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Lubrication

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Lubrication Lubrication Presentation Transcript

  • WELCOME TO THE WORLD OF LUBRICANTS THIS SESSION IS  PURPOSEFUL  STRATEGIC (kausal)  ALL ABOUT SAVING MONEY  INCREASING MACHINE RELIBILITYPRES BY – P. C. MISHRA  ABOUT SERIOUS BUSINESS OF ORGANIZING  PLAN TO LEARN FROM OUR MISTAKES  BENCHMARK TO OTHERS SUCCESS
  • WE ALL ARE COMMITTED TO OURGOAL
  • BASICS-FRICTION- FORCE THAT RESISTS RELATIVE MOTION BETWEEN TWO SURFACES IN CONTACT DRY – BETWEEN TWO SOLIDS LUBRICATED- BETWEEN TWO SOLIDS SEPERATED BY LAYER OF GAS OR LIQUID FLUID- BETWEEN LAYERS WITHIN THE FLUID RELATIVE TO EACH OTHER SKIN-BETWEEN SOLID BODY THROUGH A FLUID INTERNAL-BETWEEN ELEMENTS MAKING UP A SOLID MATERIAL WHILE IT GOES UNDER DEFORMATION
  • STATIC- BETWEEN TWO SOLID OBJECTS NOT MOVING TO EACH OTHER, THISPREVENTS OBJECT FROM SLIDING. LIKE CAR TYRE AS IT ROLLS ON GROUNDMAX. STATIC FRIC= COFECIENT OF STATIC FRICTION X NORMAL FORCE ( VARIES FROM0 TO MAX )KINETIC- BETWEEN TWO OBJECTS ARE MOVING . COFFECIENT OF KINEMETICFRICTION IS LESS THAN STATIC COFFECIENT OF FRICTION
  • SLIDINGROLLING FRICTIONBOUNDARY LUBRICANT SLIDING SOLID SEMISOLID FLUID LIQUID BOUNDRY GASEIOUSSUBSTANCE CAPABLE OF REDUCING FRICTION BY MAKING SMOOTH ORSLIPPERY
  • SOLID• ICE, TALC, GRAPHITE• MOLYBDENUM DISULPHIDE, POLY TETRA FLUOR ETHYLENE(PTFE)/ TEFLON,LIQUID/ SEMISOLID• CREAM , GEL, GHEE, GREASE , PETRLEUM JELLY• WATER, VEGATIBLE OIL, OIL FROM ANIMAL SOURCES, MINERAL OIL(DRIVED FROM CRUDE OIL), SYNTHETIC OILGASEEOUS• AIR, STEAM• TECHNICAL GASES, LIQUID METAL VAPOURS
  • Function of lubricant  REDUCE FRICTION  REDUCE WEAR  DISSIPATES HEAT  PREVENTS RUST  PREVENTS CORRISON/ OXIDATION  ACTS AS SEAL TO OUTSIDE CONTAMINANTS  FLUSHES CONTAMINANTS  REDUCE NOISE
  • HOW DOES IT DO IT ? SEPERATION OF MOVING PARTS HYDROSTATIC LUBRICATION:- HIGH ONLINE PREESURE DRIVES LUB IN THE SPACE CAUSESSEPERATION BY HYDROLIC FORCE HYDRODYNAMIC LUBRICATION:- IN THIS MODE A “A FULL FLUID FILM” SEPERATES THEMETALIC CONTACT. MECHANICAL FRICTION IS SUBSTITUTED BYFLUID FRICTION R how
  • GREASE = LUB.OIL(85 TO 95%) + THICKNINGAGENT+PERFORMANCE ENHANCING ADDITIVESHOW IT WORKS ?AS MOVING PARTS COME IN CONTACT WITH GREASE LUBOIL BLEEDS FROM THE GREASE TO PROVIDE EITHER• FLUID FILM• BOUDARY LUBRICATIONTHE OIL PICKED UP BY MOVING PARTS LOOSE DUE TOEVOPARATION OR LEAKAGE SO THE GREASE MUSTCONTINIOUSLY BLEED TO PROVIDE SUFFICIENTLUBRICATION.
