Niger Country Plan

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Original work and design created by 10th grade DSA students as part of the 'Legacy of Imperialism' Project. www.digitalsafari.org

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Niger Country Plan

  1. 1. preventing a death and saving a life..
  2. 2. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Niger, the 6th poorest country in the world has a population of approximately 15 million people. More than half of the total population is living under a dollar a day. Niamey, the capital of Niger located near the Niger River has a population of about 774,915 thousand people. The Niger River is the major source of water for over 3 million people in Niger. Niger does not have access to many clean water sources resulting in citizens consuming polluted water con- taining bacteria and diseases. Niger mostly consists of wasteland due to environmental issues such as deforestation, desertification, soil erosion, and overgrazing. Many of these problems are due to the lack of water for plantations. Ni- ger lost over half of its forest due to the ongoing droughts. A huge amount of Niger’s population is severely malnour- ished, statistics show at least 2.5 million people living in Niger don’t have enough to eat and 44% of children under five are severely malnourished. This issue has increased poverty levels because without citizens being healthy, there is less productivity in school and work. As of 2007, 45% of Niger’s citizens are enrolled in school, but only 40% are able to complete it. The population of men finishing school is much higher than the female completion rate because women often don’t have time for school because they fetch water and care for their children. Since poverty is such a big issue in Niger, children have gone through child prostitution and labor. Children are raped and forced to work in order to receive money for their families. All of these severe issues are caused by the extreme poverty in Niger. In order to help Niger improve and become a better, stable community, our organization has implemented a plan to help Niger rise from poverty. In order to address this problem, our organization has targeted one main cause of poverty in Niger, which is its water sources. Niger’s unclean and inaccessible water has caused many people in Niger to become unhealthy, which ultimately leads to unproductivity and decreased enrollment in school. Our goal is to clean Niger’s water and give more citizens access to water to improve their health and well being. We will be handing out life straws to people in Niger, installing solar powered water pumps into village wells, and creating water purification systems along the Niger River. Life Straws are portable water filters that remove impurities, bacteria, and chemicals making dirty water safe to drink which will supply immediate relief to help Niger. We will also be installing solar powered water pumps into village wells. Niger consists of many wells throughout villages but most wells are contaminated with diseases. By installing these solar powered pumps the water will be cleaned daily using energy from the sun allowing safe consumption for families living in villages in Niamey. Lastly, we will create water purifica- tion systems along the Niger River. Since about 3 million people use the Niger River as their water source, we will place water purification systems along the Niger river every 10 miles apart to allow a majority of the people access to clean water. The water purification system takes in water from the Niger River and purifies it removing all bacteria and chemical taste through a filter and ultraviolet light disinfection process. Then the water is stored in a tank where citizens can have access to it. This will benefit Niger by impacting the environment and providing clean water for crops, decreasing the amount of people suffering from waterborne diseases, allowing women and children more time in the day without having to work long hours to get water, increasing enrollment in schools and less starvation. Our project will impact Niger for the better by preventing a death, and saving a life.
