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INTRODUCTION TO PETROLEUM
REFINERY
PETROLEUM (BLACK GOLD)
• MIXTURE CONTAINING HUNDREDS OF MOLECULAR COMPOUNDS
• CAN BE CHEMICALLY LINKED OR MODIFIED TO PRODUCE A VARIETY OF USEFUL
MATERIALS
• RICH IN ENERGY THAT IS RELEASED WHEN THE MOLECULES UNDERGO
COMBUSTION
• CRUDE OIL - GREENISH BROWN TO BLACK LIQUID THAT CAN BE THIN LIKE WATER
OR THICK LIKE SYRUP, FOUND UNDERGROUND AND PUMPED TO THE SURFACE.
• PIPELINES, TANKERS, AND BARGES TRANSPORT IT TO REFINERIES
CHEMICAL COMPOSITION
• OPEN CHAIN OR ALIPHATIC COMPOUNDS
• N-PARAFFIN SERIES (CnH2n+2)- LARGEST FRACTION OF PETROLEUM CRUDES
• ISOPARAFFIN SERIES (CnH2n+2)- BRANCHED CHAINED ARE DESIRABLE ; PRODUCED BY
ALKYLATION, HYDROFORMING, AND ISOMERISATION
• RING OR CYCLIC COMPOUNDS
• NAPHTHENE SERIES (CnH2n) – SECOND MOST OCCURRING SERIES IN CRUDES,
SATURATED (METHYLCYCLOHEXANE, CYCLOHEXANE)
• AROMATIC OR BENZENE SERIES (CnH2n-6) – PRESENT IN SMALL AMOUNTS; PRODUCED BY
HYDROFORMING
• ASPHALTS- COMPLEX MATERIALS OF RELATIVELY LOW VALUE CONSISTING OF
COLLOIDS OF ASPHALTENES AND RESINS IN OIL
• ASPHALTENES- BROWNISH-BLACK SOLIDS SOLUBLE IN AROMATICS, BUT NOT
PARAFFINS, COMPOSED OF C, H, S, O, N
• RESINS- HIGHLY ADHESIVE, BROWN SEMI-SOLIDS OF LOWER MOL.WT. THAN
ASPHALTENES, BUT SAME CHEMICAL COMPOSITION
WHAT IS PETROLEUM REFINING?
• PETROLEUM REFINING IS DEFINED AS THE INDUSTRIAL PROCESS OF
PRODUCTION OF USEFUL PETROLEUM PRODUCTS FROM CRUDE OIL.
• THE CRUDE OIL IN ITS RAW FORM IS A DARK AND STICKY LIQUID WHICH IS NOT
USEFUL. TO GET THE USABLE PRODUCTS FROM THE CRUDE OIL, IT NEEDS TO
BE REFINED. THE PLANT WHERE THE USEFUL PRODUCTS ARE SEPARATED
FROM CRUDE OIL IS KNOWN AS A PETROLEUM REFINERY.
HOW IS PETROLEUM REFINED? WHAT ARE THE STAGES OF OIL
REFINING?
CRUDE OIL OR PETROLEUM CONSISTS OF VARIOUS HYDROCARBONS. THE
CRUDE OIL REFINING PROCESS BREAKS THE CRUDE OIL DOWN INTO VARIOUS
COMPONENTS TO MAKE USEFUL NEW PRODUCTS. THIS PETROLEUM REFINING IS
A VERY COMPLEX PROCESS AND REQUIRES HIGHLY EXPENSIVE INDUSTRIAL
FACILITIES. THE BASIC CRUDE OIL REFINING PROCESS STEPS INVOLVED IN ALL
PETROLEUM REFINING FOR THE PRODUCTION OF USABLE PRODUCTS ARE:
Distillation/Separation
Atmospheric Distillation
Vacuum Distillation
Conversion
Cracking
Reforming
Alkylation
Polymerization
Isomerization
Coking
Visbreaking
Treatment
Blending
DESALTING
• REMOVAL OF SALTS FROM CRUDE
• PURPOSE
• TO REMOVE THESE UNDESIRABLE IMPURITIES, ESPECIALLY SALTS AND WATER,
FROM THE CRUDE OIL PRIOR TO DISTILLATION.
