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Zambia Country Plan


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Original work and design created by 10th grade DSA students as part of the 'Legacy of Imperialism' Project.

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Zambia Country Plan

  1. 1. Executive Summary Zambia is facing many crises right now, such as HIV To help Zambia, we are thinking of building a trade One of the most industrialized countries in Africa and AIDS, financial crisis, unemployment, poverty and school to teach basic education for adults. Help edu- is Zambia. It’s located in Southern Africa, east of hunger issues. Zambia is expensive and its produc- cate children and adults on basic skills. Such as read- Angola. Most of Zambia is high plateau with a flat tivity is low triggered by poor infrastructure, limited ing, writing and math for the children. And improving or gently undulating terrain with tropical weath- energy and equally limited credit supply. All this Zambia’s infrastructure. We are trying to get adults ers. In the east and northeast, the country rises to a limits job and income creation and further economic active to learn the basic types of skills like architect, plateau about 3,937ft high, covered by Savannah, growth, which in turn hinders the fight against pov- mechanics, electrician etc. so they can pass down small trees, grassy plains or marshland. The popula- erty. Zambia has experienced a sharp decline, a crush, their knowledge to other people. Our aim is to help tion was estimated at about 10 million in 2004. The of its economy, which has had a great adverse impact the people in Zambia enjoy social-economic rights to majority of the population who are poor need to on the quality of 10 million people. Unemployment realize their full potential regardless of their status in be urgently lifted from that condition. Poor people in Zambia is widespread with 70% of the population society. have a right to a long healthy life. The capital of of the capital Lusaka without regular work. 50% of the Zambia is Lusaka. By 2000 70% of the people live on country lives below the poverty line. This will help Zambia a lot. It will help decrease the less than one dollar a day. 64% of this income was financial problems they’ve been having for years and spent on essential food. There is evidence, using national poverty lines, that help the people in Zambia for a better future ahead of poverty increased between 1991 and 1996 by 20% them. If we continue this, as children learn basic edu- among the those below a food-only poverty line and cation, they’ll be able to support their families in the by 16% among those below a general poverty line. near future. it will help improve on Zambia’s poverty. Zambia’s urban poor live in over crowded and un- We hope for a better future of the people and families sanitary shanty townships and squatter settlements in Zambia! educate children and adults on basic skills. and often do not have access to basic infrastructure Such as reading, writing and math for the children. and services. Being poor is awful. “One stands to lose And improving Zambia’s infrastructure. We are trying one’s dignity; poor parents can’t send their children to get adults active to learn the basic types of skills to school” and, what happens when a family member like architect, mechanics, electrician etc. so they can gets ill or dies? pass down their knowledge to other people. Our aim Poverty may also trigger instability. Zambia’s educa- is to help the people in Zambia enjoy social-econom- ic rights to realize their full potential regardless of their tion system is suffering greatly because of the HIV/ status in society. AIDS. It is important that Zambia’s education sector continues to pursue an education policy that fully This will help Zambia a lot. It will help decrease the incorporates HIV/AIDS prevention to students and financial problems they’ve been having for years and adults. others argued that a visit to a Lusaka com- help the people in Zambia for a better future ahead of them. If we continue this, as children learn basic edu- pound or to a remote area in the Western Province cation, they’ll be able to support their families in the would show poverty in very practical terms – the hun- near future. it will help improve on Zambia’s poverty. ger for food, for clean water, for education, for health We hope for a better future of the people and families care, etc. in Zambia!
