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  • NOVOZYMES PRESENTATION NOVOZYMES A/S
  • NOVOZYMES PRESENTATION NOVOZYMES A/S
  • NOVOZYMES PRESENTATION NOVOZYMES A/S
  • NOVOZYMES PRESENTATION NOVOZYMES A/S
  • NOVOZYMES PRESENTATION NOVOZYMES A/S
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  • NOVOZYMES PRESENTATION NOVOZYMES A/S
  • NOVOZYMES PRESENTATION NOVOZYMES A/S
  • NOVOZYMES PRESENTATION NOVOZYMES A/S
  • NOVOZYMES PRESENTATION NOVOZYMES A/S
  • NOVOZYMES PRESENTATION NOVOZYMES A/S
  • NOVOZYMES PRESENTATION NOVOZYMES A/S
  • NOVOZYMES PRESENTATION NOVOZYMES A/S
  • NOVOZYMES PRESENTATION NOVOZYMES A/S
  • NOVOZYMES PRESENTATION NOVOZYMES A/S
  • NOVOZYMES PRESENTATION NOVOZYMES A/S
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  • NOVOZYMES PRESENTATION NOVOZYMES A/S
  • NOVOZYMES PRESENTATION NOVOZYMES A/S
  • NOVOZYMES PRESENTATION NOVOZYMES A/S

Kirsten birkegaard staer Kirsten birkegaard staer Presentation Transcript

  • Enzymes and Gene Technology – Benefits and Perception in Baking -- A Global Perspective Kirsten Birkegaard Stær , Stakeholder Relations, Region Europe October 20th 2010 Title slide Edit: Add presentation title and speaker(s). Editing slides in the Novozymes template Edit: All graphics are created exclusively for Microsoft PowerPoint. All objects, charts, tables, etc. are editable in PowerPoint and generally in Microsoft Office. Use the basic PowerPoint editing practice: Copy, Paste, Delete, Position, Change colours, lines, etc.. About the Guide: All slides contain guides to easy editing. guide
  • Novozymes in brief
    • World leader in Industrial Enzymes & Microorganisms
    • Sales (2009) : DKK 9 billion
    • More than 5,200 employees
    • Enzymes account for > 90% of turnover
    • Market leader in all main industries
    • More than 700 products used in 130 countries in > 30 different industries
    • ~ 14% of sales invested in R&D
    • More than 6,000 granted patents and pending patent applications
    • State-of-the-art expertise in microbiology, protein chemistry, gene technology and fermentation technology
  • Novozymes- An Industrial Biotech company
    • Biotechnology: use of living organisms, biological principles, -systems and –processes for the production of products and services
    • Industrial biotechnology: uses yeasts, bacteria, and enzymes as “cell factories” to make sustainable energy, detergents, vitamins, chemicals, paper and a host of other everyday things.
  • First enzyme produced by fermentation of a genetically modified microorganism Enzymes produced by fermentation of microorganisms Novozymes and Gene Technology 1941 1952 1978 2010 Production and use of GM enzymes in almost all industries 1953 1973 The double helix discovery (DNA) First recombinant DNA experiments 1986 Site Directed Mutagenesis Invented Enzymes extracted from animal pancreas
  • What is gene technology?
    • Gene technology” or “recombinant DNA techniques” are techniques with which Man can change the genetic composition of an organism through DNA manipulation outside the cell (in vitro). The use of gene technology enables the genetic transfer of desired characteristics (improved traits) among organisms resulting in genetically modified organisms (GMOs).