• TO REDUCE CONSUMPTION OF NEUTRALIZERS
• TO REMOVE METALS WHICH MAY POISON REFORMER CATALYST
• TO AVOID LENGTHY AND EXPENSIVE PLANT SHUT DOWNS
7
WHY NEED TO REMOVE IMPURITIES ?
• TO AVOID CORROSION DUE TO SALTS IN THE CRUDE OIL, CORROSION
CONTROL CAN BE USED. BUT THE BYPRODUCT FROM THE CORROSION
CONTROL OF OIL FIELD EQUIPMENT CONSISTS OF PARTICULATE IRON SULFIDE
AND OXIDE. PRECIPITATION OF THESE MATERIALS CAN CAUSE PLUGGING OF
HEAT EXCHANGER TRAINS. THE SAND OR SILT CAN CAUSE SIGNIFICANT
DAMAGE DUE TO ABRASION OR EROSION TO PUMPS, PIPELINES, ETC.
• THE CALCIUM NAPHTHANATE COMPOUND IN THE CRUDE UNIT RESIDUE
STREAM, IF NOT REMOVED CAN RESULT IN THE PRODUCTION OF LOWER
GRADE COKE AND DEACTIVATION OF CATALYST OF FCC UNIT
8
9
• CRUDE OIL PASSES THROUGH THE COLD PREHEAT TRAIN AND IS THEN
PUMPED TO THE DESALTERS BY CRUDE CHARGE PUMPS.
• THE RECYCLED WATER FROM THE DESALTERS IS INJECTED IN THE CRUDE OIL
CONTAINING SEDIMENTS AND PRODUCED SALTY WATER.
• THIS FLUID ENTERS IN THE STATIC MIXER WHICH IS A CRUDE/WATER
DISPERSER, MAXIMIZING THE INTERFACIAL SURFACE AREA FOR OPTIMAL
CONTACT BETWEEN BOTH LIQUIDS.
10
• THE WASH WATER SHALL BE INJECTED AS NEAR AS POSSIBLE EMULSIFYING
DEVICE TO AVOID A FIRST SEPARATION WITH CRUDE OIL.
• THE STATIC MIXERS ARE INSTALLED UPSTREAM THE EMULSIFYING DEVICES
TO IMPROVE THE CONTACT BETWEEN THE SALT IN THE CRUDE OIL AND THE
WASH WATER INJECTED IN THE LINE.
11
• THE OIL/WATER MIXTURE IS HOMOGENOUSLY EMULSIFIED IN THE
EMULSIFYING DEVICE.
• THE EMULSIFYING DEVICE (AS A VALVE) IS USED TO EMULSIFY THE DILUTION
WATER INJECTED UPSTREAM IN THE OIL.
• THE EMULSIFICATION IS IMPORTANT FOR CONTACT BETWEEN THE SALTY
PRODUCTION WATER CONTAINED IN THE OIL AND THE WASH WATER.
• THEN THE EMULSION ENTERS THE DESALTERS WHERE IT SEPARATES INTO
TWO PHASES BY ELECTROSTATIC COALESCENCE.
12
• THE ELECTROSTATIC COALESCENCE IS INDUCED BY
THE POLARIZATION EFFECT RESULTING FROM AN EXTERNAL ELECTRIC
SOURCE.
• POLARIZATION OF WATER DROPLETS PULLS THEM OUT FROM OIL-WATER
EMULSION PHASE.
• SALT BEING DISSOLVED IN THESE WATER DROPLETS, IS ALSO SEPARATED
ALONG THE WAY.
13
• THE PRODUCED WATER IS DISCHARGED TO THE WATER TREATMENT SYSTEM
(EFFLUENT WATER).
• IT CAN ALSO BE USED AS WASH WATER FOR MUD WASHING PROCESS DURING
OPERATION.