  3. 3. THE HISTORY Before Imperialism About 600,000 years ago, humans began living on the Sahara desert in northern Niger. The largest groups in Niger are the Hausa. The Hausa people make up over half of Niger’s total population. The Hausa are farmers who live in the southern areas of the country. Other groups who lived in Niger are the Fulani, Tuareg, and the Djerma-Songhai. Islam culture is widely influenced and practiced by the Hausa, Fulani, and Tuareg. The Hausa states were dominant in southern Niger from the early 10th century until the early 19th century when Hausa states were conquered by Fulani. Between the 10th and 18th centuries, West African empires, such as the Kanem-Borno, Mali and Songhaï, flourished here, trading salt, gold and slaves. Before the arrival of French influence, Niger was said to be an important economic crossroad and many empires such as Gao, Mali, Songhai, Kanem, Bornu, and Hausa states had claimed control over parts of the area. During Imperialism Around the 19th century, European explorers such as the British and Germans explored the land searching for the mouth of the Niger River. The first European to enter the area was Scottish explorer Mungo Park in 1795 to 1805 and German explorers Heinrich Barth and Eduard Vogel in 1850.The French took possession of this area around 1890. In the 1900s, the French put effort into establishing peace with Niger. In 1922, Niger became a French colony. The French had administered a limited form of French citizenship of territories and the 1946 French constitution limited participation in politics and provided the distribution of power among the people. The French had removed all voting inequalities which took away the people’s rights to create self governments in individual territories such as education and health. French promoted the growth of a chief’s power and enforced Niger to shift from farming to cash crops. On October 4th, 1958 the fifth French republic allowed limited self government. On December 4th, elections were held to see if Niger would remain in the French community. Two political blocks were involved in the election, the Ni- geren progressive party led by Hamani Diori and the other block led by Djibo Bakary. On the 18th, Niger had declared itself a republic within a French community. Diori was announced president in 1958. After Imperialism In 1960, Niger became independent from France. For 14 years, Niger was run by elected president, Hamani Diori. Diori was said to have established one of the most stable gov- ernments in Africa due to his friendly relationship with the French. Diori was able to stay in power through the 1960s and early 1970. However turmoil had struck Niger as severe droughts occurred from 1968 to 1974 which resulted in civil disorder and famine condi- tions. That same year, Diori was overthrown by the army led by leader Kountche. In the late 1970’s Niger’s economy had grown due to uranium growth in markets. A few years after this economic growth, Kountche died, leaving Seybou, an army chief to be presi- dent of Niger. Around the 1980s uranium prices had collapsed and a drought in 1983 killed thousands of people in Niger. In 1991, a national conference was held to prepare a new constitution. A new constitution was adopted into Niger in December of 1992. In 1993, Niger held its first multiparty election where Ousmane Mahamane was elected president. Ousmane Mahamane had only brought corruption to Niger so Mahamane’s guards assassinated him in 1999. In result, Tandja Mamadou was elected president. In 2004, Niger had a major locust outbreak and drought which lead to a severe famine. 3.6 million Citizens were suffering from malnutrition and president Tandja claimed the famine to be propaganda made up by opposing countries. In the war against Iraq and the U.S, Niger was said to be helping Saddam Hussein by giving him uranium for his nuclear weapons. This accusation was false. President Tandja suspended the constitu- tion in May of 2009 and planned for a new constitution. Voters endorsed his plans which gave Tandja the power to remain in office for 3 more years.
  4. 4. TIMELINE 1991- National conference to prepare constitution 1992- New constitution adopted into Niger 1993- First multi-party election, Ousmane Mahamane elected president 1996- New constitution giving increased powers 1999- Ousmane Mahamane assassinated, Mamadou Tanja elected president 1999-New constitution restoring balance between executive and legislative branch. 