    NOVOZYMES PRESENTATION 28/02/12
    • Examples of GMOs:
      • GM Plants
      • GM Microorganisms (GMMs)
      • GM Animals
      • Recombinant mammalian cell cultures
  • GM Plants
    • Examples:
      • Soybean
      • Maize
      • Rapeseed
      • Cotton
    • Modified to have:
      • Herbicide tolerance
      • Insect resistance
      • Drought tolerance
      • Improved nutritional value (oleic acid)
    NOVOZYMES PRESENTATION 28/02/12 Global cultivation in 2009: 134 million hectares The cultivation of GM crops worldwide is growing steadily except for Europe. Only 2 GM plants permitted for cultivation in Europe (maize, potato for industrial starch)
  • GM microorganisms
    • Examples:
      • Tailor made genetically modified bacteria and fungi ( Aspergillus oryzae and Bacillus licheniformis ) used as cell factories in containment
    • Modified to optimize the production of:
      • Additives (citric acid, aspartame)
      • Enzymes
      • Vitamins (Vitamin B2, C)
      • Amino acids (animal feed)
      • Chemicals, pharmaceuticals
    NOVOZYMES PRESENTATION 28/02/12
  • Other commercially available GMOs
    • GM animals:
      • Mice, rats
      • Only used in closed systems (laboratories)
      • Used in clinical testing, animal models for particular diseases
    • Recombinant mammalian cell cultures:
      • Only used in closed systems
      • For the manufacturing of bio pharmaceuticals such as monoclonal antibodies, blood factors, cytokines
    NOVOZYMES PRESENTATION 28/02/12
  • Novozymes use of gene technology
    • Novozymes uses gene technology in order to tailor make microorganisms – genetically modified microorganisms- which can be used as cell factories to produce enzymes and other proteins such as biopharmaceutical ingredients
    • The microorganisms are grown in closed tanks and after fermentation microorganisms and enzymes are separated
    • As host organisms we use mainly Aspergillus oryzae , Bacillus licheniformis
    • All Novozymes GM microorganisms are used in containment. Novozymes does not produce GM microorganisms for deliberate release into the environment
    NOVOZYMES PRESENTATION 28/02/12
  • What are enzymes?
    • Enzymes can be found in all living organisms : human beings, animals, plants, microorganisms
    • Enzymes are proteins , which catalyze biological processes
    • Proteins are substances, not organisms
    • All proteins are based on 20 different amino acids, arranged in different order
    • The sequences of the amino acids determines the structure and thus the function and properties of the enzymes (the catalytic activity, the specificity and stability for example)
    NOVOZYMES PRESENTATION 28/02/12
  • What are Microorganisms ?
    • Microorganisms are living organisms (bacteria, fungi ..)
    • All organisms have genes which are based on DNA, and which determine the characteristics of the organism
    • All living organisms can reproduce themselves
    • Microorganisms are very
    • suitable for enzyme production
    NOVOZYMES PRESENTATION 28/02/12
  • Genetically modified microorganisms
    • Genetically modified microorganisms (GMMs) is a subgroup of GMOs (genetically modified organisms)
    • A classical GMM is constructed by taking a gene from one microorganism and inserting it into another microorganism ( also called heteorologous cloning)
    • A selfcloned GMM is constructed by taking multiple copies of a gene and reinserting it into the organism from which the gene was taken originally (also called homologous cloning)
    NOVOZYMES PRESENTATION 28/02/12
  • Further improvements of genetically modified microorganisms
    • Microorganisms are genetically modified so they can produce enzymes in bigger volumes, which are purer and have specific properties
    • The enzymes may be further improved by making small changes to the enzyme producing gene of the GM microorganism
    • The exact changes needed are identified by the use of many advanced technologies including protein structures, super-computing and high throughput screening
    • The enzymes produced by this kind of GMMs are called protein engineered enzymes
    NOVOZYMES PRESENTATION 28/02/12
  • Protein engineered enzymes
    • Protein engineered enzymes are enzymes which are produced by genetically modified microorganisms, which have been changed in a way which allows them to produce enzymes with amino acid sequences which are different from those of the original enzyme
    NOVOZYMES PRESENTATION 28/02/12
  • Industrial Production of Enzymes NOVOZYMES PRESENTATION 28/02/12 RAW MATERIALS FERMENTATION MICROORGANISMS PURIFICATION FORMULATION MICROORGANISMS TO BE INACTIVATED READY TO SELL PRODUCTS GRANULATED PRODUCT LIQUID PRODUCT Diagram Edit: Copy/Paste/Delete objects to use in other illustrations. Resize the objects by pulling the corners. guide
  • Novozymes Safety and Quality come first (I)
    • Novozymes policies state the commitment to quality and safety
    • Products are subjected to extensive toxicological characterization during development
    • Final products are subjected to a thorough risk assessment covering application and handling
    • Production plants are authorized and inspected by national authorities
    • Novozymes has an integrated quality management system that controls development, production, distribution and supporting processes
    NOVOZYMES PRESENTATION 28/02/12
  • Novozymes Safety and Quality come first (II)
    • Food and feed safety is ensured by procedures that control raw materials, production hygiene and traceability (food and feed GMP)
    • Novozymes commitments to quality and safety is documented by a long track record and a number of certifications, e.g.
