Table of contents Introduction Asian gardens English gardens North american gardens South american gardens
INTRODUCTION A garden is a planned space, usually outdoors, set aside for the display, cultivation, and enjoyment of plants and other forms of nature Gardening is the activity of growing and maintaining the garden. This work is done by an amateur or professional gardener
HISTORY OF GARDENS The history of gardening extends across at least 4,000 years of human civilization Egyptian tomb paintings of the 1500s BC are some of the earliest physical evidence of ornamental horticulture and landscape design; they depict lotus ponds surrounded by symmetrical rows of acacias and palms Another ancient gardening tradition is of Persia: Darius the Great was said to have had a "paradise garden" The Hanging Gardens of Babylon were renowned as a Wonder of the World Byzantium and Moorish Spain kept garden traditions alive after the 4th century AD and the fall of Rome. By this time a separate gardening tradition had arisen in China
HISTORY OF GARDENS Gardens of Versailles, became the dominant style of garden in Europe until the middle of the 18th century when it was replaced by the English landscape garden and the French landscape garden. The 20th century saw the influence of modernism in the garden: from the articulate clarity of Thomas Church to the bold colors and forms of Brazilian Roberto Burle Marx. A strong environmental consciousness and Sustainable design practices, such as green roofs and rainwater harvesting, are driving new considerations in gardening today.
Uses of gardens A garden can have aesthetic, functional, and recreational uses: Supplies oxygen Absorb radiant heat and offer shade Plant cultivation Act as sound barrier Provide privacy Relaxation – Family dinners on the terrace – Children playing in the garden Reading and relaxing Fresh herbs and vegetables for cooking
ASIAN GARDENSAsian gardening, thought to originate inChina and introduced in Japan andelsewhere in Asia during the Han Dynasty(140-87 B.C.),THE PRINCIPLES IN ASIAN GARDENSThere are certain principles that distinquish Asiangardens. Asian gardens must harmonize with and mimicnature.Anotherprinciple might best be stated as "less ismore." Often Asian gardens contain areas of "emptiness" soas to better define other elements in the garden around them.
ASIAN GARDENSVARIOUS STYLES IN ASIAN GARDENS. Hill and Pond Style: This Style incorporates large rocks, water, and plants that mimic large natural landscapes, such as mountains, lakes, and forests. Dry-Landscape Style : This is the styleof gardening most influenced by Zen philosophyand typically incorporates the use of stones andsand,
ASIAN GARDENSTea-Garden Style: Inthis type of garden, pathways play animportant role in soothingthe spirit and removingworldly care as oneprepares for and journeystoward the tea house orother location.
ASIAN GARDENSStroll Style: This is similar to theHill and Pond style garden, but isdesigned for meandering through thegarden to fully appreciate it. Courtyard Style: This gardenstyle is often characterized by the useof ornamental structures, such aslanterns, stepping stones,
ASIAN GARDENSELEMENTS OF ASIAN GARDENS WATER PLANTS PATHS BRIDGES BAMBOO STATUES
JAPANESE GARDENS Japanese gardens derive their beauty froma mixing and blending of different elements: – Sand,rocks – water – ornaments such as lanterns, – water basins (tsukubai), and – bamboo fences – natural plants and surroundingsBlack pines, red pines, and Japanese maples may be considered the quintessential trees of the Japanese garden, but these species may not thrive in some dry and hot climates. Here are some trees to consider as worthy additions to Japanese landscapes.
JAPANESE GARDENS Traditional styles: The Japanese typically categorize their gardens into three broad types. Karesansui garden: karesansui (dry landscape gardens, also known as rock gardens and waterless stream gardens) are typically associated with Zen Buddhism The main elements of karesansui are rocks and sand, with the sea symbolizedExample: Ryōan-ji, temple in Kyoto, has a garden famousfor representing this style
JAPANESE GARDENSTsukiyama gardens:Tsukiyama Gardensis a term to denote a hill garden as opposed toa flat gardenPonds, streams, hills, stones, trees, flowers,bridges, and paths are also used frequently inthis style example of this kind of garden isDaigoji in kyoto(japan)Chaniwa Gardens or tea gardensChaniwa Gardens are built for holding teaceremonies. There is usually a tea housewhere the ceremonies occur, and the styles ofboth the hut and garden are basedThe symbol of water when used in Japaneselandscape designs represents life andcalmness and a reminder of just howimportant water is to mankind and theenvironment
CHINESE GARDENS The Chinese Garden, also called Chinese Classical Garden and Chinese Scholars Garden, is a place for solitary or social contemplation of nature. Design and purpose of Chinese gardens The Chinese consider gardens a serious art form and as with painting, sculpture and poetry aim to attain in their design the balance, harmony, proportion and variety that are considered essential to life Often the most exquisite elements of a Chinese garden can be found in its details. Such is the case with the footpaths, imaginatively patterned with coloured pebbles into a variety of designs along the ground. The Chinese garden is divided into three categories: the imperial garden, the private garden and the natural scenic site. The earliest imperial garden dates back to the late Shang dynasty (c. 1600-1027 BC) with the construction of an imperial hunting ground
CHINESE GARDENSThe earliest imperial garden dates back to the late Shang dynasty (c. 1600- 1027 BC) with the construction of an imperial hunting groundImperial gardensBeijings imperial gardens are outstanding examples of classical Chinese garden culture; they are also part of the precious world cultural heritage.Yuan Ming Yuan -- Chinese Imperial Garden
PERSIAN GARDENS The tradition and style in the garden design of Persian gardens has influenced the design of gardens from Andalusia to India and beyond. The Taj Mahal is one of the largest Persian Garden interpretations in the world, from the era of the Mughal Empire in India. Elements of the Persian garden Sunlight and its effects were an important factor of structural design in Persian gardens.