  2. 2. Zambia’s History On 1873 May 1, David Livingston a british physician, ex- Step Towards Independence plorer, died in chitambo, zambia.His body passed through The Federation was dissolved in 1963, its only enduring zanzibar for a funeral in london in april 18, 1874. In 1891 jun monument the Kariba Dam across the Zambezi, intended 11, Portugal assigned barotseland, now in zambia, to britain by the federalists to bind Northern and southern Rhodesia and Nyasaland becomes a british protectorate. Then in 1938 forever. In January the following year Zambia’s first universal J. Desmond Clark became curator of the David Livingstone adult suffrage elections were held and though the ANC per- memorial Museum and stayed on for 24 years. He moved to formed well in a few substantial areas, UNIP won convinc- UC Berkeley in 1961. ingly, Kaunda becoming Prime Minister. Then at midnight on 24th October 1964, Zambia became an independent His life’s work included over 18 books including “the pre his- republic with him as president. tory of africa”. In 1961 sept 18, Dag Hammarskjold, Secretary- General of the UN, was killed in a plane crash in north rho- Kaunda remained in office for 27 years. Although during his deshia (now zambia). He was flying to negotiate a cease- fire early years great strides were made in the areas of educa- in the congo.October 24 1964 was the day zambia gained tion, health and infrastructure, his attempts to ‘decolonise independence from great britain that made it a national the economy by nationalising it completely, produced only day. President Kenneth Kaunda was in charge.then in 1969 inefficiency, corruption and a disastrous decline. Emmanuel Milingo was named archbishop of lusaka. His one party participatory democracy; which gave UNIP 1982 Lusaka Archbishop Emmanuel Milingo resigned sole power, soon fossilised into an autocracy maintained by under pressure for his faith healings and exorcisms. He was police-state methods. brought to rome as a functionary and retired in 2000. In 2001 he married marie sung of south korea ina NYC wed- In 1990 an obviously collapsing economy together with po- ding conducted by the rev.sun myung moon. In 1991 presi- litical frustration, led to serious food riots and an attempted dent kaunda was voted out of office. President frederick military coup d’etat that had people dancing in the streets. chiluba and his movement for multi-party democracy won in his first multi-party elections. When the disorders could be halted with only firearms, opposition to the regime became so deep and widespread in may 21, 1996 the government adopted new constitution- and the demand for change so urgent that Kaunda had to al amendments to prevent kenneth kaunda from running concede. for president. The amendments require that candidates be at least second-generation zambians. Kaunda is the son of immigrants from malawi.march 10, 2000 in zambia over 12,000 people lost their homes when the spillways of kariba dam in southern siavonga were opened to relive pressure.
  3. 3. Zambia’s Timeline 12th Century - Shona people arrive in the area later estab- 1999 - A high court sentences 59 soldiers to death after they lishing the empire of the Mwene Mutapa, which includes are found guilty of treason for failed coup attempt in 1997. southern Zambia. 2000 - Fighting between Angolan forces and UNITA rebels 16th Century - Arrival of peoples from the Luba and Lunda spills over into Zambian territory. Officials estimate that up to empires of Zaire to set up small kingdoms. 60,000 refugees fighting in the Democratic Republic of Congo move to Zambia in less than a week. 1889 - Britain control over Northern Rhodesia, administering the area using system of indirect rule which leaves power in 2001 - Zambia appeals for aid to feed 2 million people after the hands of local rulers. poor harvests caused by floods and drought. Final summit of the Organization of African Unity. Late 1920s - Discovery of copper, which later encourages an influx of European technicians and administrators. 2002 - 2003 - Government says it will not accept modi- fied maize to help serve food shortages facing three million 1953 - Creation of the Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland, people. Court gives death sentences to 44 soldiers for their compromising Northern Rhodesia, Southern Rhodesia and role in 1997’s failed coup. Nyasaland. 2004 - 2005 - Corruption charges against president, but later 1964 - Independence, with kaunda as president. he is re-arrested on six new charges. Bank approves $3.8 bil- lion debt relief package which will write off more than 50% of 1960s - 1970 - Private land nationalized in an unsuccessful Zambia’s debt/ Around 50 workers were killed in an explosion agricultural improvement programme. at Chinese-owned explosives factory. 1976 - Zambia declares support independence struggle in 2006 - 2007 - The president announces discovery of oil in Rhodesia. Zambian help proves crucial to the transition of the west. Government makes economic recovery plan which Rhodesia to independent Zimbabwe. encourages foreign investment. 1990 - 1991 - Food riots. Movement for Multi-party Democ- 2008 - 2010 - Zambia declares floods which killed more than racy wins elections and its leader, Frederick Chiluba, becomes 40 people and became a nation disaster. The Ex-President president. Chiluba is cleared of corruption after a six-year trial. 1996 - Change to constitution effectively barring Kuada from future elections. Chiluba re-elected.
