Camera Shots andMovementRajiv AriarajAS Media Studies
The two elements ofRepresentation Conducting a good textual analysis (analysing a media product) takes part in two areas.1. Macro2. Micro
Micro Micro can be seen as analysing the “little bits” of a media text. This could be: The Mise-en-Scene (CLAMPS) The Camera Shots and Movements The Editing The Sound
Macro Macro analyses the bigger themes and areas that arise from a textual analysis. For example: The representation of social groups. Whether the text supports ideology or not. The general meaning behind the text.
Aim To define and understand how different camera angles are used in media products. By the end of this session you should... Be able to list at least 7 camera shots. Be able to identify camera shots from a media text.
Establishing Shot This is a shot of an exterior location, that precedes a scene that takes place inside of the it. It usually does not last any longer than a few seconds. Establishing shots are well used conventions in soap operas and TV dramas.
Master Shot A master shot is generally a long shot that covers all of the actors in a scene at once. Master shots are useful for group scenes. They include everyone. All of the action is seen through this one camera, the editor can always fall back on the master shot if there is no other angle to take.
Close Ups Close ups connote that the audience is next to the character. It suggest intimacy and emotional closeness. Close ups are normally used in dramatic scenes.
Close Ups There are three main types of close up.Medium Close Up Close Up (CU) Extreme Close Up (MCU) (ECU)
Mid Shot A mid shot is an approximation to how you would normally see someone while talking to them. You are not too close, or too far. You can see the character in some detail, it is useful for when a character is giving information, but not for expressing an emotion.
Long Shot Characters are now further back from the camera. This connotes that environment they are in is as important as the characters themselves. Just like close ups, there are extreme versions of long shots i.e. The extreme long shot. This can also be called a wide shot. http://collegefilmandmed iastudies.com/cinematog raphy/
Two Shot A two shot simply has two characters that are present on screen. The characters could be facing each other or be side by side. The camera cannot be too far away otherwise it will become a long shot.
Aerial Shot Aerial shots are taken using cranes, helicopters or planes. They provide a good long shot of the surroundings of the area. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AF4DWljYc ac (0.50s)
POV Shot POV stands for point of view shot. This is where the audience sees events from the characters’ perspective. This could also be called the first person perspective. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lXmIO ub22qI&feature=related
Over the shoulder Shot This is self explanatory. The camera takes place over the shoulder of a character, usually talking to another character. This allows you to see things from the subjects point of view without going into a POV shot. This could also be called a third person perspective.
High Angle/ Low Angle A high angle shot makes A low angle shot makes the audience feel as if the audience look up at they are towering above someone. a character. This can connote a sense This can connote the of intimidation or character is symbolise the power of a vulnerable, isolated or character. powerless.
TASK Watch the following clip answer the two questions:1. List the camera shots being used through the clip.2. Why do you some of the camera shots have been used? How does this work with the Mise-En-Scene (CLAMPS)? What meaning do they create?
Camera Movement Just as important as the camera shots, is the way that the camera moves in a media text. By moving the camera draws the audiences’ attention to whatever the producers want the audience to look at. Camera movement can draw attention to, reveal and lead the audience. So understanding what each movement is called is vital to conducting a good textual analysis.
Panning A camera pan is a horizontal movement left or right. It can follow a character walking in a particular direction, or move away from a character standing still. It can reveal parts of the scenery not seen previously. http://collegefilmandmedia studies.com/cinematograp hy/
Tilting A camera tilt moves the camera from vertically up or down. It could create a high or low angle shot. Tilt shots can heighten an audiences’ suspense as they are not sure what the shot will reveal.
Tracking Shot Tracking is when a camera shot is placed on a track and is moved to keep up with the movement of a character. The camera is mounted on a “Dolly”, a cart on a track, which is then pushed or pulled. A camera can track a subject moving towards, away from, moving left or moving right. Tracking shots can curve and change direction, the camera is just always moving in a smooth motion. Make sure you can understand the difference between a track shot and a pan or a tilt. (If the camera was a person, it would be walking in a direction not just moving it’s head). http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AzNQTJ gRioM&feature=player_embedded#! (4.49)
Crane Shot A crane shot is when a camera is mounted on a crane that can move raise the camera smoothly higher or lower. The crane can reveal wide spaces, and reveal a wider setting. http://www.youtube.com/ watch?v=Yg8MqjoFvy4
SteadiCam A SteadiCam is harness that attaches onto a camera man. It allows the camera man to walk freely around, without the use of a track, dolly or crane but can less smooth. http://collegefilmandmedia studies.com/cinematograp hy/
Hand Held Cameras While films and television series are mostly filmed on fixed cameras, occasionally they will use a hand held camera to capture a scene. http://www.youtube.co m/watch?v=O2zG4Cln L9c Handheld camera’s can connote a sense of danger, energy and realism. They can make a fictional film seem a like a real documentary.
Zoom/ Reverse Zoom A zoom is when the camera stays fixed in position but zooms in on a object, location or character. Zooming from a mid shot to a close up could connote that the meaning of the scene is changing to a more emotional tone or to reveal a character’s reaction. A reverse zoom moves the shot from a close up to a mid or long shot. Connoting that the surroundings are becoming more a focus in the story. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bB9cLr7OR- A&feature=related
TASK Write down all of the camera shots, and movements you see in this scene from “Lost In Translation”. What sense is the filmmaker trying to get across? http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7xfb 5vYxYk4
HOMEWORK Watch this clip: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FiQ nH450hPM Identify the Mise-En-Scene using CLAMPS. Identify the Camera shots and movements used.