WORDSIn the use of dramatic content, words arepossibly the most important element of creatinga radio drama, for without words what is ascript.In radio drama, words are used within thescript for different purposes such as:To direct and instruct:Using words within a script allows you to directthe actors how to perform certain lines andeven when and where to deliver them.To Produce Dialogue:Without dialogue a radio drama is useless, asdiaglogue is a key feauture to telling the story,and the actors will need to see a script withwords in order to know what their going to sayand what the story is.This is an example of words beingused in a script to direct (instruct)and has dialogue.
Music is one feature used within radio drama that can change the theme,setting, and even storyline of your radio drama, as music sets the sceneand mood of the story (music does this in visually interactiveentertainment systems such as TV, and it‟s intensified with radio aspicture cannot be included to change the scene or the mood).You can use music in your radio drama by using jingles or intervalsbetween each scene, which could help you to change the location or time ofyour radio drama, for example:MUSICVSBy using music you can paint the picture of day or night to youraudience by using instruments like violins or guitars to separate thetwo scenes.
Voices can be used by your actors to help differentiate your characters, asyour actors can alter their voice, accent or volume to make spereractionsbetween the characters, which is extremeley important as in radio dramathe audience cannot see the different characters so they will need to hearthe different charaters.for example, this could be done to separate two characters that may seemsimilar in physical description, as the wealthier character would talkdifferently (more posh, well spoken and sound better educated).VOICES
Effects can be the cherry on top of your radio drama cake, as theyprovide that very necessary touch of realism to your radio drama, asthey are used to intensify the setting of the scene.You can use sound effects to really set the scene of anything, forexample:Using a police car siren and, breakingglass, gunshots and helicopter fans fora bank robbery.EFFECTS (AMBIENCE)
A cliff-hanger ending is when the storyline ofany film, episode, book or radio drama etc.end without resolution. A cliff-hanger endingusually leaves the characters in a dramaticsituation, in which the audience normallydon‟t see resolving or overcoming.Cliff-hanger endings are an excellent methodto maintaining or extending a high level ofsuspense and inconclusive thoughts to youraudience. Cliff-hanger endings are also greatto use for radio drama for a series, as theyleave the audience wanting more (just like ina television series or soaps).The effect of Cliff-hanger endings couldbackfire if used to often as the audience willget fed up and irritated by the high level ofsuspense and unknowingnessCLIFFHANGER ENDINGS
Examples of great use of cliff-hangerendings are:• Eastenders• Inception• Trustinc (radio drama series)• The twilight sagaThough cliff-hanger endings are used wellin these examples, a few viewers do get sickwith such shows as Eastenders, as thismethod gets used far too often andaudience get bored of the suspense as itstarts becoming predictableWithin radio drama‟s, it is often used inlong running serial radio dramas such asthe arches.
FLASHBACKSA flashback is a change in a narrative to anearlier event that disturbs the normalsequential development of a story. flashbacksusually accurse when a character tells a storyor has a dream.Flashbacks are an excellent method toputting an exciting twist to the averageroutine of beginning, middle and end, theiralso a good method to revealing more aboutyour character‟s motivations and influencesin a short manner. In radio drama,flashbacks are an exciting way to let youraudience know more about your charactersand develop a relationship and opinion ofthem, without giving away too much.If not done well flashbacks could became toocomplex for your audience and confuse them.
Examples of great use of flashbacksare:• The Bourne Supremacy• Kill Bill• Titanic• Forrest Gump• ScrubsThough flashbacks are used well inthese examples, some flashbacks can gowrong, like in such movies as “limitless”where is used too often and confusesthe audience.Flashbacks in radio dramas are done with theuse of a musical Queue or fading out soundeffect, for example, maybe something in thescript like Earthworm Jims"seems like onlyyesterday....yesterday......yesterday."
AURAL SIGNPOSTINGAural signposting is all about setting thelocation of the scene, it is a technique forestablishing the location at the beginning of ascene, which can be done by effects (FX) and issometimes supported with description.This is a useful technique (especially in radiodrama) for painting the picture of the settingof the scene or location for your audiencewithout having to be too descriptive or literalin your script.(specifically in radio drama). If used toomuch, this technique can get irritating andirrelevant as you need to leave some settingsto the audience imagination.
Examples of Aural Signposting are:• mowing the lawn• dog barking• knock on• old-fashioned shop door bell• doorAural signposting may fail if not usedcorrectly, as it may not set the correctscenery. Aural Signposting may alsofail its aim if used too much, forexample, in some films or radio dramasthe background noises, start toovertake the actual sound of thedialogue or action in front.
NARRATION(from wiki answer) Narration is the telling of astory. Any story, either told from 3rd person, 1st or2nd. It is mostly telling a story, of events that havehappened. It can also mean description,explanation, reading, recital, storytelling, voice-over.Narration is a very good device to do a lot ofthings, as through voice overs you either.• Be able to describe the story.• Be able to voice the characters thoughts• Be able to give your story a moreinteresting twist
Examples of great use of narrationare:• March Of The Penguins• Mean Girls• Desperate Housewives• Adventures of Henry MorganNarration could sometimes be a baddevice if it‟s used in the wrong way, is itcould give away too much of your story.Narration is used in radio drama„Adventures of Henry Morgan‟.
