MEDIA KEY TERMSImages and Definitions for Revision PART F: EDITING
Key Terms• Continuity• Continuity Editing – 180 degree rule – Match on action (match cuts) – Shot reverse shot – Eye-line match – Cross cutting• Insert shot• Cutaway• Pace• Time• Transitions• Special Effects• Montage Editing
EDITING - DEFINITIONPART OF POST PRODUCTION PROCESSThe stage in the film-making process in which sound and images are organised to construct an overall narrative.It is how a film maker puts together and considers cuts/cutting and applies transitions, special effects etc. tocommunicate a narrative to an audience.Remember that an audience is a non-active participant who must understand a narrative through the editing,they can only see what you show them.Imagine a film or even a scene from a film without any editing, it would be very interesting!
Continuity• The key word in continuity is CONTINUE• It is to make sure things are continuous• http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ggFKLxAQBbc• http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9f8liieRepk&feature=related
Clips• Did you notice the editing?• NO!• Because good editing is INVISIBLE!
Continuity ErrorsMany things can cause continuity errors -shots/angles -costume/props -lighting etchttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rSnCu43QzeYWhat is wrong with the continuity in this clip?
Continuity EDITING• Continuity EditingThe most common type of editing which aims to create a sense of reality and time moving forward.Also known as invisible editing referring to how the technique does not draw attention to the editing processbut allows the audience to concentrate on the narrative.Various filming rules and techniques are applied to ensure this smooth continuity.Basically, continuity editing is so that scenes look continuous. (the flow)Techniques/rules of continuity editing: -180 degree rule -match on action (match cuts) -shot reverse shot -eye-line match -crosscutting or parallel editing
Continuity editing: 180 degree rule• Purpose: Is to orientate the viewer, to establish the placement of characters.• Breaking the 180 rule, it will place the characters in a different placehttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HdyyuqmCW14
Continuity editing: match on action 1 ACTION = MULTIPLE SHOTS • Is multiple cuts to show one continuous action. • Match on action is part of invisible editing which creates flow when watching a scene. • The cuts MATCH together so that the audience know it is one action. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DMx-Az5Da4M Think of how many match cuts there are! • . What kind of pace is created in these clips? How? Why?http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=h1Nx1o7fkVM AS example How does sound connect to the editing/pace? How? Why?
Continuity editing: shot reverse shot• Shot reverse shot is when a shot goes from shot A, shot B, shot A, shot B etc.• It goes continuously back and forth between the 2 shots to show there is a connection between them• It is often used in conversations so you see what both characters are saying• It is a form of eye-line matching if the character is looking at someone and the next shot is what they look at• Imagine if a conversation was just 1 shot of character A and you didn’t see character B’s face at all?http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1JauH_EKpaY
Continuity editing: eye-line matchShot A: character is looking off screenShot B: what character is looking atIs a following shot that follows what character is looking at, makes cuts smoother the audience expects the cut to happen and is eager to see what happens next/what character sees.Example,a) A person’s phone rings, she turns and looks in direction of phoneb) Close up shot of phone ringinghttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2KtVKu9CfDA&feature=relmfu• This is eye-line match because of the cards she is looking at………..but it is also……..? Her looking at cards her looking at cards
Continuity editing: cross cutting• Technique of continuously alternating 2 or more scenes that often happen simultaneously (at same time) but in different locations.• As they cross, pace gradually gets faster and fast and tension builds• Often the parallel scenes will intersect to create a climax.http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OD0h7WcgJ5w• 2 scenes: a) interrogation b) car approaching A B A B Ahttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ts1x6uADFtM&feature=related• -2 scenes: a) FBI director (outside house) b) criminal (inside house)• What is unique/different about this scene? How has cross cutting been used different? (What is it’s intention upon the audience?)
A (3pm) Cross cuttingAexample (315pm) B (315pm) B (3pm) B (3:33pm) A (3:33pm) B (330pm) A (330pm) Busted! Climax (2 scene collide)
Continuity editing: insert shot• In film, an insert is a shot of part of a scene as filmed from a different angle and/or focal length from the master shot (original/establishing shot). Inserts cover action already covered in the master shot, but emphasize a different aspect of that action due to the different framing.• An insert differs from a cutaway as cutaways cover action not covered in the master shot. Example – CLOSE-UP of the gunfighter, – INSERT of his hand quivering above the holster, – TWO SHOT of his friends watching anxiously, – INSERT of the clock ticking. Insert Insert• Inserts and cutaways can both be tricky for directors, as care must be taken to preserve continuity by keeping the objects in the same relative position as in the main take, and having the lighting the same.
