Chad:                      Alfonso Camacho
                           Qua’Tasia Williams
Executive Summary
Chad has many environmental and social problems. To fix these, we must provide the necessities of life b...
                                                       In 1965 the government of Chad Tombalbaye was
Timeline                     Chad Timeline                                                                         2006 Ma...
Millenium Development Goals

 Eradicating poverty and                  Population living below      Oil pipelines are unde...
Human Rights
         There are many major human rights in Chad.
These problems are physical abuse to women 
children, for...
The	environment	in	Chad	is	in	terrible	condition.	Chad	has	unclean	water,	terrible	air	quality,	deforestation,	

Date: November 18, 2004                                                                                                   ...
Description of Need

Project Proposal                                                                                                          ...
Impact Analysis                                                                                                        tha...
Project Implementation
Year # 1: In the firsr year our goal is to find the water sources underground and create the bluepr...
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Chad Country Plan


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Chad Country Plan

  1. 1. Chad: Alfonso Camacho Qua’Tasia Williams Samuel Mendez Country Development Plan Gabriela Meza
  2. 2. Executive Summary Chad has many environmental and social problems. To fix these, we must provide the necessities of life before anything else. Cleaner water is the most important necessity, a cleaner environment is a necessity. SWIS will aim to make these dreams a reality for the refugee camps inside of Chad. We are targeting a refugee camp because they are over populated and unsanitary. We are specifically targeting Breijding because the camp has 32 thousand people and is packed in to a small land space. The only shelter they have are tents. They have no access to a cleaner water source. Their waste is not disposed of correctly, creating an unsanitary and unsuitable environment for any human inhabitants. These Unsanitary actions along with the overpopulated camp creates an environment for waterborne and airborne diseases to thrive. These diseases are deadly with no medical treatment, Brei- djing has no medical treatment. Diarrhea for example causes people to be dehydrated, so those people with Diarrhea drink more water because they have no other choice but it causes them to become ill because the water is unsanitary. SWIS will change the environment and save lives by creating a cleaner water source. The project SWIS proposes to do is to build 5 wells in the 1200ft by 600ft refugee camp that is Breidjing. One in the the center and others 100 yards Northeast, Southeast, Southwest, and Northwest of the central well. From those five wells we will have PVC pipes running from the wells so other people farther from the wells will have much easier access to the water. We will create the wells by highering some of the refugee inhabitants so they will have a feeling of responsi- bility and ownership for the wells. We will also be teaching them how to clean the pipes with cholrine and bleach to keep the water sanitary. After Building the wells the refugee camps will become a more civilized and clean environment. We hope to see other chad inhabitants adopt our well constructions and create their own wells in their towns and camps.
  3. 3. History In 1965 the government of Chad Tombalbaye was overthrown and killed. He was overthrowned and The name Chad was derived from designation of killed because he banned opposition parties and the great lake Chad. Which original name was Kuri. made a one party system.Tombalabye was over- Chad is a country that ia located in central, north- thrown by the Chadians. Libya was involved in ern africa. Chad has a lake located in the south. Chad’s civil war. Chad was in civil war because the Lake Chad is the largest wetland in the country French troops that was in N’Djanmena didnt come and the second largest wetland in Africa. Chad has to an agreement.Libya invaded Chad before they 200 different ethnic groups. In Chad Arabic and signed a symbol of peace in 1990. The rebellion French are the most fluent language. People who that broke out in Chad in 1998 cause problems live in Chad are able to pratice any religion. Islam witht he peace agreement and the rebels. The and Christianity are the most practiced religion. 7000 years ago the region wasnt arid. Chad didn’t exist before the French conquest of 1900, but was an area of important state formation. The Islams arrived in 1085.Before Chad was imperialised it had cave paintings everywhere. It also had alot of animals such as elephant, rhinoccroses, giraffes, and camels. Around Chad people lived and farmed around the shores of the lake, in the north central basin of the Sahara. In 1883 to 1893 the Sudanese adventurer Rabin Zubayr conquered 3 kingdoms which were Qua- dai, Baguirni and Kanem-bornu.Those 3 kingdoms were grouped together and put into this one area. The area that the kingdoms were put in is now called Chad. After that happen the french came and they defeated Zubayr army. This is when there plan to conqure chad has been completed. Chad had became a french overseas territory with its own territorial parliament and representation in the French National Assembly. Chad was offically conqured by France during the territory grab in 1920. Chad was imperialized by France because the French wanted to compete with Great Britain. But that isnt the only reason France conquered Chad, they also had a long- standing interest in the countries that were board- ing the Mediterranean Sea. The French sent troops to Chad so they can protect there territory. The French needed to protect their territory from the attacks of Sudan. The president of Chad, Francois Toombalbaye was forced by France to sign an co- operation document. This document gave France the power to build a military base in Chad. France sent over 1000 troops to Chad to defend the impe- rialist interest. Chad gained independence on August 11, 1960. Chad was a very poor country.
