24/2016 12:26 PM
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  1. 1. INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS PROJECT PAK - INDIA TIES: Group members:  Samrana Gultasab  Saman Zahoor 12/24/2016 12:26 PM 1
  2. 2. PAK - INDIA TIES:
  3. 3. Relationship between Pak & India These two states of South Asia share • Historic • Cultural • Geographic • Economic links But their relationship has been filled with • Hostility • Doubt.
  4. 4. History Some major conflicts and disputes between Pak and India are: • Partition of British India in 1947 • Kashmir dispute • Water crisis • Sir creek issue • Rann of kutch • Siachen issue • Nuclear Deterrence • Many military conflicts
  5. 5. History(Cont)… • In the early 20th century, the Two Nation Theory proposed by Jinnah • Jinnah and Gandhi’s overheated discussions during times of Independence • Around five hundred thousand Muslims and Hindus were murdered • In 1947 created two large independent countries; the Union of India and the Dominion of Pakistan • Displaced around 12.5 million people
  6. 6. Stumbling Blocks • After Independence, India and Pakistan had formed diplomatic relations • Partition and territorial conflicts effected this relation • Fought three wars • Involved in various armed skirmishes and military standstills • Conflicts with the creation of Bangladesh & Kashmir
  7. 7. Steps taken for betterment Steps taken to better the relation inlcudes: • Agra Summit • Shimla Summit • The Lahore Summit
  8. 8. Conflicts After 1980, hostility between two nations mainly because of: • The Siachen conflict • The worsening of the Kashmir insurgency in 1989 • The nuclear tests of India and Pakistan in 1998 • In 1999 the Kargil War • Attack on the Indian Parliament in 2001 • Bombings in 2007 of the Samjhauta express • 2008 Mumbai attacks carried out by Pakistani militants
  9. 9. Borders between India and Pakistan Radcliffe Line: • From the Arabian sea, the naval border follows the course of Manora Island of Pakistan to the course of Mumbai Harbour, in the South eastward • A site of numerous conflict and wars • One of the most complex borders in the world
  10. 10. Borders(cont) Line of Control (LoC): • Refers to the military control line which separates the Indian Jammu Kashmir and Azad Kashmir of Pakistan • Not a legally recognized international boundary • Originally known as the "Cease-fire Line“ • Named LOC following the Simla Agreement, 3 July 1972
  11. 11. Borders(cont) International Border (IB): • Separates the Indian states and the four provinces of Pak • Running from the Line of Control (LoC), in the north, to Wagha line, in the eastward • Zero Point separates the Indian states of Gujarat and Rajasthan to Sindh province of Pakistan, in the southward
  12. 12. Borders(cont) Wagah border: • Lies on the Grand Trunk Road between the cities of Amritsar in Punjab, India and Lahore in Punjab, Pakistan • Only road border • At a distance of 20 kms from Amritsar and 22 kms from Lahore.
  13. 13. DIPLOMACIES
  14. 14. Diplomacies TRACK TWO DIPLOMACY • First meeting held in Neemrana Fort in Rajhasthan(1991) • More than twelve Track Two groups. • Over twenty other people-to-people exchange programmes. • A useful and effective conflict management mechanism. • Facilitate the track one dialogue process between the two countries. • Dialogue process immediately after the Kargil crises in late 90’s. • Role after the 2008 Mumbai terror attacks.
  15. 15. Diplomacies (Cont) • CULTURAL DIPLOMACY • Pakistan India cultural relationship can be analyzed in terms of  Media,  Literature,  Cricket,  Electronic media,  Exchange of artists,  Civil society  Peace activists (e.g. NGOs, GCO,ASSP) and  Educational corporation.
  16. 16. Diplomacies (Cont) CRICKET DIPLOMACY • Pakistani President General Zia-ul-Haq visit to India to watch a Test match in 1987. • Grapevine about President Zia whispering to Indian PM Rajiv Gandhi that Pakistan had the nuclear bomb. Help lower the temperature. • President Musharraf invited by PM Manmohan Singh on April 17, 2005, and the match ended very badly for India.
  17. 17. Diplomacies (Cont) TRADE DIPLOMACY ONION DIPLOMACY • A crippling shortage of onions in India now and then, due to drought or other conditions forces New Delhi to turn to Islamabad for help. MANGO DIPLOMACY • PM Nawaz Sharif attempt to reach out to his counterpart Narendra Modi after the acrimony over Pakistan high commissioner Abdul Basit's meeting with separatists in September 2014, which forced India to cancel the foreign secretary-level dialogue • In 2010, Manmohan Singh to Yusuf Raza Gilani. • Exchanged ‘Anwar Rataul’ mangoesIn early 1980s Prime Minister Indira Gandhi and Pakistani leader Gen Zia-ul Haq. • In 2001, General Pervez Musharraf to Atal Bihari Vajpayee and Home Minister L K Advani.