• A DESALTING UNIT CAN BE DESIGNED WITH SINGLE STAGE OR TWO STAGES.
14
CRUDE OIL DISTILLATION PROCESS IN PETROLEUM
REFINING
• THE FIRST PROCESS IN THE CRUDE OIL REFINING PROCESS STEPS IS THE
DISTILLATION PROCESS INSIDE A FRACTIONATION DISTILLATION COLUMN.
• THE CRUDE OIL FROM THE STORAGE TANKS IS PROCESSED THROUGH
DESALTERS TO REMOVE THE EXCESS SALT. IT IS THEN HEATED TO A
TEMPERATURE OF ABOUT 4000C IN A CRUDE OIL HEATER AND THEN ROUTED TO
THE CRUDE DISTILLATION UNIT OR CDU.
• THE MAIN PRINCIPLE OF DISTILLATION IS TO VAPORIZE A LIQUID BY HEATING IT
AT ITS BOILING POINT AND THEN RECONDENSING AND COLLECTING. THIS SAME
PRINCIPLE IS USED TO SEPARATE DIFFERENT COMPOUNDS FROM CRUDE OIL
INSIDE THE FRACTIONATION DISTILLATION COLUMN.
• A TEMPERATURE GRADIENT IS MAINTAINED THROUGHOUT THE HEIGHT OF THE
COLUMN. THE LOWER BOILING, HIGH VOLATILE HYDROCARBONS ARE
SEPARATED AT THE TOP OF THE COLUMN WHILE LESS VOLATILE, HIGHER
BOILING PRODUCTS ARE SEPARATED TOWARDS THE BOTTOM OF THE COLUMN.
• A REBOILER SUPPLIES HEAT AT THE BOTTOM OF THE DISTILLATION COLUMN AND
THE TOP IS COOLED BY AN OVERHEAD CONDENSER. SO, TEMPERATURE
DECREASES AS THE HEIGHT OF THE FRACTIONATION COLUMN INCREASE
• THE BOILED CRUDE OIL (LIQUID/GAS MIXTURE) AT THE BOTTOM OF THE
DISTILLATION COLUMN CREATES ITS VAPOR WHICH RISES THROUGH THE
VERTICAL COLUMN PASSING THROUGH THE HOLES IN DISTILLATION TRAYS.
• AS TEMPERATURE DECREASES WHEN GAS RISES THROUGH THE TOWER, CERTAIN
HYDROCARBON COMPONENTS CONDENSES ONCE ONE COMPONENT COOLS
BELOW THEIR BOILING POINTS. THIS SEPARATION OCCURS AT DIFFERENT
TEMPERATURES AT DIFFERENT HEIGHT LEVELS AND IS COLLECTED THROUGH THE
TRAYS.
• DIFFERENT BOILING-POINT CUTS OF DIFFERENT HYDROCARBONS ALLOW THEM TO
BE SEPARATED OUT IN A SINGLE DISTILLATION PROCESS.
THE TYPICAL CRUDE OIL DISTILLATION CUTS
Hydrocarbon Fraction Boiling Point Cut/Distillation Range (0C)
Gases (C1-C4) <=50
Gasoline/Petrol (C5-C7) 50-100
Naphtha (C8-C11) 80-200
Kerosene (C11-C12) 170-280
Light Diesel (C13-C17) 220-320
Heavy Diesel (C18-C25) 290-350
Atmospheric Residue (C25+) 350-390
THE TYPICAL CRUDE OIL DISTILLATION CUTS
CONVERSION PROCESSES IN CRUDE OIL
REFINING
• IN THIS PROCESS, RESIDUAL OILS, FUEL OILS, AND LIGHT ENDS ARE
CONVERTED TO HIGH-OCTANE GASOLINE, JET FUEL, AND DIESEL FUEL.
PROCESSES LIKE CRACKING, COKING, VISBREAKING, ETC. ARE USED TO BREAK
LARGE PETROLEUM MOLECULES INTO SMALLER ONES.