  4. 4. Timeline Chad Timeline 2006 May - President Deby is declared the winner of presidential elections. The main opposition parties boycott the poll. •1883-1893 - Sudanese adventurer Rabih al-Zubayr conquers Chad. 2006 January-June - Thousands of refugees flee eastern areas as marauding Arab Janjaweed militia from •1900 - France defeats al-Zubayr’s army. Sudan’s Darfur region penetrate deeper into Chad. 1913 - French conquest of Chad completed. Chad becomes a French colony. 2006 November - State of emergency imposed in eastern areas bordering Sudan’s Darfur region after a spate of ethnic violence. •1960 - Chad becomes independent with a southern Christian, Francois - later Ngarta - Tombalbaye, as presi- dent. 2006 December - Private newspapers stop publishing and several radio stations alter their programming to protest against state censorship under the state of emergency. •1963 - The banning of political parties triggers violent opposition in the Muslim north. 2007 February - UN refugee agency warns that violence against civilians in Chad could turn into a genocide. •1966 - Northern revolt develops into a fully-fledged guerrilla war. 2007 May - Chad and Sudan agree to stop conflict spilling across their borders but critics fear the agreement is •1973 - French troops help put down the northern revolt, but Frolinat continues guerrilla operations through- unlikely to reduce the violence. out the 1970s and 1980s with the help of weapons supplied by Libya. 2007 September - UN Security Council authorises a UN-European Union peacekeeping force to protect civilians •1979 - Malloum forced to flee the country; a coalition government headed by a Muslim northerner, Goukouni from violence spilling over from Darfur in neighbouring Sudan. Oueddei, assumes power. •1980 - Libya sends in troops to support Oueddei in his fight against the Army of the North, led by a former 2008 February - Rebel offensive reaches the streets of N’Djamena, coming close to the presidential palace; prime minister, Hissene Habre. France sends extra troops. Rebels are repulsed in fighting that leaves more than 100 dead. •1981 - Libyan troops withdraw at Oueddei’s request. 2008 March - The presidents of Chad and Sudan sign an accord in Senegal aimed at halting five years of hostili- ties between the two countries. First democratic elections 2008 May - Violence between Chadian and Sudanese militias flares up, leading to Sudan cutting diplomatic •1996 - Deby wins Chad’s first multi-party presidential election. relations and Chad responding by closing its border and cutting economic ties. •2001 - Deby declared winner in controversial presidential poll. 2008 July - Security forces say they killed more than 70 followers of Muslim spiritual leader Ahmat Israel Bichara, who had threatened to launch a holy war, in fighting in southeast Chad. 2002 January - Government and Movement for Democracy and Justice in Chad (MDJT) rebels sign Libyan-bro- kered peace deal intended to end three-year civil war. 2009 January - Eight rebel groups unite to form new rebel alliance, the Union of Resistance Forces (UFR), with Rally of Democratic Forces leader Timan Erdimi as its leader. Darfur impact 2009 May - UN Security Council condemns a major anti-government rebel offensive in the east. 2004 January-February - Thousands of Sudanese refugees arrive in Chad to escape fighting in Darfur region of western Sudan. 2009 November - UN accuses Dudan of supporting URF rebels in Chad with arms and ammunition. 2004 April-May - Chadian troops clash with pro-Sudanese government militias as fighting in Sudan’s Darfur Six international aid groups, including the International Red Cross, suspend work in eastern Chad, citing risk of region spills over the border. their staff being abducted or killed 2005 December - Rebels attack the town of Adre, near the Sudanese border. Chad accuses Sudan of being be- 2010 March - Chad agrees to let UN peacekeeping force (Minurcat) to stay on for two months beyond the end hind the incident. of its mandate in mid-March, despite repeated criticism of its performance. 2006 April - Rebels seeking to oust President Deby battle government forces on the outskirts of the capital. Hundreds of people are killed. Chad cuts diplomatic ties with Sudan, accusing it of backing the rebels.