  4. 4. Human Rights Women Issues Rape was widespread. The government did not enforce the There are a large number of displaced and institutionalized law effectively and obtained few rape convictions. There is children. Approximately 1.2 million children under the age no specific law against domestic violence, including spousal of 15 were orphaned, including an estimated 800,000 as a abuse, and cases of domestic violence were prosecuted result of HIV/AIDS. These children faced greater risks of child under the penal code’s general assault provisions. Penal- abuse, sexual abuse, and child labor. Approximately ties for sexual assault range from two to 25 years in prison, depending on the severity of injury and whether a weapon 75 percent of all households cared for at least one orphan, was used during the assault. and orphaned children headed an estimated 7 percent of households. The VSU was responsible for handling cases of domestic assault, wife beating, mistreatment of widows, and property Trafficking Issues expropriation (grabbing) by the deceased husband’s rela- The law prohibits trafficking in persons for all purposes, tives. In practice the police were often reluctant to pursue including transporting, receiving, and harboring of traffick- reports of domestic violence and preferred to encourage ing victims. However, the country was a source, transit point, reconciliation. and destination for trafficked persons, and internal traffick- ing occurred. Victims, principally women and children from Children Issues rural areas, were trafficked within the country and to other Child marriage was a minor problem and was not common. parts of Africa and to Europe, and the country was used as a Zambia government’s human rights were and still remain The government did not collect or maintain data on the ex- Although a person must be at least 16 years old to marry transit point for regional trafficking. poor. They have many human rights problems such as killing, tent or nature of trafficking in the country; however, traffick- under the formal law, there is no minimum age under cus- torture, beatings, life-threatening prison conditions, women ing, particularly in the form of child prostitution was believed tomary law. Some local leaders spoke against child marriage The government did not collect or maintain data on the issues, children issues and civil liberties. to be significant. and took steps to discourage it; however, most condoned extent or nature of trafficking; however, trafficking, particu- the practice. Magistrates’ courts intervened in cases of gross larly in the form of child prostitution, was believed signifi- Zambia has become a hub for human trafficking in south- Female citizens were trafficked within the country and to abuse. cant. A 2007 International Labor Organization study on child ern Africa, and authorities are beginning to recognize and other parts of Africa and to Europe, and the country was trafficking in the country concluded that trafficking was address it.There were reports that persons were trafficked to, used as a transit point for regional trafficking of women for The law criminalizes child prostitution and child pornogra- predominantly domestic and informal. from, and within the country. The law prohibits the traffick- prostitution. phy with penalties of up to life imprisonment. However, the ing of any person for any purpose, but it does not define law was not enforced effectively, and child prostitution was The ILO noted that children were often trafficked as a source trafficking. Persons convicted of trafficking were subject to a Traffickers fraudulently obtained Zambian travel documents common. The country has a statutory rape law that provides of cheap labor and that girls were more at risk of being traf- term of imprisonment from 20 years to life. for their victims before proceeding to other destinations. penalties of up to life imprisonment in rape cases. The mini- ficked than boys. During the year there were reliable reports that women were mum age for consensual sex is 16 years. The law had not been used to prosecute a case of trafficking trafficked to the country for commercial sex work. at year’s end. Convictions of the crimes of abduction, assault, or seeking to have sex with a minor could be punished with sentences up to life imprisonment with hard labor.
  5. 5. Environmental Status Resource Map Zambia has many playeaus and grassy areas. Zambia has a The water quality their is not as good as it should be. Nine tropical climate modified by elevation. In the Koppen cli- percent water usage is from groundwater and groundwater mate classification most of the country is classified as humid provides 28% of domestic water supply. There is two major subtropical or tropical wet and dry, with small stretches of river basins that drain Zambia. The Zambezi covering south semi-arid steppe climate in the south-west and along the about three-quarters of the country and the Congo basin Zambezi Valley. covering one-quarter of the country in the north. There are two main seasons, the rainy season which is in The Chobe River contributes very little water to the Zam- November to April and the dry season in may to november. bezi because most is lost by evaporation. The edge of the the dry season is divided into the cool dry season in may Cuando River floodplain forms Zambia’s south-western to August, and the hot season September, Octoboer and border. zambia has the beautiful waterfalls and the widest November. the modified altitude gives the country pleasant ones i’ve ever seen. subtropical weather rather than tropical conditions during the cool season of may to august. But, average monthly The water quality in Zambia is affecting people by causing temperatures remain above 20C over most of the country diarrhea. In Zambia there is 90% of water is stored in house- for eight or more months of the year. holds. The interventions for households were visited to test the stored water to see if it is free from chlorine residuals.
