GE117 – Comp I Planning, Invention, Tone, and Audience Instructor – Neal Peters
Like, what’s happening today? Turn in homework due – Lecture Course project preview
Let’s Review From Week 1 Course Overview and Syllabus Review Importance of Writing in a Technical Career Introduction to the Writing Process - Prewriting - Planning - Drafting - Revision - Editing/Proofreading - Polishing a final “Version.”
Week 1 Review Continued Phase 1 of the Writing Process: Prewriting Exercises designed to generate initial thoughts, ideas, feelings about a topic BEFORE a writer begins drafting. Brainstorming – Good for those who create or use lists in their lives. Freewriting – Good for those who prefer to “jump into” an assignment by writing first. Questioning – Good for those who are unfamiliar with a topic or who are naturally skeptical/curious. Mapping – Good for those who prefer visuals over written words.
Like, what’s happening today?*Week Two Objectives* Describe the importance of Planning in the Writing Process Identify elements that a writer should plan for before drafting. Analyze an audience and adapt writing styles accordingly Link tone and diction to levels of formality in writing
Planning in the Writing Process Q: After you have the necessary materials to build a house (steel, lumber, concrete, etc.), what is the next thing that you would need to actually build one?
Planning in the Writing Process A: Blueprints! Just like no contractor should ever build a house without blueprints, it is not advisable to begin writing anything of relative importance before PLANNING! Today, we will learn about what every writer needs to plan for before drafting.
Planning in the Writing Process Q: What does Planning provide a writer? A: Planning provides writers with: 1) A sense of purpose and direction 2) The ability to pay attention to details 3) The ability to compare a Finished Product with its intended design
Planning in the Writing Process Q: What sort of things does a writer have to plan for before drafting? A: At a minimum, writers must plan for their Objectives, their Audience, their Tone, their Diction, and their Point-of-View.
Planning in the Writing Process Planning your Objective in Writing Whenever someone writes, their must be a clear sense of Purpose: Why are they writing in the first place?
Planning in the Writing Process Types of Objectives in Writing: - To give information - To argue or persuade - To amuse or entertain - To Narrate an event or story - To Compare/Contrast different things. - To analyze Causes/Effects of events - To explain how to do something or how an event occurs (Process Analysis) - To describe a person, place, thing, or activity (Description and Illustration.) - To impress employers (Resumes and Cover Letters.)
Planning in the Writing Process For every piece of writing, there is a specific objective or goal that the writer must meet. It is the entire reason for writing in the first place, so the writer must never lose sight of his or her original purpose!
Planning in the Writing Process The importance of Audience: Just as everything written has a specific objective, everything written will also have specific readers: the writer’s Audience. Those who do not plan for their audience often make similar and consistent errors.
Planning in the Writing Process Planning for an Audience: - Who will be reading this? (Instructor, peer, family, boss, pastor, etc) - What do they know about the topic I’m writing about (A lot, a little, nothing?) - What Tone should I use for this audience? - How Formal should my writing appear?
Audience Checklist What are my reader’s age, sex, and educational levels? How do these factors affect what I need to tell and don’t need to tell my readers? What are my readers’ political, religious, and other beliefs? How do these beliefs influence their attitudes and actions? What interests and needs motivate my audience? How much do my readers already know about my subject? Do they have any misconceptions. Why would I want to address any misconceptions? What Biases do they have about me, my subject, and my opinion? How do my readers expect me to relate to them? What values do I share with my readers that will help me communicate with them? whttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KbTS7320n64 Why is this funny? What assumptions were carefully crafted about the audience?
Planning in the Writing Process Planning for an Audience: Compare the two emails below. Which one is more appropriate to send to your boss? Hey Bossman, You really gotta give this new guy Kevin the can. He sucks! The guy’s always freaking late, he’s too stupid to do anything, and he smells like garbage! Do me a solid and throw out the trash, will ya? B) Dear Mr. Smith, I just wanted to express some concerns regarding our recent hire Kevin. He has poor time management skills and is frequently late or behind schedule. He demonstrates an inability to complete even the simplest of tasks, and recently his personal hygiene has become an issue within the office. This is ultimately your personnel decision, but one I feel you should reconsider.