CRACKING IN PETROLEUM REFINING
• CRACKING DURING THE CRUDE OIL REFINING PROCESS IS A VERY IMPORTANT
PROCESS WHERE HEAVY HYDROCARBON MOLECULES FROM THE CRUDE OIL
ARE BROKEN DOWN INTO LIGHTER SHORTER MOLECULES. THERE ARE THREE
CRACKING PROCESSES THAT ARE USED IN PETROLEUM REFINERIES. THEY ARE
TYPE OF PETROLEUM CRACKING?
• THERMAL CRACKING: USES INTENSE HEAT TO BREAK DOWN THE HEAVIEST
HYDROCARBON MOLECULES INTO SMALLER ONES. USUALLY USED TO
CONVERT RESIDUAL OIL TO FUEL OIL, PETROL, DIESEL, AND NAPHTHA.
• HYDRO CRACKING: THIS PROCESS BREAKS DOWN THE LARGER MOLECULES
OF GAS OIL, KEROSENE, AND NAPHTHA AND PRODUCES PETROL. THE
HYDROCRACKING PROCESS CONSISTS OF USING HYDROGEN IN THE
PRESENCE OF A CATALYST AT HIGH PRESSURE AT AROUND 4000C. THIS
PROCESS ALSO REMOVES IMPURITIES LIKE SULFUR, NITROGEN, AND METAL
TRACES.
• CATALYTIC CRACKING: IN THE CATALYTIC CRACKING PROCESS, THE GAS OIL
OR RESIDUAL OIL IS BROKEN DOWN INTO PETROL AND DIESEL USING INTENSE
HEAT IN THE PRESENCE OF A CATALYST. THIS METHOD PRODUCES HIGH-
QUALITY PRODUCTS COMPARED TO OTHER CRACKING METHODS.
REFORMING IN CRUDE OIL REFINING
• THE REFORMING PROCESS IN PETROLEUM REFINING INCREASES THE
PRODUCTION VOLUME OF GASOLINE FROM EACH BARREL OF CRUDE OIL. THE
REFORMING PROCESS BASICALLY REARRANGES THE HYDROCARBON
MOLECULES OF SIMILAR CARBON ATOMS NAPHTHA MOLECULES TO CONVERT
INTO GASOLINE MOLECULES.
• THE ALKYLATION OR CATALYTIC POLYMERISATION PROCESS IN
CRUDE OIL REFINING CONVERTS PROPENE AND BUTENE MOLECULES INTO
HIGH OCTANE HYDROCARBONS BY COMBINING IN THE PRESENCE OF AN ACID
CATALYST.
• THE ISOMERISATION PROCESS IN PETROLEUM REFINING
CONVERTS STRAIGHT-CHAIN HYDROCARBONS TO BRANCHED CHAINS WHICH
IMPROVE HYDROCARBON QUALITY
TREATING IN CRUDE OIL REFINING
PROCESS
• TREATING IN PETROLEUM REFINING PROCESSES STABILIZE AND UPGRADE THE
PETROLEUM PRODUCTS BY REMOVING LESS DESIRABLE PRODUCTS AND
CONTAMINANTS OR OBJECTIONABLE ELEMENTS. PRODUCTS LIKE SULFUR,
NITROGEN, OXYGEN, SALTS, DISSOLVED METALS, ETC ARE USUALLY PRESENT
WHICH MUST BE REMOVED TO IMPROVE THE PETROLEUM QUALITY. VARIOUS
PROCESSES USED IN TREATING ARE HYDRODESULFURIZATION, HYDROTREATING,
CHEMICAL SWEETENING, DESALTING, DEASPHALTING, HYDROGEN SULFIDE
SCRUBBING, AND ACID GAS REMOVAL.
• THE SELECTION OF A PROPER TREATING METHOD IS DEPENDENT ON VARIOUS
FACTORS LIKE:
• THE NATURE OF THE PETROLEUM FRACTIONS,
• AMOUNT AND TYPE OF IMPURITIES IN THE FRACTIONS TO BE TREATED,
• THE EXTENT TO WHICH THE PROCESS REMOVES THE IMPURITIES, AND
• END-PRODUCT SPECIFICATIONS.