  6. 6. Millennium Development Goals MDG1 Reducing poverty and hunger by half by 2015 Target 1: Halve, between 1990 and 2015, the proportion of 1990 to 2015 the proportion of whose income is less than a people living in extreme poverty. dollar a day. Target 2: Halve, between 1990 and 2015, the proportion of On the target of halving the proportion of people who people who suffer from hunger. suffer from hunger, the prevalence of underweight children declined from 22% in 1991 to 14.6% in 2007. MDG 2 Ensuring all children complete primary education by 2015 Target 3: ensure that, by 2015, children everywhere, boys Net enrolment has increased from 80% in 1990 to 97% and girls alike, will be able to complete a full course of in 2006 as a result of strong supportive environment. primary schooling. This goal is likely to be achieved, however, the decline in literacy rates of 15-24 year olds (79% in 1990, 70% in 2004) needs to be addressed in order to achieve this goal. MDG 3 Increasing gender quality and empowering women by 2015 Target 4: Eliminate gender disparity in primary and second- The trend show a growth in the enrolment of girls in the ary education preferably by 2005 and to all levels of educa- school system, which stands at 98% while that of males is tion no later than 2015. 96%. The ratio of literate females to males (15-24 year olds) is stagnating at 0.8. MDG 4 Reducing child mortality by two-thirds by 2015 Target 5: Reduce by two-thirds, between 1990 and 2015, Out of every 100,000 births, there were 191 deaths in chil- the under-five mortality rate. dren in 1992 to 56 children in 2015. MDG 5 reducing maternal mortality by three quarters by 2015 Target 6: Reduce by three-quarters, between 1990 andDue to complicated pregnancies from 649 (in 1996) to 162 2015, the maternal mortality rate. (2015) out of every 100,000 expectant women. Due to the strong supportive environment, Zambia man- aged to decrease the number to 449 in 2007. MDG 6 Stemming the spread of HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases by 2015 Target 7: Have halted, by 2015, and begun to reverse the The national HIV prevalence rate among adults (15-49 spread of HIV and AIDS. years) has declined from 15.6% in 2001/2002 to 14.3% in 2007. Target 8: Have halted, by 2015, and begun to reverse, the For children under-five, malaria and other diseases rose incidence of malaria and other major diseases. from 7.9% in 2001 to 32.7% in 2007. MDG 7 Ensure environmental sustainability Target 9: Integrate the principles of sustainable develop- The target on including environmental principles into ment into country policies and programmes and reverse Zambia’s policies and programs and reversing the loss of the loss of environmental resources. its environmemtal resources is the only unlikely goal to be achieved by year 2015. Target 10: Halve, by 2015, the proportion of the population Zambia will reach the target of improved water and sanita- without sustainable access to safe drinking water and basic tion services seem potentially achievable in 2015. sanitation.
