GE117 Week Seven

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GE117 Week Seven

  1. 1. GE 117 Composition I Week 7 Cause and Effect Description and Illustration Essays Show….don’t Tell
  2. 2. GE 117 Composition I Week 6 Cause and Effect - Cause-and-effect writing gives reasons and explanations for events, conditions, or behavior. It answers the need most of us have to understand the world around us.
  3. 3. GE 117 Composition I Week 6 Cause and Effect There are three likely objectives or reasons to use C/E as a writing model. 1) To simply give information 2) To argue or persuade the reader 3) To speculate or predict Let’s read an example—”Black Men and Public Space” p 407
  4. 4. GE 117 Composition I Week 6 Cause and Effect 3. Think carefully and rigorously about Cause and Effect relationships. Understand Causal Chains and avoid mistaking correlation for causation!!! (Avoid commiting the logical fallacy Post Hoc Ergo Propter Hoc) 4. In a small essay, focus just on the causes of a phenomena, or just on the effects. You won’t have enough room to do both.
  5. 5. GE 117 Composition I Week 6 Cause and Effect 5. Use an organization pattern for your Causes and/or Effects: A) Chronological (the order they happen in) B) Emphatic (the order of importance they have) This will help to avoid reader confusion Hand out In-class exercises.
  6. 6. GE 117 Composition I Week 6 Cause and Effect 6. Use language appropriate for C/E writing. Nothing is black or white or guaranteed. Avoid words such as “clearly”, “definitely”, “obviously”, “without a doubt” or “guaranteed.” Try to use words such as “probably”, “most likely”, or “seems to be”. They give you room for doubt and show you understand the complexity of C/E relationships
  7. 7. GE 117 Composition I Descriptive Writing – Chapter 11 Description – Writing that makes use of and focuses on sensory details and experiences.
  8. 8. Descriptive/Illustrative writing  "Illustration is the use of examples to make ideas more concrete and to make generalizations more specific and detailed. Examples enable writers not just to tell but to show what they mean. For example, an essay about recently developed alternative sources of energy becomes clear and interesting with the use of some examples--say, solar energy or the heat from the earth's core. The more specific the example, the more effective it is. Along with general statements about solar energy, the writer might offer several examples of how the home building industry is installing solar collectors instead of conventional hot water systems, or building solar greenhouses to replace conventional central heating." (Alfred Rosa and Paul Eschholz, Models for Writers. St.
  9. 9. GE 117 Composition I Description Descriptive writing makes use of 5 senses: Sight Tastes Sounds Smells Touch Whatever we experience, we do so through our five senses….make use of them!
  10. 10. GE 117 Composition I Description Remember theses strategies for description: 1) Focus on a Dominant Impression – the main “memory” or “image” you have. 2) Select only the relevant details that support the Dominant Impression – ignore all else.
  11. 11. Now Let’s Practice! Look at this image. What emotions does it evoke? Can you, in any way, relate to it? Are there any minor, hidden details that may be relevant to what is happening in the image? In two paragraphs, Explain what is happening in the picture. Use illistrative and
  12. 12. GE 117 Composition I Illustration Illustration: A form of descriptive writing that centers around the use of specific examples that illustrate, demonstrate, or support the Thesis Statement. E.g., if someone asked you, “Have you been to any good restaurants lately?” you probably wouldn’t answer, “Yes,” and then changed the subject immediately. Likely, you would go on to illustrate your answer with examples. All “evidence” is made up of examples!
  13. 13. GE 117 Composition I Illustration Remember these strategies for drafting: 1) Based on your Thesis Statement, choose the appropriate examples to include. 2) Develop your examples with a high level of detail – Be sure to be specific!
  14. 14. GE 117 Composition I Illustration 3) Choose an organizational method that fits your subject and your Thesis Statement. A) Chronological B) Spatial C) Simple to Complex D) Emphatic Sequence
  15. 15. GE 117 Composition I Illustration 4) Choose a consistent point-of-view: A) If an author’s feelings, opinions, beliefs don’t matter , choose 3rd Person POV B) If the author’s feelings, opinions, beliefs do matter, choose 1st Person POV
  16. 16. GE 117 Composition I Homework Assignment - Write an Illustration essay (see page 261 for topics) - Use sensory details or specific examples - Use action verbs - Intro, 3 body paragraphs, Conclusion - Typed, double-spaced, normal 12 pt. font. Course Project Homework: No course project assignments this week. Use this

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