      • ISO 9001:2008 (quality)
      • ISO 14001:2004 (environment)
      • FAMI-QS (feed producing plants)
      • ISO 22000, FSSC 22000 (Danish plants, food safety)
      • AIB (American Institute of Baking) (Danish and US plant, food safety)
      • Numerous audits by customers
    NOVOZYMES PRESENTATION 28/02/12
  • Why use gene technology? 28/02/12 NOVOZYMES PRESENTATION
  • What are the benefits of using gene technology?
    • Overall a contribution to solving some of the main challenges of our time:
    • From 6 to 9 mia people in 2050
    • Climate changes
    • How to secure enough food, energy and materials?
    • How to adapt to climate changes?
    • How to reduce the impact on climate ?
  • NOVOZYMES PRESENTATION 28/02/12 0.0 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0 7.0 Global warming Acidification Nutrient enrichment Photochemical ozone formation Energy resources Without genetic optimization With genetic optimization Relative impact NZ photo bank
    • GM microorganisms lead to a higher production efficiency, which means a reduction in energy consumption and waste from enzyme production plants
    • GM enzymes have a higher specificity and purity
    • GM microorganisms allows the production of enzymes which would otherwise not be available for economical or environmental reasons
    Key benefits of using GM microorganisms for enzyme production -comparing environmental impact
  • Key benefits for the application of enzymes from GM microorganisms
    • When applied in various industries enzymes produced with the help of GM microorganisms have several advantages including:
    • The production of detergents which can function and clean clothes at low temperatures
    • The production of advanced biofuels with high greenhouse gas reduction potentials
    • The production of healthier and safer food of higher quality
    • The production of animal feed with improved utilization and reduced loss of nutrients and causing less pollution
    • The production of materials from renewable raw materials as well as waste materials
    • A significant contribution to improving energy savings, greenhouse gas reductions and better land use
    28/02/12
  • Gene technology contributes to The Biobased Society
    • Low dependence on oil
    • Extensive use of renewable raw materials from agriculture
    • More recycling – less waste
    • Higher crop yields
    • Better food quality
    • Biorefineries and biogas plants
  • Margarine production : healthier product French fries: healthier food Baking: better utilisation of raw materials in the flour Mozarella production: higher cheese yields Soy degumming: better utilisation of raw materials Enzymes in food production Juice: better utilisation of raw materials Brewing: better utilisation of raw materials
  • Bread production with enzymes: moist and long lasting freshness NOVOZYMES PRESENTATION 28/02/12 After a few days bread becomes dry, hard and unpleasant to eat because starch in the bread crystallises. Novamyl is a special amylase (produced by a GM microorganism) used in bread making. It acts on the starch to diminish the crystallisation. The effect is that bread stays moist and fresh longer.