  7. 7. Description Of Need While the poor suffer the most from dysfunctions in the town immediate family, with repercussions on relatives who must and cities, they are at least able, as individuals, to influence provide for widows and orphans. The problems facing Zambia’s urban poor are immense. Of how towns and cities are governed or managed. Even when The poorest of the poor tend to be households headed by the total urban population of 3.6 million people. the information is available, media, such as telephone or com- women. Women and female children are suffering more than munication or some types of form are neither accessible to or their male counterparts. In general, women suffer incredible Zambia’s capital city is Lusaka. The urban population is made understandable by the poor. exploition and discrimination. They are forced to bear the up of about 3,632,000 people and accounts for 40% of the brunt of poverty in the economic sphere as well as in the country’s total population. According to The Post Newspapers Main social and economic shocks affecting vulnerable people: spheres of health and culture. Women suffer doubly all the in Zambia, “Hunger, poverty, disease, ignorance, unemploy- Focus group discussions in informal calamities related to the living conditions that exist in the ment, lack of opportunity, insecurity, inequality and hopeless- urban areas pointed to the following main factors that cause towns and cities. ness are the terms that could well define the living conditions urban families to fall into poverty: of a great part of the population of our country, especially • The loss of formal employment, often without receiving The phenomenon of unemployment in our ciuntry is ag- that which lives in urban areas.” terminal benefits. gravated by the growing migration of larger rural masses to • Inflation, affecting the prices of food, transport, and basic urban areas, due to extremely poor living conditions and to Unemployment in urban Zambia is widespread. According to necessities. the lack of employment in rural areas. USAID, the unemployment rate in the capital city of Lusaka is • The death of the main income-earner that prompts eco- 70% with 50% below the poverty line. Water is a n important nomic strain or destitution for the Zambia is facing many crisis right now, and they’re blow the necessity for life. About 13% of the people in Lusaka live with- poverty line. out water supply. Zambia’s urban poor live in over crowded and unsanity shanty townships and squatter settlements and often do not have access to basic infrastructure and services. Children of the urban poor are unable to access good educa- tion. Often the standards are facilities of educational institu- tions they can afford are lower than those available children of higher income groups. Therefore, poor children often drop out of school earlier to support their families. Due to this, poor education also contributes to the entrenchment of the cycle of poverty. in Lusaka they encountered the highest proportion of skilled workers, often running a one-person business from their homes, from the market lane or from the side of the road. They repair tires, shoes, televisions, radios, or bicycle; are tailors, welders, carpenters or craft makers. Many activities are also related to housing, such as the production of bricks or cement blocks, gravel, and roofing material, or the manufacture of doors, windows and other house fittings.
  8. 8. Project Proposal Since Zambia is having difficulties with hunger, finanical, For the adults we are planning on building a trade school poverty, disease, and unemployment, our plan is to go into to educate them on basic skills. One of the basic skills are Lusaka and create a trade school. A trade school is a place carpenter and construction, this will help adults learn how to teach basic education for adults. These are basic skill sets to build houses. This will be helpful to them because some needed to perform a job. Some of these jobs are carpenter, families do not have shelter to live in. If we educate adults on welding, construction, elctricitian, plumming and machin- this basic skill, then many families are able to have shelter to ery operation. We believe these skills will help the people in live in. Zambia by overcoming poverty. Another basic skilll for this trade school is electritian and First, we are planning on educating children because they machinery operation. We’re going to educate them on on Educating adults and children on these basics skills are the next generation. While we educate them they can electritian and machinery and operation so that they can prof- will help the families and children have a better future teach others. We are educating children so they can learn fesion on this. In the near future this will give the people in ahead of them. Now that they get educatied on this, how to read and write. Another idea is try to help them Zambia electricity. it will help improve infrustructure, help with hunger enjoy social-economic rights to realize their full potential and financial issues. regardless of their status in society. If we educate adults and get them to be active, they will start participating and improve on the infrustructure in Zambia. Children need basic skills to get through and become Children need basic information such as reading, so they Such as improving on the roads, building more bridges, and successful. So by doing this, it will help the children become more fluent with words and understanding them. buildings. This will attract other companies who might want in their near future and get them a btter working job Another basic skill is writing and mathematics. We’re edu- to start a business with them. Other companies will attract to support their families. The children are the next cating children with these basic skills because they will be to this and participate in Zambia and might want to work in generation to helping end poverty in Zambia. As they needing it in the future. business with them. learn these basics skills they can teach them to others also and spread it. They will become more active and We came to a conclusion, if we start educating these chil- This will help the people in Zambia decrease the financial participate in this. dren at a younger age they are more likely to support there problems, and decrease the number of homeless people. We families in the near future and be more successful. And that’s believe that this will help the people in Zambia and help for a Adults will also help end poverty by improving on the our vision and we are hoping to see it be accomplished. better future for families and their children. infrustructure. They will participate in building and creating companies to open up a buisness. Another thing we are trying to accomplish is educating Educating them will help for a better future, it’s the key to adults and children so that they can become skilled work- success. The kids, will have a better future ahead of them. And We believe that this will help end poverty in Zambia. ers, so it can improve Zambia’s infrastructure. Such as roads, help support their families. It will decrease finanical problems, decrease the num- bridges, buildings and etc. This will help attract foriegn employers that are willing to help Zambia. Our whole plan is basically to educate the children on reading, Also to help train electrician mechanics, establish a skilled writing, and mathematics. For the adults we’re planning on workers set or force. opening up a trade school and educating them on carpenter, wleding, construction, welding, electricitian, plumming, and Teach them valuable skills to open their own shops later in machinery operations. We think this is a good idea to help the future so they could seek foriegn envestment to show Zambia from all their crisis problems. what you have to offer.