  • GREASE CONSISTENCY:-IT IS MEASURE OF ITS RESISTENCE TO DEFORM BY APPLIED FORCEIT IS IN TRMS OF DEPTH IN TENTHS OF A mm THAT A STNDARD CONE WILL SINKUNDER PRESCRIBED CONDITION REFERRED AS PENETRATION NO.THE NATIONAL GREASE LUBRICATING INSTITUTE(NGLI)HAS GRADED IT FROM000 (SOFT) TO 6 (HARD) GREASE SHOULD BE SOFT ENOUGH TO ALLOW EASY APPLICATION, PROVIDE ACCEPTABLE LUBRICATION & NOT SO SOFT THAT IT MAY LEAK. THE PRESENCE OF ANY PARTICLES WHOSE SIZE IS LARGER THEN THE FILM THICKNESS CAN BE DETERMINATIVE TO THE SMOOTH RUNNING AND SERVICE LIFE OF THE BEARINGS.
  • Used Grease having contamination
  • The Graph represents vibration peaks in Contaminated Grease Not contaminated grease
  • HANDLING GREASE & PACKING IT IN BEARING ENSURE GREASE DRUM IS ALWAYS COVERD. LID SHOULD BE OPENED ONLY IN COVERED PREMISES & JUST ENOUGH TO REMOVEGREASE. THEREAFTER LID SHOULD BE PROPERLY CLOSED. DO NOT TOUCH THE GREASE , TO AVOID SWEAT CONTAMINATION. USE CLEAN & COVERED GREASE DISPENSING UNIT/CARRYGREASE FULLY COVERED IN OIL PROOF PAPER. REMOVE USED GREASE FROM BEARING COMLETELY.
  • USE DIESEL/ KEROSENE (NOT PETROL ORSOLVENT) FOR CLEANING THE BEARING. COMPRESSED AIR SHOULD NOT BE USED FORDRYING. ENSURE CORRECT AMOUNT OF GREASE ( 1/3TO ½ OF AVAILABLE SPACE) OVER PACKING OF GREASE IN CORRECTLYALIGNED & LOADED EQUPMENT CAUSES FORHOT RUNNING OF BEARING,OILSEAPAGE FROMBEARING CAKING OF GREASE & DAMAGE THEBEARING. Real grease gun
  • LUBRICATIG OIL = LUB. OIL BASE STOCK +PERFORMANECE ENHANCING ADDITIVESLUB.BASE STOCK: PETROLIUM OIL SYNTHETIC OIL VEGATABLE OIL
  • CHARACTERSTICS OF LUB OIL VISCOSITY: IT IS MEASURE OF A FLUIDS INTERNAL FRICTION ORRESISTANCE TO FLOW.HIGH VISCOSITY FLUID HAS GREATER INTERNAL RESISTANCEGREATER LOAD CAPACITYMORE TEPERATURE RISECHARACTERSTATICS
  • DIFFERENET OILS SHOW VARYINGDEGREES OF CHANGE IN VISCOSITY WITHTEMPURATURE. IT IS NECESSARY TO DESIGNATE THE RATE OFCHANGE OF VISCOSITY VARIATION OF OIL . VISCOSITY INDEX: IT IS A NUMBER WHICH DESIGNATESTHE VARIATION OF VISCOSITY WITH RESPECT TO TEMPERATURE
  • TOTAL BASE NO: IT IS A MEASURE OF THE OIL’S ACIDFIGHTING ABLITY. IT IS QUOTED AS NUMBER .THIS IS THE QUANTITY OF ACID , EXPRESSED IN TERMS OF THEEQUIVALENT NUMBER OF mg OF POTASSIUM HYDROXIDE, THAT ISREQUIRED TO NEUTRALIZE ALL THE BASIC CONSTITUENTSPRESENT IN ONE gm OF OIL. TOTAL ACID NO: IT IS A MEASURE OF TENDENCY OF THEOIL TO TURN ACIDIC IN SERVICE .THIS IS THEWEIGHT IN MILIGRAMS OF POTASSIUM HYDROXIDEREQUIRED TO NEUTRALIZE ONE GRAM OF OIL .TAN IS USEFUL FOR MNITORING TURBINE OIL ORHYDROLIC OIL where as TBN FOR ENGINE OIL.