  5. 5. Millenium Development Goals Eradicating poverty and Population living below Oil pipelines are under hunger $1. a day in 000 : % construction to improve economy Prevalence of malnutririon in 000: % of children under five Achieving Universal primary education Primary school comple- PARSET is a project to tion rate in 000: 1% achieve basic education and advance technology in schools Promoting gender equality Ratio of girls to boys in Nothing is currently being primary and secondary done in this issue. educationin 000: Reducing child mortality Under- Five mortality rate The MOPH is helping to in 000: 1% provide clean food and Immunization against water and to teach medi- measles ( 1 - years of cal services. age) in 000: % Improving maternal health Maternal mortality rate inThe MOPH has begun to 000: 1.% teach medical approach- Adolescent birth rate of es and process for child women ages 1-1 in 000: birth and labor. 1.% Ensuring environmental sustainability. Percentage of people The GEF is working to who have access to an inform the community of improved water source: the problems and is help- % ing to manage irrigational projects and systems Combating disease Prevalence of HIV (peo- The AIDS control project ple ages (1-): .% is controlling the spread Percentage of people with by changing the behavior tuberculosis: 0% of the people and by pro moting the use of con- doms
  6. 6. Human Rights There are many major human rights in Chad. These problems are physical abuse to women children, forcing children to work for no money, and FGM in women. The problems are neverending. The refugees of Sudan are a major problem in Chad. The 3 major problems in Chad are womens issues, childrens issues, and problems of Sudanese refugees. There are many problems that happen in Chad with these issues being a part of the daily lives of these people. Womens issues are one of the biggest prob- lems in Chad. Women have a process of FGM that are mainly forced upon them. They go through this at a young age. FGM stands for female genital mutila- tion. This means that the women’s genitals are exter- nally taken out, or partially taken out, and sown shut. Women undergo this horrible action any time from just after birth to some time during the first pregnancy. Although most cases occur between the ages of four and eight. Most of the time this procedure is done with out the care of medically trained people, due to poverty and lack of medical facilities in Chad, and the use of anesthesia is rare. This means the girl has to be awake during the whole process. The girl is held down by the older women to prevent her from moving beg for food, forced to do labor, but most of all for sexual exploitation. around. As high as 60% of women have this violation done to them. In Chad it is a normal process. Women in In Chad the refugee’s from Sudan come into Chad and cause a lot Chad can’t even go to the store alone. They must be ac- of problems. They take over many villages in Chad, and take children to compined by their husband, but if their husband is not make them become their own soldiers. They rape the women they find at there, the woman’s son must go with her. Most women the villages. The refugee’s kill many people in Chad. There was many abuses and girls in Chad are subject to rape and other forms to Chad including killing, abducting, injuring, and raping civilians; use of of violence both inside and outside refugee camps. child soldiers; and attacks against humanitarian workers. Outside the camps, they face a range of abuses from the consent of their parents, and are forced to work as harassment and threats, to physical attacks, rape and a soldier. Education for girls is more limited than for other forms of violence. Some women are even raped the boys. Most children don’t even attend secondary by their own family members. The men who do these school. Fewer girls go to school than boys. Children violent acts are rarely ever brought to justice. Women who attended certain Islamic schools are often forced do not have equal rights of education and training so it to beg for food and money. Childen are often abused is harder for them to get regular jobs. by teachers. Girls are forced to get married between the ages of 11-12 years old. Armed bandits kidnap There are many issues for children in Chad. boys to make them a part of their military. Many From boys being forced to be soldiers to girls being children are trafficked to work and forced into sexual raped. Boys in Chad are sold a lot to work for adults exploitation. Children are often sold to be servents, and into military service. Boys are mostly sold under 10 11