• THE TREATING PROCESS CAN BE AN INTERMEDIATE STAGE IN THE CRUDE OIL
REFINING PROCESS, OR THE PRODUCTS CAN BE TREATED JUST BEFORE SENDING
THE FINISHED PRODUCT TO STORAGE. VARIOUS TREATING MATERIALS INCLUDE
BLENDING PROCESS IN CRUDE OIL
REFINING
• BLENDING IS THE LAST STEP IN THE PETROLEUM REFINING PROCESS AND IS QUITE
COMPLICATED. THE BLENDING PROCESS INVOLVES THE OPTIMAL MIXING OF VARIOUS
PETROLEUM COMPONENTS TO ACHIEVE THE FINAL FINISHED PRODUCT REQUIRING
SPECIFIC OCTANE SPECIFICATIONS.
• THE FINAL COST OF THE PRODUCT IS ALSO DECIDED BASED ON THE PROPER
BLENDING OF THE COMPONENTS. THE BLENDING PROCESSES IN CRUDE OIL REFINING
ARE VERY IMPORTANT TO ACHIEVE DESIRED PROPERTIES LIKE VISCOSITY,
FLASHPOINT, POUR POINT, OCTANE NUMBER, ETC. DIFFERENT PROCESSES ARE USED
TO BLEND COMPONENTS LIKE:
• IN-LINE BLENDING THROUGH A MANIFOLD SYSTEM
• BATCH BLENDING IN TANKS
• ONBOARD BLENDING INTO MARINE VESSELS
• USUALLY, FOUR PRODUCT BLENDING POOLS ARE TYPICAL IN A REFINERY. THEY ARE:
• LPG POOL FOR BLENDING SATURATED C3S AND C4S.
• GASOLENE POOL: MOST IMPORTANT AND COMPLEX BLENDING POOL TO PRODUCE PREMIUM
AND REGULAR GASOLENE PRODUCTS BY BLENDING APPROPRIATE AMOUNTS OF N-BUTANE,
REFORMATE, LIGHT NAPHTHA, ALKYLATE AND LIGHT CRACKED NAPHTHA.
• GAS OIL/DIESEL POOL TO BLEND KEROSENE, SLURRY, LGO, AND LVGO.
PRODUCTS FROM CRUDE OIL REFINING
PROCESS
• THE VARIOUS USABLE END PRODUCTS THAT ARE PRODUCED AFTER PETROLEUM REFINING IN A
REFINERY ARE::
• LIGHT DISTILLATES
• C1 AND C2 COMPONENTS
• GASOLINE (PETROL)
• LIGHT NAPHTHA
• LIQUIFIED PETROLEUM GAS (LPG)
• HEAVY NAPHTHA
• MIDDLE DISTILLATES
• AUTOMOTIVE AND RAILROAD DIESEL FUELS
• KEROSENE
• RESIDENTIAL HEATING FUEL
• OTHER LIGHT FUEL OILS
• HEAVY DISTILLATES
• WAX
• LUBRICATING OILS
• HEAVY FUEL OILS
• ASPHALT
• OTHERS
• COKE (SIMILAR TO COAL)
• ELEMENTAL SULFUR

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Introduction to Petroleum Refinery Chemical