  18. 18. Diplomacies (Cont) BACK CHANEL DIPLOMACY • Started in 2004-2007 • Establish conditions of peace based on the principle of the Charter of United Nations and the peaceful coexistence between the countries.. • Agreements on Kashmir Issue. • Steve Coll in the New Yorker of March 2, 2009, in an article titled “The Back Channel declared it ‘cleansing peace’ and a transformational peace between Pakistan and India. • Pakistan has also tried later to revive the diplomacy, as a part of an effort to normalize ties between the two nuclear neighbors, also more recently in 2013 and 2104. 12/24/2016 12:26 PM
  19. 19. Wars 12/24/2016 12:26 PM
  20. 20. Kashmir War(1947-49) • Kashmir had to accede to either Pakistan or India based on geographic location and on demographics • April 1948: Pakistan Army appreciating the threats in Muzaffarabad-Kohala axis • By June, Pakistan had five brigades holding twelve Indian brigades 12/24/2016 12:26 PM
  21. 21. Kashmir War(1947-49) Operation Venus • On Dec 14, by bombardmentBeri Pattan bridge area was destroyed • At midnight on 30 December, India asked for ceasefire Pakistan accepted • It halted the Indian offensive • Closing up to Pakistan 's vital border areas, thus ended the war in Jammu and Kashmir 12/24/2016 12:26 PM
  22. 22. 1965 War • Indian forces intruded in Rann of Kutch in April 1965 • Indian forces were ejected, an agreement was signed: the forces disengaged 12/24/2016 12:26 PM
  23. 23. 1965 War(continue) • Past midnight on 5/6 September • Indian Army crossed the border • Attacked Lahore and Kasur fronts The land battle: Biggest tank battle: PAKISTAN INDIA Patton tanks M4 Sherman tanks M4 Sherman tanks (equipped with 90mm guns) M4 Sherman tanks(equipped with 75mm guns) 12/24/2016 12:26 PM
  24. 24. 1965 War(continue) • The air battle: On 7 September, Squadron Leader M.M.ALAM(Sitara-i-Juraat) in his F-86 Sabre shot down five Indian attacking Hunter aircraft in a single sortie Pakistan Army captured: 20 officers, 19 Junior Commissioned Officers, and 569 Other Ranks. 12/24/2016 12:26 PM
  25. 25. 1971 War •Tragic year • India support for independence of Bangladesh 12/24/2016 12:26 PM
  26. 26. 1971 War(continued) • In November India’s massive build up on East Pakistan border • 23rd Nov, state of emergency • 180 Bombs were dropped by Pakistan, 125 was on target on Indian air fields 12/24/2016 12:26 PM
  27. 27. 1971 War(continued) Mitro Bahini(Allied forces between Indian army and Mukti Bahini) • The land battle : India captured around 5,500 sq miles of Pakistan territory • The sea battle: Indian Navy proved its superiority by the success of Operation Trident 12/24/2016 12:26 PM
  28. 28. 1971 War(continued) • The air battle: In the east, the small air contingent of Pakistan Air Force No. 14 Sqn was destroyed On December 16, the Pakistani forces in East Pakistan surrendered 12/24/2016 12:26 PM
  29. 29. 1971 War(continued) • India took approximately 93,000 prisoners • The Simla Agreement 79,676 uniformed 13,324 civilians 800 PAF 5,296 POLICE 16,354 PARAMILITAR Y 55,692 ARM Y 1000 NAV Y 12/24/2016 12:26 PM
  30. 30. Kargil War • Took place between May and July 1999 in the Kargil district of Kashmir • The infiltration of Pakistani soldiers and Kashmiri militants into positions on the Indian side of the Line of Control, caused the war. • Indian forced a Pakistani withdrawal across the Line of Control (LoC). • Pakistan captured several strategic high points in the Indian-controlled section of Kashmir. 12/24/2016 12:26 PM
  31. 31. Kargil War(Cont) • Pakistan occupied portions of Indian Territory in the Kargil area • India defeated Pakistan • Relations worsened 12/24/2016 12:26 PM
  32. 32. TREATIE S 12/24/2016 12:26 PM
  33. 33. Karachi Agreement Date of Agreement: 27th of July, 1949 Signed in: Karachi Signed by: Pakistan’s Minister Mushtaq Ahmed Gurmani The President of Azad Kashmir, Sardar Mohammed Ibrahim Khan The head of All Jammu and Kashmir Muslim Conference, Choudhry Ghulam Abbas 12/24/2016 12:26 PM
  34. 34. Karachi Agreement(Cont) Objective: A cease-fire agreement in Kashmir After the first war between India and Pakistan this agreement was signed to settle a dispute related to Kashmir between India and Pakistan. Result: As a result of the agreement, ceasefire was done in Kashmir and a cease-fire line was established. 12/24/2016 12:26 PM