2001- Niger bans hunting to save wildlife population 2003- U.S president George W. Bush claims Iraq acquired uranium from Niger 2004- Major locust outbreak and drought led to severe famine 2005- Widespread protest over tax increase of up to 20 percent for basic goods 2006- Unions call national strike to protest against high cost living 2006- Aid agencies warn of dwindling supplies of food 1804- Mungo Park (Scottish) seek source of Niger River 2009- President Mamdou Tanja suspends constitution 1850- German explorers seek source of Niger River 2009- New constitution states president Tanja rules for three more years 1890- French occupy Niger 2010- President Tanja ousted in a coup, senior army promises to return Niger to a democracy 1898- French signs Niger convention 1922- Niger becomes a French Colony 1946- French constitution limits participation in politics 1950- Niger is allowed internal self agreement 1959- Uranium deposits discovered 1960- Niger becomes fully independent with Hamani Diori as first president 1968-1973- Severe drought devastates Niger’s livestock and crop production 1930- Niger’s economy grows due to uranium growth in markets 1974- Hamani Diori overthrown in military coup, Kountche takes over 1980- Uranium prices collapse 1983- Drought killed thousands of people 1987- Kountche dies, Seybou assumes presidency
  5. 5. Millenium Development Goals Niger, one of the poorest countries in the world has been struggling economically and environmentally. With the help of the Millennium Development Goals, the Nigerian government has adopted programs and projects to im- Millenium Development Goals prove the country. Niger has made the most progress in reducing child mortality. Niger has adopted the Institutional Data Impact Strengthening and Health Sector Support Project which has strengthened public health programs and reduced 4. Reducing Child Mortality child mortality. Niger has made the least progress in eradicating extreme poverty and hunger. Niger struggles as one of the poorest countries in the world, but they have adopted the poverty reduction strategy to improve conditions A. Immunization against measles Children 12-23 months (1990) 25% Positive of the people and help this goal be achieved. This strategy focuses on the development of rural areas and improving (1995) 40% access for the poor to social services such as schools, hospitals, offices, and more. Although Niger has struggled to (2007) 83% improve throughout the years, Niger continues to implement projects and plans to benefit the country and achieve the Millennium Development Goals. B. Mortality rate of children under the age of 5 (per 1,000) (1990) 304 Positive (2000) 230 (2007) 176 Progess being made: Nigeran Goverment has adopted Institutional Strengthening and Health Sector Support Millenium Development Goals Data Impact Project to strengthen major public health programs (Reproductive health, Malaria, nutrition, etc.) 1. Eradicating Extreme Poverty and Hunger 5. Improving Maternal Health A. Population below $1.25 a day (1995) 78% Positive (2007) 66% A. Morality rate per 100,000 livebirths (2007) 1,800 Negative B. Employment to Population Ratio Ages 15-24 (2007) 51% Neutral B. Adolescent birth rate per 1,000 women ages 15-19 (2000) 218 Positive C. Prevalence of Malnutrition, Children under 5 years old (2000) 43.6% Positive (2007) 157 (2007) 39.9% C. Births attended by skilled health staff (2000) 16% Positive Progess being made: Nigeran Goverment has adopted the poverty reduction strategy to improve conditions (2007) 33% of the people. Progess being made: Nigeran Goverment has adopted Institutional Strengthening and Health Sector Support Project to improve essential drugs and medical supplies. 2. Achieving Universal Primary Education 6. Combating Disease A. Literacy rate of females ages 15-24 (2007) 23% Negative B. Literacy rate of males ages 15-24 (2007) 52% Negative A. Prevalance of HIV both male and female (1990) 0.1% Negative (2007) 0.8% C. Primary Completion rate (1990) 16% Positive (2000) 18% B. Incidence of tubercalosis (per 100,00 people) (1990) 125 Negative (2007) 40% (2007) 174 Progess being made: Nigeran Goverment has adopted Basic Education Project to increase enrollment and Progess being made: Nigeran Goverment has adopted Multi-Sector STI/HIV/AIDS Support Project to slow the completion in basic education programs. spread, expand support, and care for infected. 3. Promoting Gender Equalitity 7. Ensuring Environmental Sustainability A. Ratio of females to males (2007) 71% Positive A. Access to an improved water source (2006) 42% Negative in primary and secondary B. Improved sanitation facilities (1990) 3% Negative education (1995) 5% B. Ratio of females to males primary enrollment (1990) 61% Positive (2007) 7% (2000) 69% C. CO2 emissions( metric tons) (2005) 0.1 Positive (2007) 75% Progess being made: Nigeran Goverment has adopted The Community Action Program Project for the mul- C. Ratio of females to males secondary enrollment (2007) 61% Neutral tiple global environmental benefits such as reduction of vulnerability to climate change and conservation of biodiversity and agro-biodiversity. No current progress is being made to reach the goal of gender equality.