  • Life cycle assessment (LCA) in the baking industry NOVOZYMES PRESENTATION 28/02/12 High enzyme method Conventional method Low dosage of Novamyl + 116 breads Higher dosage of Novamyl + 106 breads 100 breads sold at the primary store *Life cycle assessment (LCA). Environmental assessment* is used to assess the environmental changes when Novamyl is applied to reduce the amount of waste bread generated at the primary store
  • NOVOZYMES PRESENTATION 28/02/12 6 Less flour, heat, electricity and packaging Less heat and electricity Less fertiliser and traction Changes in the bread supply chain when Novamyl is introduced in baking industry Milling Distribution Animal feed Wheat production Baking Less driving Sale from primary store Animal production 16 waste bread Landfill 100 breads Novamyl
  • NOVOZYMES PRESENTATION 28/02/12 Used Saved Savings and uses per 100 breads sold from the supermarket 10 bread 4.8 kg 10 plastic bags 80 g 3 ton · km transportation Novamyl 1.4 g 4.8 kg Animal feed corresponding to 10 waste bread
  • NOVOZYMES PRESENTATION 28/02/12 g PO 4 eq. 0.0001 34 g ethylene eq. 9.0 0.004 Energy consumption 0.16 53 Novamyl Saved bread Global warming 0.01 5.4 Novamyl kg CO 2 eq. MJ Smog formation Nutrient enrichment Waste bread is disposed Saved bread Novamyl Saved bread Novamyl Saved bread 50 40 30 20 10 Environmental impacts per 100 breads provided to the consumer 50 40 30 20 10 5 4 3 2 1 10 8 6 4 2 50 40 30 20 10
  • NOVOZYMES PRESENTATION 28/02/12 g PO 4 eq. 34 g ethylene eq. 9.0 Energy consumption 53 Saved bread Global warming 5.4 kg CO 2 eq. MJ Smog formation Nutrient enrichment Waste bread is used as animal feed Saved bread Saved bread Saved bread 50 40 30 20 10 Environmental impacts per 100 breads provided to the consumer 11 Novamyl + animal feed 2.5 Novamyl + animal feed 0.56 Novamyl + animal feed 20 Novamyl + animal feed 50 40 30 20 10 5 4 3 2 1 10 8 6 4 2 50 40 30 20 10
  • NOVOZYMES PRESENTATION 28/02/12 Perspectives About 6 billion breads are consumed annually in the United States. Use of the high dose of Novamyl in all bread consumed in the US could potentially reduce CO 2 emission by 0.3 million tonnes per year Corresponding to 35.000 average world citizens’ annual CO 2 emissions or 75,000 standard cars’ annual CO 2 emissions
  • Mozarella cheese production with enzymes 28/02/12
    • YieldMAX is a phospholipase which transforms phospholipids to lyso-phospholipids and free fatty acids
    • Lyso-phospholipids are better emulsifiers than phospholipids
    • YieldMAX can increase yield in e.g. Mozzarella production.
    • Improved use of raw material
    • Savings on CO 2 emission, nutrient enrichment, agricultural land and use of fossil energy
    O C R 2 O CH CH 2 O P O X O - H 2 C O C R 1 O Phospholipid H 2 C OH C R 1 O C H CH 2 O P O X O - Lysophospholipid R 2 O C O O O Fatty acid - O + H 2 O P-Lipase
  • Degumming of soybean oil with enzymes
    • Soybean oil contains phospholipids
    • Phospholipids have a negative impact on storage stability and processing of vegetable oil and must be removed
    • Removal may be done with chemicals and heat or with enzymes
    • Lecitase Ultra is a phospholipase that is able to convert the phospholipids in oil to facilitate removal from the oil
    • By substituting the traditional phospholipids removal process with an enzymatic process chemicals and energy are saved and the yield of oil is increased
    28/02/12
  • Barley Brewing of Beer 28/02/12 Beer has traditionally been produced from malted barley With Ondea Pro, great beer can be produced from un-malted barley Avoiding malting reduces CO 2 emissions and barley losses Greenhouse gas emissions can be reduced with 8% * and 7% less land is required to produce a hectoliter of beer. * 8% of beer production, primary packaging, and upstream processes, e.g. barley (distribution and retail not included)
  • Enzymatic interesterification(IE) of margarine
    • Concern over industrially produced trans fat acids (cardiovascular diseases)
    • Interesterification improves the melting point of fat, but can also lead to trans fatty acid formation
    • Enzymatic interesterification does not lead to trans fatty acid formation
    28/02/12
  • Reduction of acrylamide formation in baking
