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  • 1. Principles and Purposes of
  • 2. Creating Meaning ThroughCollage, Tempo and Timing
  • 3. CLIP FROM: ‘HITCOCKS’ PSYCHOhttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nvPqSRLO5Ms
  • 4. Joining Images (Montage)Joining images is a type of editingform in which, several clips arejoined together to create meaning(like a montage). Alfred Hitchcockuses this editing style in thissequence of psycho to create tension,and make what would be a boring scenemore exciting.
  • 5. CLIP FROM:CASINO ROYALEhttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jJubOZLpp4A
  • 6. TempoTempo has do to with the speed in which a scene ismoving, whether it’s fast pace or slow pace.Editors usually control tempo by altering thelength of each shot, as a large collection ofshort duration create a fast tempo scene (usuallyused in action film and fantasy).Editors use the control of tempo to manipulate theaudiences attention level depending on the feel ofa scene, for example in the ‘James Bond, CasinoRoyale’ the chase scene is fast in tempo whichmakes the audience excited and anticipating theoutcome.
  • 7. CLIP FROM: MEAN GIRLShttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=awow8HpWNcg
  • 8. TimingTiming is the time and duration it takesto cut from one shot to another, timingalso has to do with the stream of camerashots that create meaning.In the clip from ‘Mean girls’ the four wayphone call tides together well as thespilt screen and close up shot are in syncwith the words of the characters.This allows the audience to follow thestoryline of the film easily in anstimulating and evident manner.
  • 9. STORY:CENTRED EDITING ANDTHE CONSTRUCTION OF MEANING
  • 10. Editing And SpacesEditing and spaces have to do withcloseness of the shots, for example, if ascene in a film were consisting of aconversation between two friends talkingin a small room, the shots they would becutting between would mostly be close-upsand medium shot, this is to emphasise thesmall space and closeness between thecharacters.In the opening chase scene of James Bond,Casino Royale, the shots that are used aremostly long shots, extreme long shot andbirds-eye-views, these shots create theillusion of wide open space.
  • 11. Shot Reverse ShotShot Reverse is extremely importantand exceptionally used in most films,this is because shot reverse shot isand editing style that shows aconversation between two or morepeople. Most shot-reserve-shot’s areover-the-shoulder-shots or cutsbetween eye-line-matches. A goodexample of this ishttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QLkUHZ1qips
  • 12. Linear Storyline None-Linear Storyline
  • 13. Arranging The Order of EventsFilms like ‘Fight Club’ and ‘Limitless’ arethe perfect example of media res, which is atype of narrative that doesn’t follow thetraditional conventions of a normal filmnarrative of beginning, middle and end. Allof this has to do with a linear or none-linear editing arrangement of events, thearrangement of event can be altered from thetraditional linear order for the reason that;• It adds mystery and a sense of wonder to the film• Film makes more sense this way
  • 14. Eye-line MatchIf you want to steal the audiencesfrom the usual, fly on the wallperspective of a film and put them inthe perception of the characterssituation and emotional state, thenyou can use an eye-line match. Forexample, in the film ‘the hungergames’, there is a scene where‘Katniss Everdeen’ is stung by bees,using eyeline match the editors whereable to blur and make the scene shakyas if the audience where experiencingthe same physical state that she was.
  • 15. CutawaysCutaways are used to link inanimateobjects or scenery with the currentsituation or characters state ofmind, cutaways are usually usedwhen there is a conversationbetween people and a differentsituation is happening in the samescene and moment, this allows theaudience to receive two sets ofinformation at ones. Cutaways areused very often in the movie ‘U-Turn’ by Oliver Stone.
  • 16. CREATING MEANING OUTSIDE THE STORY
  • 17. ContinuityContinuity is the method of trimmingunnecessary footage from what wouldbe a very long shot and only usingthe most key parts to keep themovement of the film engaging andthrilling. This also involve keepingthe visual of the film consistent,this may involve such things as,lighting, wardrobe, mise-en-sceneexc.
  • 18. 180 Degree RuleWikipedia describes the 180degree rules as In a basicguideline regarding the on-screen spatial relationshipbetween a character andanother character or objectwithin a scene. An imaginaryline called the axis connectsthe characters and by keepingthe camera on one side of thisaxis for every shot in thescene, the first characterwill always be frame right ofthe second character, who is This rule is extremelythen always frame left of the important as it reducesfirst. If the camera passes continuity risks that wouldover the axis, it is confuse and distort thecalled crossing the line or audience watching the film.jumping the line.
  • 19. Soviet MontageOne key characteristic of SovietMontage movies is the moderating ofindividual characters in the centreof attention. Single characters areexposed as members of differentsocial classes and are representing ageneral category of people or class.Soviet montage is important, as itconveys variety in characters andseparates them, allowing the audienceto tell apart the importance of eachcharacters role in the film