  35. 35. Liaquat-Nehru Pact Date of Agreement: 8th of April, 195o Signed in: New Delhi Signed By: Indian Prime Minister, Jawahar Lal Nehru Pakistani Prime Minister, Liaquat Ali Khan 12/24/2016 12:26 PM
  36. 36. Objective: The safe return of the properties of refugees and the rights of minorities in both countries after the Partition of India and to avert another war between the two countries. Liaquat-Nehru Pact(Cont) 12/24/2016 12:26 PM
  37. 37. Date of Agreement: 19th of September, 1960 Signed in: Karachi Signed by: Pakistani President, General Muhammad Ayub Khan Indian Prime Minister, Jawaharlal Nehru Sindh Taas Agreement 12/24/2016 12:26 PM
  38. 38. Sindh Taas Agreement(Cont) Objective: To settle the water dispute between the two countries. Result: As a result of the pact, River Ravi, Sutlej and Beas were given to India whereas Pakistan got the right on the waters of River Indus, Jhelum and Chenab. 12/24/2016 12:26 PM
  39. 39. The Simla Agreement Date of Agreement: 2nd of July, 1972 Signed in: Himachal Pradesh Signed by: The Prime Minister of Pakistan, Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto The Prime Minister of India ,Indira Gandhi 12/24/2016 12:26 PM
  40. 40. The Simla Agreement(Cont) Objective: To establish peace. Result: India released more than 90,000 Pakistani military prisoners of war (POWs) and withdrew its troops from the occupied Pakistani areas 12/24/2016 12:26 PM
  41. 41. The Non-Nuclear Aggression Agreement Date of Agreement: 21st of September, 1988 Signed in: Islamabad Signed by: Prime Minister of Pakistan ,Benazir Bhutto Prime Minister of India ,Rajiv Gandhi 12/24/2016 12:26 PM
  42. 42. The Non-Nuclear Aggression Agreement(Cont) Objective: It was a bilateral and nuclear weapons control treaty between the two states on the reduction (or limitation) of nuclear arms and pledged not to attack or assist foreign powers to attack on each other’s nuclear installations and facilities 12/24/2016 12:26 PM
  43. 43. The Lahore Declaration Date of Agreement: 21st of February, 1999 Signed in: Lahore Signed by: Prime Minister of Pakistan Nawaz Sharif Prime Minister of India , Atal Vajpayee
  44. 44. The Lahore Declaration Objectives: Under the terms of the treaty, a mutual understanding was reached towards the development of atomic arsenals and to avoid accidental and Unauthorized operational use of nuclear weapons. 12/24/2016 12:26 PM
  45. 45. PAK - INDIA TIES: FOREIGN POLICY 12/24/2016 12:26 PM
  46. 46. PAK - INDIA12/24/2016 12:26 PM 46
  47. 47. Foreign policy refers to the sum total of principles, interests and objectives which a country promotes while interacting with other countries.
  48. 48. Quaid-e-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah, outlined the goals of Pakistan’s foreign policy.  The foreign policy of Pakistan seeks to promote the internationally recognized norms of interstate relations, i.e. I. Respect for sovereignty and territorial integrity of all States, II. Non-interference in the internal affairs of other State; III. Non-aggression and peaceful settlement of disputes. 12/24/2016 12:26 PM
  49. 49. Relationship with New Delhi Issues of Kashmir. In 2013 and 2014, Pakistani Foreign Ministry did not take any initiatives, because of expectation for parliamentary elections in India. Building a relationship with the new Prime Minister of India. 12/24/2016 12:26 PM
  50. 50. Periods of normal relations generally conflict changes of tough statements three major wars conflicts at Loc (Line of Control) despite Pakistan’s effort to improve relations, India was not forthcoming.  hope of bilateral dialogue on issues. 12/24/2016 12:26 PM
  51. 51.  Three major wars,  A nuclear arms race,  The dispute over Kashmir and  Strains over water sharing rights.  Issues of national security such as terrorism. proponents who advocate reconciliation Trade relations. 12/24/2016 12:26 PM
  52. 52. Pt. Jawahar Lai Nehru, outlined foreign policy of India. Peaceful co-existence with its neighbour’s the rest of the world. 12/24/2016 12:26 PM
  53. 53. Neighbourhood first policy mini SAARC summit 12/24/2016 12:26 PM
  54. 54.  Complete border dominance should be achieved.  Rebooting former Prime Minister offer of diplomatic overtures for dialogue with Pakistan. 12/24/2016 12:26 PM
  55. 55.  Strengthen the United Nations  Establish the principle of equality among nations 12/24/2016 12:26 PM
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