  7. 7. The environment in Chad is in terrible condition. Chad has unclean water, terrible air quality, deforestation, Environmental Status pollution and animals are becoming extinct. The Chadian’s live their life like this on a daily basis. The water quality is bad not only because of the fact that they don’t have enough, but also because they aren’t getting rid of the waste right way. Since they don’t get rid of waste properly, it leads to having bad soil and water pol- lution, so fish are dying. Getting fresh water is a major problem in Chad. Water is effected by salination. The percentage of drinking water that is safe to drink is very low. Approximately 31% of urban dwellers and 26% of people other towns have access to clean water. Since there isn’t enough water in Chad the other prob- lems are droughts and how lands plagued by salt water. In Chad there are also waterborne diseases. These diseases corrupt the function in the liver and is spread by the waste of the unsanitary water that is in Chad. Waterborne in this case was caused by the after armed attacks. There’s about 28,000 Chadians in the eastern towns affected by it. There are many animals in Chad that are being eliminated or becoming more vulnerable due to the fact of deforestation and poaching. Animals are being killed illegally which causes them to became threat- ened species. There are five types of birds, twelve mammals, and eighteen reptiles that about to be extinct. Chad loses about 79,300 hectares of the forest per year. The rate of deforestation is about 0.60% in five years. Chad also lost 9.1% of the forest and woodland habitat. The natural resources that they have are gold, lime- stone, sand and gravel, salt, fish, and kaolin. On a deeper level, Chad is losing water and there seems to be more sand everywhere. It’s inhumane about what is going on in Chad’s environment. 1 1
  8. 8. Date: November 18, 2004 UNCLASSIFIED 21°E Geography 22°E 23°E 24°E 25°E 26°E 27°E Names and boundary information are not necessarily authoritative. CHAD SUDAN 16°N CHAD C.A.R. ETHIOPIA 16°N 21,547 Refugees Oure Cassoni Bahay 15,120 Refugees Iridimi Umm Berro Iriba Karnoi 16,265 Refugees Maliha 15°N Touloum Tine 15°N SUDAN 11,246 Refugees 13,529 Refugees Amna Bak Mille Guereda Gharb Darfur El Dur Sanihaya Areida Koulbous (Western Darfur) Abdel Shakor Eleikersha 11,960 Refugees Kounoungo Porsaeed Seyah Hillilat Damrt Elsheikh Bali Kutum Um Sayala Am Zoer Umajaja Taziriba Fata Barno Mellit Al Sharef Seleya Bin Hussein Masry Daba Toga 14°N Goroumba 14°N Jabel Moon Abu Souroug Korma 18,119 Refugees Sirba Sandada Garah Fargwiya Kebkabiya Shamal Darfur Farchana Abou Goulem Kundobe Birkasaira Abushouk Kungara (Northern Darfur) AL JUNAYNAH Riyad EL FASHER Breidjing Serif Omra Abughusoon Tawilla Zam Zam 32,212 Refugees Adre Kerenik Mailo Um Burongga Barde Treguine Um Tagouk Rokero Ardamata Masteri Camp Sisi Abata Kanvo Azoum Gulu Haraza Gorno Guldo Shangil Tobayi 13°N 13°N Murnei Nertete Korei Thur Mellam Mershing Nyama Zalingei Hashaba Beida Habuba Manawashi Tanako Gemeiza Korma Kirwa Korole Ararah Habilah Dibis Limo Mangarsa Deleij Kass Garsila Yara Duma 16,819 Refugees Um Kher Singita Djabal Shataya Taisha Goz Beida Foro Burunga Guba Mukjar Degoussa NYALA Goz Amer Kalma Muhajuria Um Labasa 12°N 12°N Intifida Bilal Bendesi 18,855 Refugees Artala Kubum Janub Darfur Abu Ajura (Southern Darfur) Abu Karinka Yassin Sanam Ed Daein Safia El Naga El Ferdous Khor Omar Rehed al Berdi Abu Sellala Joghana Um Dukhan Tulus Gereida 11°N 11°N Buram 10°N Department of State 10°N 202-203-7789 21°E 22°E 23°E 24°E 25°E 26°E 27°E UNCLASSIFIED 0 25 50 100 Kilometers 1 1
  9. 9. Description of Need Water sources are not only to satisfy the thirst of the people, having water will benefit the people in so many ways. By having more water people will also have more food because they will be able to produce crops. They will also have a more stable economy because they will be able to grow cash crops and they won’t have to rely on and full of water-borne diseases. Only 40% of Chad’s rainfall. Families will be financially secure. There Chad has many problems within the country, including population has access to a cleaner water source. The is also conflict for natural resources when there poverty, hunger, diseases, and environmental prob- lakes and rivers that