Planning in the Writing Process Planning for Audience You never want to alienate, provoke, insult, bore, or annoy your readers. You must know who they are to avoid these common pitfalls. Losing your audience: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Hr1VMdBbkng
Planning in the Writing Process Planning for Tone Tone refers to the emotional content conveyed in writing. In speech, tone is very easy to establish – “I don’t appreciate that tone from you…”
Planning in the Writing Process Planning for Tone In writing, Tone is created by 2 choices a writer makes: 1) Sentence Structure (how they form the words.) 2) Diction (the actual words they use.)
Planning in the Writing Process Planning for Tone Any emotion a human can have is a Tone they can project in writing: - Objective and Straightforward - Argumentative - Sarcastic or Facetious - Humorous - Sad or Melancholy - Angry or Upset - Etc.
Planning in the Writing Process Planning for Tone When you have identified your Objective and Audience, it will be easier to determine what Tone will be appropriate.
Planning in the Writing Process Planning for Diction: One choice a writer makes that affects his or her Tone is Diction – the specific kinds of words he or she uses.
Planning in the Writing Process Planning for Diction Every word we use has a Denotation and a Connotation. Denotation refers to the literal, dictionary meaning of a word. Connotation refers to the way words are actually used or the associations people have towards them.
Planning in the Writing Process Denotation vs Connotation Compare the literal definitions of these words with the ways they are actually commonly used: - Bitch - Chick - Bastard - Clown - Queer - Horse - Gay - Circus - Pig - Retarded There’s quite a difference between the Denotation of these words with their common Connotations.
Planning in the Writing Process Planning for Diction The kinds of words you use DO matter. Words similar in Denotation often vary drastically in their Connotations. Shelter or House – Which would you prefer to live in? If a Police Officer were messy, would you call him/her a Pig?
Planning in the Writing Process Planning for Diction Diction also reflects a writer’s level of Formality: How “proper” is the writing for the intended audience? - Informal/Slangy (Like Email # 1) - Casual/Everyday (How you normally speak) - Formal/Technical (Like Email #2)
Planning in the Writing Process Planning for Diction For every Objective and Audience there is an appropriate (and inappropriate!) level of Formality. Your Audience will most likely expect the appropriate level of Formality.
Let’s practice Write a three paragraph formal complaint letter to the STA. Your route’s bus driver allows riders to exhibit dangerous behavior. Riders are allowed to dance in the aisles while consuming food and soda. The driver plays loud music and swerves to the beat of the music. You’re afraid someone will get hurt.
Before you start to write, answer the following questions with a few words or a sentence: 1. What is your subject? 2. What is your purpose? 3. Who is your audience? 4. What tone will you use?
Planning in the Writing Process Planning for Point of View All writing comes from a certain Point-of-View. Through whose “eyes” are we reading from?
Planning in the Writing Process Planning for Point-of-View 1st Person – I, Me, My, Mine, We, Ours, Us. Highly subjective and used when the writer’s thoughts, feelings, opinions need to be expressed in their writing. (I wasn’t sure about Composition I until I got an A on my first assignment.)
Planning in the Writing Process Planning for Point-of-View 2nd Person – You, One. Rarely used except in giving commands, advice, or instructions. Marketing speech is often written in the 2nd person. (You should take two lefts and then a right.) (One should wait one hour after eating before swimming.)
Planning in the Writing Process Planning for Point-of-View 3rd Person – He, she, it, they, them, theirs. Objective and independent. The author does not share personal thoughts or opinions. Used widely in Journalism and Academics. The traditional story telling POV is the 3rd person. (He made a crucial mistake by not planning for such a contingency.)
Planning in the Writing Process Planning for Point-of-View Just like the other elements discussed so far, a writer will determine an appropriate Point-of-View based on his/her Objective and Audience.
Review Like any complex process, writing effectively requires a certain amount of planning before execution. “Fail to plan; plan to fail” - Anonymous
Homework Read in Longman Writer pages 55-60. PHRG pages 13, 17-20. Complete 2 Letters, 2 Audiences assignment—write a formal complaint letter to the president of the STA (Spokane Transit Authority). You are upset because the driver on your route is a dangerous driver. Write a second complaint letter to a friend (this letter will be much more informal). The purpose of this exercise is to practice writing in different tones (levels of formality)
Possible video: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tBb4cjjj1gI