PERSIAN GARDENS Elements of the Persian garden, such as the shade, the jub, and the courtyard style hayat in a public garden in Shiraz. The Persian style often attempts to integrate indoors with outdoors through the connection of a surrounding garden with an inner courtyard The six primary styles of the Persian garden may be seen in the following table, which puts them in the context of their function and style. Gardens are not limited to a particular style, but often integrate different styles, or have areas with different functions and styles. Classical Formal Casual Public hayat median park Private hayat chararbagh bagh
HANGING GARDENS OF BABYLONThe Hanging Gardens ofBabylon are considered to beone of the original SevenWonders of the Ancient World They were built in the ancient city-state of Babylon, near present-day Al Hillah, Babil, in Iraq. They are sometimes called the Hanging Gardens of Semiramis The gardens were supposedly built by the Babylonian king Nebuchadnezzar II around 600 BCThe gardens were destroyed by several earthquakes after the 2nd century BC.
ISLAMIC GARDENS•The application of the spiritual concept in thecase of the Taj Mahal.• Traditionally, an Islamic garden is a cool place ofrest and reflection, and a reminder of paradise•The general theme of a traditional Islamic gardenis water and shade, not surprisingly since Islamcame from and generally spread in a hot and aridclimate.•Unlike English gardens, which are oftendesigned for walking, Islamic gardens areintended for rest and contemplation. For thisreason, Islamic gardens usually include places forsitting
GARDENS IN INDIAThe oldest evidence for the existence of gardens in India comes fromliterary sources. Sacred works, including the RamayanaWith the start of Muslim influence on India, residential buildings beganto be built in stone.As in other Islamic gardens, the characteristic features are: (1) aboundary wall (2) a geometrical layout (3) a crossing pattern of canals.The most famous Mughal gardens are the Taj Mahal, the Red Fort inDelhi, Agra Fort and Humayuns Tomb Garden.Mughal gardens are a group of gardens built by the Mughals inthe Islamic style of architecture.
GARDENS IN INDIA Mughal gardens at Taj Mahal Shalimar Gardens, Kashmir
2.ENGLISH GARDENSThe English garden, also called English landscape park is a styleof Landscape garden which emerged in England in the early 18thcentury, and spread across EuropeIt usually included a lake, sweeps of gently rolling lawns set againstgroves of trees, and recreations of classical temples, Gothicruins, bridges, and other picturesque architectureBy the end of the 18th century the English garden was being imitatedby the French landscape garden, and as far away as St.Petersburg, Russia, inPavlovsk, the gardens of the future EmperorPaul.The English Garden Spreads to the Continent
ENGLISH GARDENS A second style of English garden, which became popular during the 20th century in France and northern Europe, is the late 19th- century English cottage garden. The cottage garden is a distinct style of garden that uses an informal design, traditional materials, dense plantings, and a mixture of ornamental and edible plant Vernacular thatched cottages (built in 1812–1816) in WoburnStreet, Ampthill, Bedfordshire,surrounded by garden.
RELATIONSHIP WITH PLANNING Gardens plays a vitol role in the beautification of city,gives a aesthetic appearance to city Protecting environment Environmental protection and conservation are of utmost importance to many planning systems across the world Creating enjoyable greenery nature to people of the city
CONCLUSION Although this presentation is not a recipe for creating a garden,it gives an idea about different styles of gardens in this world Garden plays a vital role in the aesthetic appearance to cities,towns,houses various elements like rocks,stones,path,plants ,bamboos,etc plays a vital role in setting of gardens.japanese garden style is interesting in asian style of gardens. Islamic gardening infiuence on Indian gardens also a considerable topic. For thousands of years, the human population provided for their own needs, often with the help of a vegetable garden Gardens plays a very important role in human life