run through chad are drying up are very little resources but if we distribute water lems. Above all other problems, the most dire and in or have already dried up. Lake Chad, the biggest lake we will eliminate conflict for water as a resource. need of attention is the lack of clean water resources. in Chad is now only 5% of it’s original size. Serious With cleaner water we can also eliminate diseases The absence of water plays a major role in many of droughts are a very important aspect of why water and stop them from spreading. Unicef has done the country’s problems. However we can improve is a scarce resource for many people. Another reason research which shows that only 9% of people in conditions in Chad by providing the ability to access a why people have no access to clean drinking water Chad have access to improved sanitation facilities. cleaner water source for the people. Before anything is because of the Darfur region across the border of Diarrhea is a major cause of death for children in else can be helped in Chad, people need to have the Sudan and Chad. People who lived near the Darfur Chad. Diarrhea is a water-borne disease which basics in order to survive. Water is the most basic yet region in Chad are now fleeing because of attacks and actually causes dehydration and kills the victim or most important and fundamental resource for the raids on their towns and villages. This migration to host of the virus if not properly treated. By sim- social and economic infrastructure of Chad. the west is causing other villages and towns to share ply helping to distribute and clean water we can resources with too many people. The environment and eradicate many problems in chad. Not all people in Chad have access to clean the society cannot cope or function well with so many water. In fact most people have no access to water at people in one area. Many villages are expanding ten- all for miles, they have to walk for hours in order to get fold. There is not enough water in such a small region water. The water they have access to is brown water to quench so many people’s thirst. 1 1
  10. 10. Project Proposal each direction from each well. This will provide more locations for the people of Chad to obtain a clean water source. SWIS is mostly targeted at small remote cities. Breidjing is a great Clean water is a huge necessity in Chad and place to start our project. It is located that’s exactly what they don’t have. Breidjing is a nearby a great groundwater supply. great refugee camp to target for out project. Our The wells will give these human be project called, SWIS (Sanitary Water Is Standard) ings a chance on life to have clean has been created to change that. It will address healthy water. Allthough the location the unsanitary water and attempt to create clean is small, there are thousands of refu- water sources. gees living here that need water. We propose to give them a chance in life. SWIS will create ground water wells so people Many people of Chad never have a will be able to retrieve clean, healthy water. The choice on having clean water. On the wells will be inside of the village or cities,usually otherhand, SWIS aims to give them a towards the center to create easy access to all choice. people living in the area. The wells will also be hand-pumped so people will always be able to operate the wells and they won’t be so complex that the citizens won’t be able to use it. SWIS will have a community based employment system meaning we will employ people from the com- munity to help construct the wells. We choose to employ members of the community not only to lower expenses but to make the people feel like the well is actually their’s and it will create a sense of responsibility for the well among the commu- nity. SWIS will also build the wells out of compos- ite materials like adobe, stone, wood and other materials that are easily made or acquired by the community. By creating the wells out of these materials, the community will be able to repair and sustain the wells by themselves. The wells are not only for drinking water but clean water for washing clothes or cooking as well. We know how important water is for society and our goal is to give the cities and villages who are in dire need of water, access to it whenever and for what ever purpose they may have. We will start this project in Breidjing, Chad. There is a great groundwater source around Breidjing. A refugee camp in Chad. All the refugees have came from Sudan. The population in this camp is about 32,212. The wells we will be creating will be tested daily. It goes through a process in the well that clears the water of contamination and bacteria. This process will happen everytime new water comes through the well for the people of Breidjing. To clean the wells it takes a process of a couple days. It’s a fairly simple process that the people of Breidjing can easily learn. All it takes in chlorine and bleach. We will construct wells approximately 300 feet Northeast, Southwest, Northwest and Southeast of the main well in the center of Breidjing. From these wells we will be running PVC pipelines approximately 40 ft in 1 1