    • Acryl amide is classified by the International Agency for Research on Cancer as “probably carcinogenic to humans” based on studies in rats and mice
    • Acrylaway is an asparaginase for food which effectively reduces the formation of acryl amide
    • Reduction of acryl amide up to 90% in foods such as: biscuits, crisp bread, crackers, snacks, and tortilla chips
    • Does not influence the taste or looks of the product
  • Kirsten Birkegaard Stær , Stakeholder Relations, Region Europe Enzymes and Gene Technology - Perception October 2010 NOVOZYMES PRESENTATION
  • Public Perception of Gene Technology
    • Controversy began in 1996 when the first shipments of GM soybeans came to Europe
    • Many NGOs are still against the cultivation of GM plants in fields (deliberate release) and the use of GM ingredients in food production
    • After 15 years the conclusion seems to be that consumer acceptance is the key to a broader acceptance among stakeholders
    NOVOZYMES PRESENTATION 28/02/12
  • GMO Consumer Perception in Europe (I) NOVOZYMES PRESENTATION 28/02/12 Change in the level of optimism towards biotechnology and genetic engineering among European consumers Eurobarometer 1999-2005
      • 1000 respondents per Member State
  • GMO perception in Europe: Opposition decreasing or acceptance increasing? NOVOZYMES PRESENTATION 28/02/12 Percentage of people likely to buy GMOs according to given qualities
      • 1000 respondents per Member State
    Eurobarometer 2002 and 2005
  • Would consumers buy GM products? – a practical test from 2007 (I) NOVOZYMES PRESENTATION 28/02/12 Fruits sold at same prices: Bio = organic GM products = “spray-free genetically modified” 2736 respondents Ref: GMO COMPAS
  • Would consumers buy GM products? – a practical test from 2007 (II) NOVOZYMES PRESENTATION 28/02/12 Fruits sold at different prices: Bio(organic): 15% higher than conventional GM products: 15% lower than conventional 2736 respondents Ref: GMO COMPAS
  • GMO Consumer Perception in Europe (II)
    • EuroBarometer (2008 survey ”Attitudes of European Citizens towards the Environment”):
      • 1000 respondents per Member State
      • 20% of the Europeans are concerned about GMO (24% in 2004)
      • Concerns about climate going up (57 % in 2008)
    • UK Food Safety Agency (February 2008):
      • 2627 respondents
      • Less than 3% mention GMO as something to be concerned about in relation to food (unaided)
      • 20% worried about GM food (25% in 2006)
    • GMO Compass (2008):
      • 5435 internet answers in 5 days
      • 84,3 % find that GM crops should be taken into account as a possibility of increasing yields and at the same time protect the environment
  • Public perception of enzymes from GMMs
    • Enzymes from GMOs/GMMs are not part of the public GMO debate
    • The GM-Food issue is not about enzymes but GM-plants
    • NGOs (GreenPeace) have orally stated that enzymes and contained use of GMOs/GMMs are of no concern
    • The situation is vulnerable because consumers may mix up the issues and may not see a difference
    • Focus group studies show that consumers/the public need and want information, that they are ready for a more nuanced debate and that they believe that dialogue is very important
  • Novozymes position on gene technology
    • Novozymes supports the safe and sustainable use of gene technology in industrial processes, agriculture and health care. 
    • Novozymes finds that gene technology offers a variety of benefits which can contribute to a sustainable development of society including: 
      • Better and cleaner industrial processes
      • Extended use of renewable raw materials as substitutes for fossil raw materials
      • More sustainable manufacturing processes for food, feed, fuel and chemicals
      • Higher crop yields and reduced use of pesticides in agriculture
      • Development of new and better health care products 
    • In order to ensure an adequate level of safety Novozymes supports that robust, science based regulation is in place for processes and products involving gene technology
    • Novozymes acknowledges the need for improving the general level of knowledge of biotechnology and gene technology and we will continue to provide information and engage in dialogue with stakeholders about benefits and risks in relation to our use of gene technology.