  • 2. PETROLEUM (BLACK GOLD) • MIXTURE CONTAINING HUNDREDS OF MOLECULAR COMPOUNDS • CAN BE CHEMICALLY LINKED OR MODIFIED TO PRODUCE A VARIETY OF USEFUL MATERIALS • RICH IN ENERGY THAT IS RELEASED WHEN THE MOLECULES UNDERGO COMBUSTION • CRUDE OIL - GREENISH BROWN TO BLACK LIQUID THAT CAN BE THIN LIKE WATER OR THICK LIKE SYRUP, FOUND UNDERGROUND AND PUMPED TO THE SURFACE. • PIPELINES, TANKERS, AND BARGES TRANSPORT IT TO REFINERIES
  • 3. CHEMICAL COMPOSITION • OPEN CHAIN OR ALIPHATIC COMPOUNDS • N-PARAFFIN SERIES (CnH2n+2)- LARGEST FRACTION OF PETROLEUM CRUDES • ISOPARAFFIN SERIES (CnH2n+2)- BRANCHED CHAINED ARE DESIRABLE ; PRODUCED BY ALKYLATION, HYDROFORMING, AND ISOMERISATION • RING OR CYCLIC COMPOUNDS • NAPHTHENE SERIES (CnH2n) – SECOND MOST OCCURRING SERIES IN CRUDES, SATURATED (METHYLCYCLOHEXANE, CYCLOHEXANE) • AROMATIC OR BENZENE SERIES (CnH2n-6) – PRESENT IN SMALL AMOUNTS; PRODUCED BY HYDROFORMING • ASPHALTS- COMPLEX MATERIALS OF RELATIVELY LOW VALUE CONSISTING OF COLLOIDS OF ASPHALTENES AND RESINS IN OIL • ASPHALTENES- BROWNISH-BLACK SOLIDS SOLUBLE IN AROMATICS, BUT NOT PARAFFINS, COMPOSED OF C, H, S, O, N • RESINS- HIGHLY ADHESIVE, BROWN SEMI-SOLIDS OF LOWER MOL.WT. THAN ASPHALTENES, BUT SAME CHEMICAL COMPOSITION
  • 4. WHAT IS PETROLEUM REFINING? • PETROLEUM REFINING IS DEFINED AS THE INDUSTRIAL PROCESS OF PRODUCTION OF USEFUL PETROLEUM PRODUCTS FROM CRUDE OIL. • THE CRUDE OIL IN ITS RAW FORM IS A DARK AND STICKY LIQUID WHICH IS NOT USEFUL. TO GET THE USABLE PRODUCTS FROM THE CRUDE OIL, IT NEEDS TO BE REFINED. THE PLANT WHERE THE USEFUL PRODUCTS ARE SEPARATED FROM CRUDE OIL IS KNOWN AS A PETROLEUM REFINERY.
  • 5. HOW IS PETROLEUM REFINED? WHAT ARE THE STAGES OF OIL REFINING? CRUDE OIL OR PETROLEUM CONSISTS OF VARIOUS HYDROCARBONS. THE CRUDE OIL REFINING PROCESS BREAKS THE CRUDE OIL DOWN INTO VARIOUS COMPONENTS TO MAKE USEFUL NEW PRODUCTS. THIS PETROLEUM REFINING IS A VERY COMPLEX PROCESS AND REQUIRES HIGHLY EXPENSIVE INDUSTRIAL FACILITIES. THE BASIC CRUDE OIL REFINING PROCESS STEPS INVOLVED IN ALL PETROLEUM REFINING FOR THE PRODUCTION OF USABLE PRODUCTS ARE: Distillation/Separation Atmospheric Distillation Vacuum Distillation Conversion Cracking Reforming Alkylation Polymerization Isomerization Coking Visbreaking Treatment Blending
  • 6.