  11. 11. Impact Analysis than it would destroy because people would need to maintain the wells. People would also be paid to build wells in surrounding areas. One positive impact would be the death rate for dehydration plummeting. Another effect would be decreasing the number of deaths because of diarrhea . Sanitary water would also improve all sanitation around the overpopulated cities and villages. Easy access to water would also mean that water would be used more often, creat- ing a clean environment and cleaner homes and clothes. More water also means more agriculture meaning that the economy would be more stable because of irrigation and the ability to control the amount of water used to grow cash crops. Not only could the people grow cash crops but other crops too, decreasing the malnutrition and hunger-related death rates. The wells and pipeline systems we create will only serve the community around it, however by teaching the construction, maintenance and water sanitation processes used, people would begin to create and develop their own wells and plans for other cities and villages. Most of Chad’s population has no access to a clean water source. Our goal is to change that but like any other action taken there are impacts and effects from those actions whether positive or negative. SWIS will mostly have positive effects however, this plan effects so many people that it could have a negative side. There are very minimal negative effects. An effect being that whoever supplied the little water being re- ceived by the people would be out of a job. Another possible negative effect could be that the project could bring more refugees in to Chad. They might be encouraged to stay because of the new water source and better living con- ditions, however we hope to see people leaving Chad to go back to Sudan throughout the coming years after issues in Darfur are resolved and after There would be many positive impacts upon completing SWIS’s goal. SWIS would actually create more jobs 0 1
  12. 12. Project Implementation Year # 1: In the firsr year our goal is to find the water sources underground and create the blueprints in order to begin building by the second year. The water sources will be the foundation of a well and a pipeline system. Year # 2: In the second year we’d like to have built wells for the people in the refugee camps. We will higher people from the refugee camps in order to build these wells. By hiring the inhabitants of the refugee camps they will have a sense of responsibility and aprreciation for the wells. We will also teach them how the wells are being built so they will have the knowledge and know-how to build them if necessary. We also hope the knowledge on building them will spread to other refugee camps. Year # 3: During the third year our goal will be to build a pipeline system connecting to the wells in order to distribute the water without building more wells ( the blueprints for the system will be made during the first year). The system will serve as a sanitary water source for any purpose including irrigation and sanitation. Year # 4: During year 4 we want to teach people in the refugee camps to maintain the wells in order to keep them functional and sanitary. We will teach them the process of cleaning the water by using cholrine and filtering the water, Year # 5: During the fifth year we’d like to see other refugee camps beginning to build their own wells by seeing the benefits of having cleaner water source. The project will influence other refugee camps to build wells and through that they camps will become much more sanitary and have better living conditions. By the tenth year We want to drastically improve the “access to a cleaner water source” percentage. We want to and plan to meet the millenium development goals inside the refugee camps.