    NOVOZYMES PRESENTATION 28/02/12
  • Kirsten Birkegaard Stær , Stakeholder Relations, Region Europe Enzymes and Gene Technology - Rules and Regulation October 2010 NOVOZYMES PRESENTATION
  • Safety Regulation and Gene Technology
    • Safety of gene technology is very high on the political agenda world wide
    • Legislation has developed over the last 25 years (World’s first law on gene technology in Denmark 1986)
    • Objectives of legislation:
      • Protection of the environment (irreversible effects)
      • Protection of human health (workers, consumers)
    • General principles:
      • Risk assessments before placing on market (premarket approval)
      • Case-by-case evaluation of potential risks including cumulative long-term effects
      • Independent scientific advice
      • Monitoring after approvals
      • Traceability and labelling
      • Discriminate “deliberate release” and “contained use”
    NOVOZYMES PRESENTATION 28/02/12
  • Safety regulationand contained use of GM microorganisms
    • Contained use of GMMs: measures are taken to limit the contact between the GMMs and the general population and the environment
    • Contained use relates to the actual process of genetic modification, but also to the use, storage, transport and destruction of GMMs
    • Approval of contained use production after risk assessment classifying the activities in relation to the risk they present.
    • Classified in relation to the risks they present: control emissions and the disposal of material from contained use
    • All Novozymes enzyme activities are class 1 activities and involve only microorganisms which do not cause disease and are very unlikely to survive in the environment outside the factories
    • NZ production process separates the enzymes from the GMMs, which are inactivated and used as fertilizer (DK)
    NOVOZYMES PRESENTATION 28/02/12
  • Safety regulation and GM enzymes used for food
    • Many countries have regulatory approval processes for enzymes (GM as well as non-GM) used in food production
    • For GM enzymes the GM microorganism, which produces the enzyme is specifically evaluated with regard to which microorganisms are involved and how it is constructed. Furthermore the enzyme undergoes a range of toxicity tests
    • Novozymes ready-to-sell GM enzymes do not contain GMMs. After fermentation the enzyme is separated from the microorganism and purified to ensure that no living microorganisms are present in the final enzyme product.
    NOVOZYMES PRESENTATION 28/02/12
  • EU- GMO LEGISLATION
    • Directive 2001/18 of the European Parliament and of the Council on the deliberate release into the environment of genetically modified organisms
    • Directive 2009/41/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council on the contained use of genetically modified micro-organisms
    • Regulation 1829/2003 of the European Parliament and of the Council on genetically modified food and feed
    • Regulation 1830/2003 of the European Parliament and of the Council concerning the traceability and labeling of genetically modified organisms and the traceability of food and feed products produced from genetically modified organisms
    NOVOZYMES PRESENTATION 28/02/12
    • Traceability of GM material ”from farm to fork”
    • Authorisation and monitoring of GM food/feed
    • GM-labelling of food and feed
    • GM-Labelling is required for:
    • - food/feed
    • - food ingredients/feed materials
    • - food additives/feed additives
    • if they are GMOs, contain GMOs or are derived from GMOs
    EU Regulations on GM Food/Feed NOVOZYMES PRESENTATION 28/02/12 Animated Vertical Flower Animation: Grows from below with fading clover. Edit: It is possible to change the colour by simple PowerPoint editing. Use: The Vertical Floral texture is used to represent a celebration of achievement and recognition of success. guide
  • However the following are outside the scope of the Regulation and therefore no GM –labelling is required:
    • Food- and Feed processing aids
    • Food and Feed produced by fermentation using a genetically modified microorganism which is kept under contained conditions and is not present in the final product
    • Food from animals fed on GM-feed
    • Products with less then 0,9% GM-material if the presence is adventitious (0,5 % for products that have passed EU scientific risk assessment but not yet given a formal authorization)
    NOVOZYMES PRESENTATION 28/02/12
  • EU Food Enzyme Regulation
    • EU Regulation 1332/2008 on food enzymes
    • All food enzymes covered
    • All food enzymes must undergo a risk assessment (EFSA)
    • If the food enzyme falls under the GM legislation (1829/2003) it must also be approved according to those rules
    • A positive list will be established
    • Rules on B2B labeling
    • Labeling of food in accordance with food labeling directive
    NOVOZYMES PRESENTATION 28/02/12
  • Labeling of food enzymes on the final food
    • In accordance with the food labeling directive. This means:
    • For enzymes used in the same way as processing aids: No labeling
    • For enzymes NOT used in the same way as processing aids: Labeling similar to food additives ( category and specific name or E- number)
    • No GM-labeling if outside scope of GM-legislation (Regulation 1829/2003)
  • THANK YOU NOVOZYMES PRESENTATION