  6. 6. Since gaining independence in 1960, citizens of Niger have had few political rights. In HUMAN RIGHTS Niger, there are many predicaments with human rights such as women’s issues, civil liberties, and children’s issues. A major problem for women in Niger is the growing population of woman having to undergo the procedure of FGM, which is removing parts of the female genitalia and sewing it closed. Domestic violence and social dis- crimination against women continue to be a serious problem. Another issue in Niger is child labor and prostitution. Child prostitution occurs often in Niger due to poverty and the desire for money or goods. Civil liberties and rights put citizens of Niger under governmental control and has taken away some of their natural rights. Children’s Issues A serious human rights issue in Niger is child prostitution. The main reason for this issue is poverty and the desire for money or goods. According to statistics, approxi- mately 60% of the population in Niger lives off a dollar or less a day. The children undergoing prostitution are in between the ages seven and fourteen and are mostly from poor families. In Niger, 65% of children, ages five to fourteen are involved in child labor. Children are forced to work in different fields of labor such as domestic services, prostitution and commercial labor. The children shine shoes, work as merchants, guard cars, and work as street beggars. Niger has also been said to be a main source of traf- ficking where children are sold to other countries for slavery, sexual abuse, and forced labor. Children are often forced to work rather than attend school especially during planting seasons. Statistics show only 34% of children are enrolled in primary school and 71% of the children were only able to reach grade 5. Children who have suffered child labor have lived with severe poverty, discrimination, the lack of protection, social exclusion, and educational opportunities. Woman’s Issues A major human rights issue for women is violence. Violence against women is com- mon especially within couples. 70% of women in Niger suffer from daily beatings and rape from their husbands, fathers, or brothers. Women do have the right to report physical abuse and violence to official courts but very little do because their fear of being a disgrace to society. Another issue for women is FGM, which stands for Female Genital Mutilation. Female Genital Mutilation is the process of removing all or part of the clitoris. This procedure was kept hidden until 1987. This procedure kept females from having sexual intercourse and caused women to stay a virgin until marriage. Af- ter the procedure was done, the vagina only consisted of two small openings for urine and the menstrual cycle. Reports show that only about 2.2% of females between the ages of fifteen and forty nine have had this procedure done since 2006 compared to 5.8% in 1998. Most women in Niger do not work although they have the right to work; only fewer than 7% of women do. Most women do not work because of their health and the need to care for their children. Women who worked would help in farming, childcare and water gathering. Civil Liberties Lastly, another human rights issue is civil liberties. Although citizens have some rights they are still under governmental control. The government allows women the right to buy and sell land, but most women don’t have access to any land. Most of the land in Niger is dry and desert, so the good fertile land that’s left is usually owned by the men. Niger allows freedom of religion. The most dominant religion in Niger is Islam. Niger citizens have freedom of assembly according to their constitution of 1999, but the government places restrictions on gatherings involving politics. Niger opposes free- dom of press and the government has tried to constrain it, but throughout the years newspapers and the radio have prospered. Radio has become an important public communication.
  7. 7. Many countries in Africa deal with environmental issues, but one country in particular is suffering from severe damage to its environment. In the country of Niger, there are many environmental issues occurring. Most of these issues are due to Niger being dependent on farming as the backbone of their economy. As Niger’s population increases, forest lands have been decreasing. Statistics indicate between the years of 1990 and 2005, Niger has lost almost half of its forest. Niger is currently suffering from overgrazing, soil erosion, deforestation, desertification, and threats to its wildlife populations. Overgrazing is where plants are fed upon by animals for a long period of time without a time of pause to re-grow, mainly caused by too many animals in a small area. Soil erosion is the washing away or removal of soil by the flow of water or strong winds. Deforestation is the process of clearing or removing forest lands for farming purposes and desertification is the change from habitable land to dry desert lands caused by severe climate change. ENVIRONMENTAL STATUS Causes of Environmental Issues In Niger, forested lands are suffering from desertification and soil erosion. Desertification is 40-60% caused by human activities such as abuse to land by cultivation or urbanization, severe droughts or rainfall, and overgrazing. Soil erosion is mainly caused by strong winds during dry winter seasons in Niger. These strong winds, called Harmattan also con- tribute to the cause of desertification and overgrazed land. One of Niger’s biggest environmental issues is Deforesta- tion. The average annual deforestation rate is 3.17%. Between the years of 1990 and 2005, Niger has lost 34.9% of its forestlands due to deforestation. Deforestation is becoming a huge problem for Niger because it is caused by human activities such as the need for land to farm, and as the population growth in Niger increases, the deforestation also increases and destroys the forests and trees. As the population growth continues to increase, the demands for forest goods and food also increases causing farmers to remove more forest land. Deforestation is also a huge cause of desertification because clearing Niger’s forestlands leaves more dry deserted lands. Species of Animals and Plants Niger has a population of 684 species of animals, approximately 40 of them being endangered. There are 131 mam- mals, 493 birds, and 58 reptiles. There are also 1,460 different types of plants. In Niger there are many endangered species such as the addax, dama gazelle, slender horned gazelle, and wild dogs but the most endangered species are the Niger giraffes. Due to severe droughts, habitat loss, farmland conversions, food scarcity, and hunting, giraffe popu- lations in Niger have dramatically declined. Ten years ago, giraffes had a population of 140,000 but it has dramatically decreased to 100,000 due to poaching and desertification. According to statistics today, it is said that giraffes are mak- ing a comeback and populations have been expanding 12% each year. Water Quality in Niger Death rates are increasing in Niger due to poor hygiene and sanitation. In Niger, having access to safe drinking water is nearly impossible. Less than 45% of Niger’s population has access to a clean water source. Every day, women and children struggle to find clean water for their families to drink. When women or children do have access to a wa- ter source such as ponds or lakes, the water is often contaminated and contain waterborne diseases. Waterborne diseases have killed over 20% of children below the age of five. Since 1970, Niger has experienced severe droughts that have affected water resources. The Niger River, which is the main water source for the people has been greatly affected by the severe droughts causing the annual inflow to decrease by 30% since 1970.