  9. 9. Impact Analysis It will impact on a lot of people. Children will start going to school and being well educated. This will help them in the near fututre because it will give them job opportunities which will lead to a better fututre ahead of them. Then they can help support their families later on in the fututre. This will impact on men and women by many ways. First it can help teach them basic skills such as carpenturing, welding, plumming, and electrician. The basic skills will help creating new buildings, companies, and etc. This is helpful to them because there will be more job opportunities for people that need a job. People will be able to learn a lot more things and teach eachother people, The people of Zambia will want to get more active and start helping out. Then the economy will become more modernized. If we get them to learn these basic skills and be well edu- cated. Other people from companies all around the world might come and work with them. Give them better jobs. We believe that by establishing a trade school will help give These classes that are going to be taken at the trade school And might help modernize their economy. a better future for the people in zambia and help decrease will surely benefit the people Zambia. Educating the chil- the povery level. By teaching them on basic education they dren will have a great impact on their lives. This will provide Slowly the the economy will get better and will help the ill learn basic skills to survive and support their families. Dur- the children to have more job opportuinites as they get people in Zambia from the problems they are facing. This ing this project, it will impact on women and men because older and hope for a better future ahead of them. will surely benefit them. they are going to be split. Educating the adults on these basic skills will help create Even though it will cost money, we’re sure it will help benefit But they will also learn skills that will be useful.This life style a better community and help the community and other the people. It will have an impact on many people’s lives. will affect the men and women in many ways. More people companies from other countries will come into Zambia and Everything will change for the better of the people in Lusaka. will start working, building companies and creating new build more companies. This will help the people in Zambia We ‘re hoping to see this be accomplished. buildings. Adults and children will be more active once they decrease the poverty levels. see everyone working together to create a better com- This will have a great effect on people’s everyday lives. And munity. Having a trade school will educate more people With this trade school people will learn basic education and help them have a better future. people. This will impact on the people so that they’ll have a finish school. This will provide more job oppportunities to better future ahead of them and help modernize Zambia. the people of Zambia. This project will take a lot of money and thought into it to create, but this will help benefit them.
  10. 10. Implementation For our five year plan, we plan on trying to improve Lusaka Step One January 2011: and help modernize them. For the first year we’re plannin on having a discussion with the people about our whole • Meet up with the people of Zambia plan. We’re planning on discussing the issues they’re having • Duscuss to them about what’s going on and how we are going to improve on their economy. • Discuss and decide where is a good place to build a trade school After the first year we’re are going to decide what subjects • Find educated adults who is willing to help teach they are going to be taking. And discuss how many schools • Get the basic supplies needed are going to be built and where they’re going to be built. Then after all of that we’re going to have a last minute Step Two January 20112: discussion on anything else the people might want to add. Then we prepare for the creation of the trade school. • Decide what classes are to be taken • Discuss how many of them should be made Diring the third year that’s when we are going to start cre- • Prepare for the creation of the trade school ating the blue prints for the school, Map out the locations • Have any last minute discussions on where the schools should be located. After all of that, we start creating the trade school. Step Three January 2013: On the forth year we are going to start enrolling people at the school. Then the supplies we are going to need at the • Create a blue print of the trade school school. After everything is done, we introduce the school • Map out the location to the people, tell them about how everything is going to • Create the trade school work and what they can do. Then everything will go from there. The fifth year we’re Step Four January 2014: going to check in with the people to see how everything is going. And fix anything that needs to be worked on. Then • Start the enrollment after everything is accomplished, then we hope it will con- • Get more of the supplies needed tinue to work and hope for a better future for the people of • introduce the trade school Lusaka. Step Five January 2015: Everything will get better year after year. IF they continue this, everything will go smoothly, and everything will be • Make any last minute touch ups accomplished. • Check up on the people of Zambia • Discuss wheather this idea is working out • Have a final discussion with the people