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French gardens

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french garden

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French gardens

  1. 1. Literature Study Name-Shreyash Gupta Enroll no.-A8304014015 Semester-5th Course-B.arch
  2. 2. iNTRODUCTION  The French gardens were inspired by the “Italian renaissance garden.  symmetry and geometry are the keywords when designing such gardens.  the whole of garden is composed like a painting reaching for pure aesthetical qualities.  Like a painting, it is also created to be seen as a whole History The form of the French garden was strongly influenced by the Italian gardens of the Renaissance, and was largely fixed by the middle of the 17th century. The French royal Garden architectes André Mollet and Jacques Boyceau de la Baraudière laid the groundwork for the supremacy of the French garden style under Louis XIV.
  3. 3. Components of the French Garden  PARTERRE. A planting bed, usually square or rectangular, containing an ornamental design made with low closely clipped hedges, colored gravel, and sometimes flowers. Parterres were usually laid out in geometric patterns, divided by gravel paths. They were intended seen from above from a house or terrace. A parterre de gazon was made of turf with a pattern cut out and filled with gravel.  EMBROIDERY. A very curling decorative pattern within a parterre, created with trimmed yew or box or made by cutting the pattern out of a lawn and filling it with colored gravel.  BOSQUET. A small group of trees, usually some distance from the house, designed as an ornamental backdrop.  ALLÉE. A straight PATH, often lined with trees.  TOPIARY. Trees or bushes trimmed into ornamental shapes. In French gardens, they were usually trimmed into geometric shapes.  GOOSE FOOT “PATTE D'OIE”. Three or five paths or which spread outward from a single point. Parterre Embroidery TopiaryAllee Bosquet Goose Foot “Patte D‘Oie
  4. 4. The Principles of the French Garden  A geometric plan using the most recent discoveries of perspective and optics.  A terrace overlooking the garden, allowing the visitor to see all at once the entire garden.  Trees are planted in straight lines, and carefully trimmed at a set height.  The house/ palace/ chateaux serves as the central point of the garden, and its central ornament. No trees are planted close to the house; rather, the house is set apart by low parterres and trimmed bushes.  The principle axis is crossed by one or more perpendicular perspectives and alleys.  The most elaborate parterres, or planting beds, in the shape of squares, ovals, circles or scrolls, are placed in a regular and geometric order close to the house, to complement the architecture.  The parterres near the residence are filled with broderies, designs created with low boxwood to resemble the patterns of a carpet, and given a polychrome effect by plantings of flowers, or by colored brick, gravel or sand.  Bodies of water (canals, basins) serve as mirrors, doubling the size of the house or the trees. Symmetrical plan Water body as mirror Trees at same height Palace as central point Planting beds Overview from terrace
  5. 5. Plants and Trees to use in French Formal Design TREES  Trees are planted in straight lines and clipped to keep a perfect shape and size. They may be formed into shapes to form topiary.  Trees used in the Gardens of Versaille were:- Hornbeam, Beech, Chestnut, Elm and Linden for the most part.  Hornbeam and Beech are easy to prune and shape making them particularly good trees for formal gardens. HEDGES :-  The clipped hedges are usually box, lavender, rosemary and occasionally santoline. Regular trimming to stop them going 'leggy' and 'woody' is important. VEGETABLES :-  Many French Chateax have wonderful vegetable gardens with the vegetables laid out in patterns and parterres in the style of the ornamental formal gardens. PLANTS:-  Bedding plants and bulbs are popular choices for parterres with for example, parterres filled with bulbs in formal patterns for spring flowering and then taken out and replaced with bedding plants for the late-spring and summer.
  6. 6. Gardens of Versailles  The Gardens of Versailles, created by André Le Nôtre between 1662 and 1700, were the greatest achievement of the Garden à la francaise.  They were the largest gardens in Europe – with an area of 15,000 hectares, and were laid out on an east–west axis followed the course of the sun.  The sun rose over the Court of Honor, lit the Marble Court, crossed the Chateau and lit the bedroom of the King, and set at the end of the Grand Canal, reflected in the mirrors of the Hall of Mirrors.  In contrast with the grand perspectives, reaching to the horizon, the garden was full of surprises – fountains, small gardens fill with statuary, which provided a more human scale and intimate spaces.  The central symbol of the Garden was the sun; the emblem of Louis XIV, illustrated by the statue of Apollo in the central fountain of the garden.  The views and perspectives, to and from the palace, continued to infinity.  The king ruled over nature, recreating in the garden not only his domination of his territories, but over the court and his subjects
  7. 7. Vaux-le-Vicomte  The first important garden à la française was the Chateau of Vaux-le-Vicomte, created by Nicolas Fouquet.  Fouquet commissioned Louis Le Vau to design the chateau, Charles Le Brun to design statues for the garden, and André Le Nôtre to create the gardens.  A grand perspective of 1500 meters extended from the foot of the chateau to the statue of the Hercules of Farnese.  The space was filled with parterres of evergreen shrubs in ornamental patterns, bordered by colored sand, and the alleys were decorated at regular intervals by statues, basins, fountains, and carefully sculpted topiaries.  The symmetry attained at Vaux achieved a degee of perfection and unity rarely equalled in the art of classic gardens.  The chateau is at the center of this strict spatial organization which symbolizes power and success.
  8. 8. Architecture  The designers of the French garden saw their work as a branch of architecture, which simply extended the space of the building to the space outside the walls, and ordered nature according to the rules of geometry, optics and perspective.  Gardens were designed like buildings, with a succession of rooms which a visitor could pass through following an established route, hallways, and vestibules with adjoining chambers.  They used the language of architecture in their plans; the spaces were referred to as salles, chambres and théâtresof greenery. The "walls" were composed of hedges, and "stairways" of water.  On the ground were tapis, or carpets, of grass, brodés, or embroidered, with plants, and the trees were formed into rideaux, or curtains, along the alleys. Just as architects installed systems of water into the chateux, they laid out elaborate hydraulic systems to supply the fountains and basins of the garden.  Long basins full of water replaced mirrors, and the water from fountains replaced chandeliers.  The dominant role of architecture in the garden did not change until the 18th century, when the English garden arrived in Europe, and the inspiration for gardens began to come not from architecture but from romantic painting.

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