USE OF FADESFades are used in a radio drama a cue. Fadesin a radio drama are used for many differentreasons including, changing a location, timeor date within a scene, or ending and closinganother scene.Fades can be done with any form of sounds,and can be created by fading in or outbetween certain sounds for example, whentwo people are having a conversation in apub, the background sound fades out intocomplete silence, then the next scene fadeinto the sound a piano in a dance rehearsal.Fades can be bad if their not used properly asusing too many fades can became confusingan loose effect, and if used in the wrong timethey can cut out important content withinyour radio drama.
USE OF SILENCESilence in radio drama can be one of the mosteffective yet simple convention of your radiodrama. Silence is used in a radio drama for alot of reasons and can be two different kindsof silence e.g.Complete Silence –Used as a way to change a scene or emphasisthe end of any kind of dialogue or actionSilence Within The Scene-Used as a way to emphasise a dramatic orawkward atmosphere.If silence is used too often or even not enoughit could seem completely unnecessary andmake your radio drama seem flawed or evenincomplete.
CHARACTERISATIONCharacterization or characterisation is the art ofcreating characters for a narrative, including theprocess of conveying information about them.This could involve information about theirpersonality, physical appearance orbackground story.e.g.„Lucy Smith was a very curious young girland shy young girl, who constantly wore aflowing flowery dress and rose within herhair.
DIRECT SPEECHAccording to Google dictionary directspeech means „The reporting of speech byrepeating the actual words of a speaker,for example “Im going,” she said.‟ thisdescription applies to radio dramas aswell, and this convention is extremelyimportant and key within radio drama‟s,as it is one of the very few ways to explainto the audience exactly what is happeningin your radio drama
APPROPRIATENESS TO TARGET AUDIENCEWhen writing or producing a radio drama,its extremely important that itsappropriate for your target audience (e.g.if your target audience is children age 6-12, complex and vulgar language cannotand shouldn‟t be used), as there are manyrisks if you don‟t such as:• Your target audience cannot relate orconnect to your radio drama• Your target audience can get offendedby your radio drama• Your target audience is not interestedor engaged by your radio drama,regardless of whether its good or bad.
DRAMATIC RECONSTRUCTIONDramatic reconstruction is almost like theact of reconstructing an old building, as itinvolves re-creating/ re-enacting a scene orevent that has already occurred, as closeto the event itself as possible. Dramaticreconstruction occurs in radio drama‟s andfilms that are based on past events ordeceased individuals, such as the worldwars or bio-films.Examples of projects based on past eventsand individuals (dramatic Reconstruction• The Great War- Radio Drama• Liz and Dick- Biofilm• Titanic- Cinematic Film
RADIO DRAMA STYLESPOST MODERN-Postmodernism in radio drama is a reaction in contrast tomodernist theories and principles. The majority of postmodernproductions are based around the importance the imperfectionof definite truth, rather than inspiring, and reassuringaudiences to reach their own way of thinking (opinions)NARRATION IN THE STYLE OF (VOICE OF GOD)This style of narration allows the writers to includeinformation the audience cannot see and allows theaudience to visualise aspects of the radio drama thatare hard to imagine, this style of narration can fail ifnot used well is it could be unnecessary and irritatingto the audienceNARRATION IN THE STYLE OF (FIRST PERSON)Unlike film, the audience cannot see a charactersemotions through facial expression and body language,this style of narration allows them to hear what thecharacters are feeling in any given moment of the radiodrama
CREATION OF MOOD OR LOCATIONIn radio drama, the aim is to try and make it as easyas possible for listeners to visualize all the aspects ofthe radio drama that they cannot see (locations ormood). The producers of the radio drama wouldtherefore create the location and mood in the radiodrama using sounds, e.g.Location- Bar• Background noises of a chatter• glasses being poured into or smashed• Background music from speakers etc.Mood- Gloomy and stormy night• Background noises of thunder• Bad whether such as, rain• Floor boards creaking
DURATIONThe duration of your radio drama is avery important factor to take intoaccount when creating a radio drama, asradio is not a device that mostindividuals have the patients to listen tofor too long. Listeners can get bored orannoyed if the radio drama last too long,and if listeners have tuned into theradio drama while participating in othertask (as majority of listeners do) such as,driving or working, they will tune out assoon as they have completed the task,whether the radio drama is finished ornot. A typical duration of a radio dramais anywhere between (3-10 minuets), thelengthy radio drama‟s vary between (25-30 minuets)
NARRITIVE STRUCTUREIts important to structure yourstoryline, in an entertaining yet simplemanner that the audience will not getconfused yet stay intrigued with yourradio drama. Unlike a film or televisionprogramme, the audience cannotphysically see the story, making it morechallenging to follow the storyline, solisteners who tune in, later within thestory get easily lost the story (thuseasily bored).
DEVELOPMENT OF PLOTDevelopment of the plot is extremelyimportant, if the storyline of your radiodrama doesn‟t develop in interest value,listeners will get bored and tune out.Your radio drama must have aninteresting start and a constantlypeaking middle and the climatic end.