  8. 8. RESOURCE MAP
  9. 9. DESCRIPTION OF NEED The country of Niger is known as one of the poorest countries in the world with more than half of its population living under a dollar a day. Niger suffers from issues regarding the environment, women’s rights, children’s rights, education, and diseases. All of these issues are caused and perpetuated by the extremely high poverty occurring in Niger. Poverty has severely destroyed Niger’s environment. Niger suffers from deforestation due to farmers needing land to harvest food which has left over half of the country as wasteland. Due to the environmental issues Niger experiences, a clean water source is very difficult to find. The water in Niger is usually contaminated and has caused diseases which led to many deaths of children. Poverty has highly affected both women and children. Women are un- able to go to school due to the need to care for their children and social discrimination. A serious issue due to poverty and the desire for Poverty effects on Children money or goods is child prostitution and child labor. These two issues have also limited children’s opportunities in education. People of Due to poverty, children have suffered in order to get money. Child trafficking and prostitution is common in Niger. Children have also Niger have little access to schools and a shortage of teachers. All of these severe issues are caused by poverty and continue to increase undergone other types of child labor such as shining shoes, guarding cars, and working as street beggars. Children are also forced to because of the cycle of people being malnourished, making people less productive and the economy continuing to decrease. In order work in commercial labor, prostitution, and domestic services. Poverty has driven children to be physically and emotionally beaten. to help Niger become a better community, Niger needs to increase financially to create a stable environment for all citizens. If poverty Children are often forced to work rather than attend school, so most children are not educated. If Niger’s economy grew, children could levels decrease, all of these issues become less severe and help the community as a whole to live in a better, more stable environment. leave this lifestyle and go back to school to educate themselves. This could increase the enrollment in schools and completion rates. Poverty effects on Women Poverty effects on education 63% of Niger’s population lives below the poverty level, with women being two-thirds of this population. Due to the severe poverty in Education in Niger is very poor. Niger is said to have one of the lowest literacy rates in the world. Most women and children are not Niger, women are unable to go to school because of the social discrimination occurring. According to statistics, men are more likely to being educated due to the effects of poverty. Most citizens who complete school are men. Niger citizens have poor access to schools complete their education than women because women get married at the early age of 15 and need to care for their children. Only 15% and a shortage of teachers due to lack of money. Statistics shows only 29% of primary school-age children obtain an education. Many of women are able to read and write compared to 43% of men. Poverty has caused women to contract diseases such as HIV and AIDS children and women do not attend school because they are suffering from diseases their body can’t fight off which makes them very due to unsanitized tools used in the procedure of female genital mutilation. Most women are malnourished and have suffered from wa- weak. If Niger’s economy grew there could possibly be better supplies, a better school environment, and more teachers teaching. More terborne diseases. If Niger’s economy grew, women could finally attend schools and have an education and the population of women citizens would be educated about their rights and possibly help the country by using their knowledge. battling diseases could decrease rapidly leading to less deaths. Poverty effects on diseases Poverty effects on the Environment In Niger, there are many diseases that are killing people every day. In 2006, there were said to be 614 cases of meningococcal disease Niger’s environment suffers from many severe problems such as overgrazing, soil erosion, deforestation, and desertification. Most of and 44 deaths. In Niger, meningococcal was caused by dusty weather conditions, close contact with people, and the lack of sanitation. these problems are caused by human activities such as farming and abuses to land by cultivation and urbanization. Between the years Almost a quarter of Niger citizens suffer from the disease, bilharzias. Bilharzias are caused by bathing in water contaminated with urine. of 1990 and 2005, Niger has lost 34.9% of its forest cover. Due to poverty, farmers have been clearing forest land in order to harvest 13.4 million people in Niger suffer from schistosomiasis, a parasitic skin infection. This disease was caused by poor sanitation, housing, goods to sell. More than half of Niger is wasteland because of the dry deserted area that had been cleared away. Droughts and severe and water supply. The risk of being infected by a disease in Niger is very high since most diseases are spreadable through contact. There climate change have also caused these lands to dry up. Most of Niger’s population lives in Southern Niger because it has few trees, a is a high population of malnourishment in Niger. When the body is malnourished, it can’t fight diseases, which make the body sicker marketplace, and a river. This population growth in the capital of Niamey has caused more deforestation to occur slowly turning the and less productive. This is the main reason children or women don’t go to school or work, because their body is too exhausted and economy worse than it had been. If the economy grew, Niger’s environment could make a drastic recovery. Forest cover and planta- weak from diseases. Hospitals in Niger are not very effective at treating all the diseases. Therefore, if the economy grows, Niger could tions could slowly rise again and food production could increase leaving fewer citizens starving and malnourished. Statistics show at build a hospital with professional doctors able to help people diagnosed with diseases. This could help prevent diseases from spreading least 2.5 million people don’t have enough to eat and 80,000 children are at risk of becoming severely malnourished in Niger. and decrease the death rate in Niger.