Continuity Editing videoThis video is a good summary of continuity withexamples from a film• http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8xauSCz1mEk
Cutaway• A cutaway is video scene that CUTS away to relevant images or footage• Often used in documentaries or in film when a vital piece of information is needed to show the audience. Usually the dialogue or voice will CONTINUE during the cutaway (to keep it continuous)• It is used to have variety in the visuals
PaceTYPE OF PACE EffectsSLOW -to make slow/calm/still -little number of shots/cuts which are long -to make audience calm or bored (perhaps to pay attention to detail or to emphasize emotion)MEDIUM -to make normal and comfortable -average number shots/cuts which are medium time which could show realismFAST -to make intense, exciting and thrilling -lots of shots/cuts which are short -to make audience tense/excited http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6hxOoM0-NJI Which pace for each clip? http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pZZ60jrw6cg How is this pace created? http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=t1JsC1ur2X8 Why is this pace created?
TimeHow is time edited? How is time shown and/or manipulated to communicate a narrative?• How is time shown/represented?• Is there a manipulation of time? How? Why?TYPES OF TIME• STORY TIME: time of the events (ex a film over 50 years ….)• DISCOURSE TIME: time taken to narrate the event (how long to tell the story?Ex 2 hours )
More types of timeMORE TYPES ExampleOF TIMESummary -discourse shorter than story A film takes place over 50 years but shown in 2 hoursEllipsis -establishing discourse time rather than -shot 1: man out of bed…. story -shot 2: man in shower….. -shot 3: man getting dressed…. -shot 4: man driving to work. The audience can fill in the gaps (…)Scene -story and discourse time are equal (to Soap opera which shows a scene in 5 show realism (real time) minutes which is actually 5 minsStretch -discourse is longer than story Scene in race where it is in slow (using slow motion) motion to show a runner winning and to capture the emotionFlashback -character has a flash back (which is a In hunger games, Kat is thinking about thought or memory in the past) Peeta at dinner table, she has a -flashbacks are often in dull colours, black and flashback and audience see her white and altered light (to make it different than thoughts of her sitting outside the real time) bakery and Peeta throwing her bread -causes non linear narrative as you are changing order of timeFlash- -when audience are shown the future scenes or events (often to give clues)forward -causes non linear narrative as you are changing order of time
Time allocation• Remember the audience will not see everything, things are edited in order they get to see what is important. – Who/what has most time on screen? Why? – Who/what has little time on screen and why? – *link to representation/stereotype – *link to placement (shots/angles) where are characters placed in the scene? Are they in the middle of the screen or hidden in a corner or behind other people? – Think of the fast and furious chase scene = who has the most/little time? Why?
Transitions• Straight cutting – to show realism, in conversations etc. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QLkUHZ1qips• Graphic match – when 2 shots match graphically, often with an overlap transition (ex shot of eyeball, then shot of the sun (same size/shape = to show their relationship) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_HG5kPlxzeU• Overlap/dissolve – makes a softer transition, to show ellipsis or time passing http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BvGc6D85fwE http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HK6zGWox6S0• Wipe – often used to show new day or new scene/location (sideways wipe)• Fade in/out (fade to black or appear from black – often used to communicate ending or beginning) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=F0_2ZFdB6Hk• Flash – to show flashbacks or flash-forwards (to show thoughts or memories) (flashes to white) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0SY_qeOIjIg
Special Effects• B&w –often used to show memory or time period• Contrast – to altar the lighting (or contrast = very light lights and dark darks sometimes with memories• Colour - to add a colour filter to show a specific moodExample ‘The ring’ – many scenes are very blue-ish, which show sterile/coldness etc.• Animation – titles of shows or cartoons• CGI – computer generated images (example = avatar, planet of apes, polar express)• Fast forward/slow motion – speeding up or slowing down footage http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZIK4Uf9NhJA (fast) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4QrlPmK4B94 (slow)• Ghost trail – see multiple actions (overlapped) to show someone drunk or on drugs http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Z5xkFN-pOJc (ghost trail) ….. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XI3bnkWD0Fg (hallucination when stung by bee at 2:06)• Blur – to show un-clarity, or fuzzy memory/flashback (bee sting scene – some is blurry when Peeta coming)
Montage editing• Montage editing is a serious of montage which is a series of shots that are not in sequential order, continuous or relate to each other.• It is just like pieces of the puzzle, often used in trailers, TV openings (the show credits/opening)• http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2HAUmII_hcg
Other good videos• http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=d1japIhKU9I filming techniques• Any technique/rule = search in youtube, you can learn about so many!
Key Terms• Continuity• Continuity Editing – 180 degree rule – Match on action – Shot reverse shot – Eyeline match – Cross cutting• Insert shot• Cutaway• Pace• Time GREEN AMBER RED• Transitions – Straight cutting Terms I am Terms I am ok Terms I am – Overlap/dissolve confident with with confused about – Wipe – Fade in/fade out• Special Effects – CGI – B&W – Blur – Fast forward/slow motion• Montage Editing
Homework• Set: Fri Jan 25• Due: Mon Jan 18• 1. Revise the terms ONCE TWICE THREE TIMES (20-30 mins)• 2. Find videos for as many as the terms as you can and put on blog (in Powerpoint or Individual posts) (1-1.5 hours)• 3. Extension: Revise ‘Gender’ PowerPoint on class blogOther homework:• 1. Fix blogs = By Thursday• 2. Assignment 8: Narrative theory (on blog) = Tuesday