  • WHY TO MONITOR?
  • CONTA MINATION – EXTERAL-OIL CAN GET DIRT, DUST, WATER ,STEAM, METALLICPARTICLES FROM MACHINE etc FROM EXTERNALSOURCEINTERNAL-
  • CONSUMPTION OF ADDITIVES CONSUMPTION OF CORROISIONINHIBITORS INGRESS OF AIR FORMING SCUM OXIDIZATION- IT CAUSES ACIDFORMATION ,SLUDGE FORMATION & BLACKENS THE OIL (METALIC PARTICULATES ACT AS CATALYST FORSIDE BY SIDE REACTION)CONSUMPUTION OF ANTI WEARAND TEAR ADDITIVESDEGRADATION OF DISPERSINGADDITVES:
  • SAMPLEING:IT IS CRITICAL PHASE FORDETERMININING THEHEALTHINESS OF LUBRCANTAND THE EQUIPMENT ORMACHINELUBRICATING OIL IS THELIFE BLOOD OFMACHINE Real oil analysis
  • CLEAN THE AREA( SAMPLE POINT). DISCARD INITIAL VOLUME FILL MAXIMUM TO ¾ OF COTAINER CHOOSE A CONTAINER WHICH IS – NEW AND CLEAN INERT AND ODOUR LESS HAVE TIGHT ENCLOSURE SAMLING POINT – SHOULD REPRESENT THE SYSTEM OILIN CIRCULATION . IT SHOULD NEVER BE FROM THE DRAINPLUG OF THE EQUIPMENT.
  • WHEN A SAMPLESHOULD BE TAKEN ? WHEN THE MACHINE ISIN SERVICE AFTER ADDING MAKEUP OIL IMMEDIATELY AFTERSHUT DOWN
  • TEST METHODS AT CSTPS CHANDRAPUR1 WATER ASTM(AMERICAN SOC.OF TESTING &MATERILS)D-95 USES DISTILLATION EXPRESSES IN VOLUME %
  • ASTM – D-1744-KARL FISCHER REAGENT METHOD: THIS METHOD IS ACCURATE FOR SMALL QUANTITIES OF WATER AND RESULTS ARE EXPRESSED IN PPM 2. SEDIMENTS OIL SAMPLE IS WASHED WITH SOLVENT IN A SPECIFIED APPRATUS ,SEDIMENT SO COLLECTED ARE WEIGHED IN %MASS 3. TAN ASTM –D974-AN INICATOR SOLUTION IS MIXED & KOH IS ADDED TILL COLOUR CHANGES ASTM-D664- HERE ELECTRICAL CONDUCTIVITY IS MEASURED AS THE KOH IS ADDED. EXPRESSED IN Mg KOH/gTAN should not be used as sole criterion fordeterioration of oil
  • 4. KINEMATIC VISCOSITY:ASTM D –445 :TIME TAKEN FOR A GIVEN VOLUME OF OIL TO PASS THROUGH A SPECIFIED SIZE ORIFICE ATGIVEN TEMPERATURE IS MEASURED AND IS CONVERTED TO KINEMATIC VISCOSITY INCENTISTOKES K. VISCOSITY INCREASES DUE TO PRESENCE OF OXIDATION DUE TO INGRESS OF INSOLUBLE PRODUCTS DUE TO CONTAMINATION WITH HIGHER VISCOSITY PRODUCTS
  • Oil analysis results affects the performance of machine.Achieving accurate measurement requires great care insample handling at each step in the process, includinghandling at the laboratory.PRECISE ANDRELIABLECONDITIONMONITORING ISNEEDED FORCORRECTPREDICTIONS
  • USED LAB BOTTLES ARE REUSED FOR SAMPLING. SAMPLE IS GENERALLY COLLECTED FROM THEDRAIN OF THE MACHINE. OIL REPLACEMENT IS BASED ON PHYSICALAPPEARANCE OF OIL NOT ON ACTUAL ANALYSIS. THERE IS ABSENCE OF PROPER RECORD , PERIOD, PROCEDURE AND PARTICULAR POINT . TEST RESULTS OBTAINED FROM OUR CHEMICALLAB GENERALLY DO NOT TALLY WITH THE IOCL.