  10. 10. PROJECT PROPOSAL Due to the severe poverty crisis occurring in Niger, im- mediate relief is needed. One main issue that contributes to this conflict is the lack of clean water in Niger. We have proposed a plan that will provide immediate relief and long term positive effects to help Niger recover from the severe effects poverty has caused. In order to help poverty, we have created a plan that will improve the Where to begin amount of clean water sources and availability in Niger. The capital of Niger is Niamey, located south near the Niger River. Most of Niger’s population lives in Niamey or To supply immediate relief, we will go to every village surrounding villages because the Niger River is the only water source they have access to. Our project begins here, and give as many citizens a life straw, which will allow where we will give out life straws and install the solar powered water pumps in the wells of the villages. Fellow citi- them to have access to clean water wherever a water zens living in Niamey will be able to access clean water without having to walk far and spending 3 hours working to source is found. The life straw is a portable water filter get the water. that will last approximately a year. During that year we will also be installing solar powered water pumps in The Life Straw local wells to allow every village access to safe drinking The life straw is a portable water purification tool that cleans surface water so it is safe for people to drink. The life water for many years. Although villages will have access straw is a plastic pipe filter that removes impurities, chemicals, and bacteria that could cause waterborne diseases. In to clean water, citizens living along the Niger river won’t. the country of Niger, many people need to travel far distances to find a clean water source. By providing each citizen We will then install a water purification machine along with a Life straw, people could easily access clean water wherever they go. Niger has many wells filled with dirty the Niger River that takes in water and purifies it without contaminated water; by using the life straw citizens could easily drink from wells close to the village or drink from the using electricity, which will help people living along the biggest water source, the Niger river. The life straw is a simple device that anyone could use, every day. It is low cost river who don’t have access to village wells. The creation and research shows it cleans 99.999% of waterborne bacteria and 98% of waterborne viruses. Providing citizens with of these projects will benefit all of Niger’s citizens by pro- a life straw will supply immediate relief and access to clean drinking water. The life straw will support Niger citizens viding cleaner water to save time, labor, health, and the for about a year while the construction of solar powered water pumps are being made, giving them more access to environment. Many villages in Niger do not have access water. to a clean water source which has caused many water- borne diseases and deaths at a young age. Children, who Solar powered water pumps fetch water for their families must travel far to local wells, Solar powered water pumps are used for pumping water for drinking water, livestock, crop irrigation and water sup- and this has caused children to work more than they go ply. The goal of this project is to ensure that Niger families are able to access clean water without having to walk long to school. Many children are not able to go to school distances or working 3 hours in order to get water from the well manually. By installing solar powered water pumps, because they are either too sick from the contaminated Niger wells will automatically pump clean water from the bottom of the wells up to the top in order for women and water or too busy spending hours fetching water for children to easily scoop out the amount of water they need. This water pump is solar powered, it works using energy their families. Due to the lack of water for farming, from the sun. Niger weather consists of sun and clouds daily which will allow these water pumps to work. There are Niger’s environment has been from suffering deforesta- not many wells in the villages of Niger we will build more in surrounding villages to ensure that the whole communi- tion, overgrazing, desertification, and soil erosion. ty will be benefitted. By digging boreholes we will be able to create more wells. Installing these solar powered water pumps into village wells will supply immediate relief to Niger civilians by providing clean water in every village pos- sible and to every family possible. This project will be put into action by providing Niger with the solar water pumps, which are easy to install and use. We will install solar powered water pumps into villages to support an estimated population of 774 thousand citizens living in Niamey. Water Purification Machine The solar powered water pumps will give villagers access to clean water, but people living along the Niger river won’t benefit as much. By installing water purification machines such as the Villager, near the Niger River, more people can have access to clean water. The water purification machine is put near a water source, where it then sucks up the water and runs it through a filter and ultraviolet light disinfection process. The carbon block filtration removes dirty tastes and odors, so the water could be clean and safe to drink. Then the water is transported back into a tank that people can get water from. The water purification machine is a simple filtration machine powered by a solar panel. It is able to pump water 12 gallons a minute which can provide for families and farming. Several will be set up along the Niger River to support the population of approximately three million people who use the Niger River as their water source.
  11. 11. IMPACT ANALYSIS By providing every citizen with a life straw, installing solar powered water pumps into village wells and placing water purification machines near the Niger River, our group will impact the daily lives of Niger citizens by providing Niger Positives Negatives with clean accessible water. This will benefit the environment by increasing crop plantations and farming by provid- ing clean water for good fertile land and plants to grow. During rainy seasons, plantation in Niger increases, but Niger is suffering severe droughts which have effected plant growth. The conditions of the land is very dry, but providing •Villagers can access clean water easily. •The filter could fail adding to the diseases instead of reduc- clean water will result in more moisture in the land for plantations to grow, increasing forest cover in Niger. Women ing them •Impacts environment by providing clean water for and children will no longer have to travel far to gather water for their families. This will save time and work for the citi- crops •The filters will have some sort of build up and it could pile zens of Niger and give them more time for education and jobs, increasing annual income and enrollment in schools. Having cleaner water will decrease the population of citizens suffering waterborne diseases ultimately leading to a up without proper cleaning on a regular basis. •Less water borne diseases decrease in the death rate. Our projects will help purify the water so there will be less people suffering from diseases and less people dying because of them. • Life straws can increase consumption of contaminated •Women and children spend less time gathering water if filters are not strong enough to remove bacteria and water for their families and will have more produc- diseases. Although there are many positive impacts our projects have on the country of Niger, there are negative ones as well. tive time for school Some of the negative impacts our projects can result in are dirt build up. If our pumps, pipes or filters are not cleaned on a regular basis, dirt will build up in them and possibly contaminate the water making it not useable. Also, if by mistake, the filters, pipes or pumps are not put together correctly, they could fail later on and stop cleaning the water which could lead to more water borne diseases. People could think the water is clean and drink more often, giving them a higher risk of disease. We will make sure to use the best, most durable pipes, pumps and filters so this doesn’t happen, and we will make sure we maintain everything clean so nothing goes wrong.
  12. 12. PROJECT IMPLEMENTATION Short Term: The Life Straw August 2010: -Present our plan with organization members and discuss its benefits. -Meeting with organization members to discuss the amount of Life Straws we need and purchase them. September 2010: -Begin visiting villages and educating people on the purpose of the Life Straw and how to use it properly. -Distribute Life Straws to every citizen of Niger Long Term: Solar Power Water Pumps September 2010: -Meeting with organization members to discuss the locations of villages in need of wells and placement of water pumps. -Purchase all the needed materials; solar pumps, solar panels, piping and water tanks. October 2010: -Install solar panels and attach them to pumps through piping underground. January 2011: -Install filtration systems into water tanks located underground in pipes. March 2011: - Test water supply and purification results. - Once tested clean, allow citizens access to wells. - Collect data on effectiveness of having solar powered water pumps June 2011: -Build more wells in villages in need. Long Term: The Water Purification Machine June 2011 - Meeting with organization members to discuss the placement of the machine and purchase. July 2011 - Place water purification machines near Niger River, one every 10 miles. - Test out for effective results of purification of the Niger River.

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