  • THERE ARE HEVY LEKAGES IN OUR MACHINES ASONLY 3 TO 4% OF WASTE OIL CAN BE GENERATED.FOR ANY ORGANIZATION LUBRICANTCONSUMPTION IS THE CRITERIA FOR COMARISION OFITS PROPER MANAGEMENT.LUB.OIL CONSUMPTION RATIO= ANNUALPURCHASE IN LITRE/ TOTAL CHARGE IN INSTALLEDVOLUME IN LITREHERE IT COMES ABOUT 0.49 WHERE AS COMPAREDWITH WELL MANAGED POWER STATION IS ONLY0.079.
  • OIL RESERVOIRS ( LOP TANK ) COVER IS NOT SEALEDGENERALLY LEFT OPEN SO DIRECT WATER AND DUSTMAY FIND WAY INSIDE.ON LNE FILTERS USED ARE WIRE MESH TYPE ANDALLOW PARTICLES OF EVEN 60 MICRON.OIL DRUMS ARE HANDLED MANNUALY.NO PROPER TOOLS AVAILABLE FOR PROPERHANDLING.THERE IS WRONG BELIEF THAT ‘’ HIGHER LUBRICANTLEVEL SAFER IS THE MACHINE “EXCESS LEVEL CAUSES LEKAGE OF OIL SEALS , BEARINGFAILURE AND MAINTENANCE VS LEKAS CONTINUE INCLSED CYCLE.
  • THERE IS HIGH TENDENCY OF THROUGHINGAWAY THE CONTAMINATED /USED OIL IN OILDRAINS.THERE IS TENDENCY OF HIDING THE EVENTSOF OIL LEKAGE AND NO RECORD AREMAINTANED .
  • ENVIRONMENTAL FACTS•USED OIL ON THE GROUND MAKES IT UNFERTILEAND KILLS ALL THE VEGITATION THERE.•IT CAN PERFORATE TO UNDERGROUD STREAMAND POLLUTE THE WATER.•ONE LITRE OF USED OIL POLLUTES ONEMILLION LITRES OF WATER•ONE LITRE OF CAN FORM 400 SQUARE METERSSLICK WHICH CAN KILL ALL THE MARINE LIFEBENEATH THAT AREA.•BURNING FIVE LITRES OF OIL POLLUTES SAMEAMOUNT OF AIR AS A MAN BREATHS IN THREEYEARS.
  • What can be done? WE SHOULD EDUCATE AT ALL THE LEVELS SAMPLING POINTS,INTERVAL, PROCEDURE FOR EACH EQIPMENT IS TO BECLEARLY MENTIONED THE DATA BASE IS TO BE MAINTAINED RELIBLE LABORATORY HAS TO BE IDENTIFIED PERIODIC OIL REPLACEMENT DATA HAS TO BE BASED ON OIL ANALYSIS ON LINE FILTER UNITS OF 4 MICRON MAY BE USEDOFF LINE FILTER SUCH AS SHOWN HERE MAY BEUSED
  • OIL RESERVOIR SHOULD BE COMLETELY SEALED WITH INSTALLATION OF SUITABLECAPACITY
  • COALSCENCE SAMPLING VALVE FIXINGFILTER
  • MODERNISATION OF LUB ROOM, HANDLING TOOLS
  • 6*600MW = 3600 MW TUTUKA POWER STATION HAVING LUB OIL CONSUMPTION RATIO= 0.074SKILLS AND ATTITUDES CAN GO ALONG WAY TOWARD ENSURINGTHAT THE BEST LUB PRACICES ARE IMPLEMENTED & EFFECTIVE
  • RE REFINIING OF OIL