  • 7. DESALTING • REMOVAL OF SALTS FROM CRUDE • PURPOSE • TO REMOVE THESE UNDESIRABLE IMPURITIES, ESPECIALLY SALTS AND WATER, FROM THE CRUDE OIL PRIOR TO DISTILLATION. • TO REDUCE CONSUMPTION OF NEUTRALIZERS • TO REMOVE METALS WHICH MAY POISON REFORMER CATALYST • TO AVOID LENGTHY AND EXPENSIVE PLANT SHUT DOWNS 7
  • 8. WHY NEED TO REMOVE IMPURITIES ? • TO AVOID CORROSION DUE TO SALTS IN THE CRUDE OIL, CORROSION CONTROL CAN BE USED. BUT THE BYPRODUCT FROM THE CORROSION CONTROL OF OIL FIELD EQUIPMENT CONSISTS OF PARTICULATE IRON SULFIDE AND OXIDE. PRECIPITATION OF THESE MATERIALS CAN CAUSE PLUGGING OF HEAT EXCHANGER TRAINS. THE SAND OR SILT CAN CAUSE SIGNIFICANT DAMAGE DUE TO ABRASION OR EROSION TO PUMPS, PIPELINES, ETC. • THE CALCIUM NAPHTHANATE COMPOUND IN THE CRUDE UNIT RESIDUE STREAM, IF NOT REMOVED CAN RESULT IN THE PRODUCTION OF LOWER GRADE COKE AND DEACTIVATION OF CATALYST OF FCC UNIT 8
  • 9. 9
  • 10. • CRUDE OIL PASSES THROUGH THE COLD PREHEAT TRAIN AND IS THEN PUMPED TO THE DESALTERS BY CRUDE CHARGE PUMPS. • THE RECYCLED WATER FROM THE DESALTERS IS INJECTED IN THE CRUDE OIL CONTAINING SEDIMENTS AND PRODUCED SALTY WATER. • THIS FLUID ENTERS IN THE STATIC MIXER WHICH IS A CRUDE/WATER DISPERSER, MAXIMIZING THE INTERFACIAL SURFACE AREA FOR OPTIMAL CONTACT BETWEEN BOTH LIQUIDS. 10
  • 11. • THE WASH WATER SHALL BE INJECTED AS NEAR AS POSSIBLE EMULSIFYING DEVICE TO AVOID A FIRST SEPARATION WITH CRUDE OIL. • THE STATIC MIXERS ARE INSTALLED UPSTREAM THE EMULSIFYING DEVICES TO IMPROVE THE CONTACT BETWEEN THE SALT IN THE CRUDE OIL AND THE WASH WATER INJECTED IN THE LINE. 11
  • 12. • THE OIL/WATER MIXTURE IS HOMOGENOUSLY EMULSIFIED IN THE EMULSIFYING DEVICE. • THE EMULSIFYING DEVICE (AS A VALVE) IS USED TO EMULSIFY THE DILUTION WATER INJECTED UPSTREAM IN THE OIL. • THE EMULSIFICATION IS IMPORTANT FOR CONTACT BETWEEN THE SALTY PRODUCTION WATER CONTAINED IN THE OIL AND THE WASH WATER. • THEN THE EMULSION ENTERS THE DESALTERS WHERE IT SEPARATES INTO TWO PHASES BY ELECTROSTATIC COALESCENCE. 12
  • 13. • THE ELECTROSTATIC COALESCENCE IS INDUCED BY THE POLARIZATION EFFECT RESULTING FROM AN EXTERNAL ELECTRIC SOURCE. • POLARIZATION OF WATER DROPLETS PULLS THEM OUT FROM OIL-WATER EMULSION PHASE. • SALT BEING DISSOLVED IN THESE WATER DROPLETS, IS ALSO SEPARATED ALONG THE WAY. 13
  • 14. • THE PRODUCED WATER IS DISCHARGED TO THE WATER TREATMENT SYSTEM (EFFLUENT WATER). • IT CAN ALSO BE USED AS WASH WATER FOR MUD WASHING PROCESS DURING OPERATION. • A DESALTING UNIT CAN BE DESIGNED WITH SINGLE STAGE OR TWO STAGES. 14
  • 15. CRUDE OIL DISTILLATION PROCESS IN PETROLEUM REFINING • THE FIRST PROCESS IN THE CRUDE OIL REFINING PROCESS STEPS IS THE DISTILLATION PROCESS INSIDE A FRACTIONATION DISTILLATION COLUMN. • THE CRUDE OIL FROM THE STORAGE TANKS IS PROCESSED THROUGH DESALTERS TO REMOVE THE EXCESS SALT. IT IS THEN HEATED TO A TEMPERATURE OF ABOUT 4000C IN A CRUDE OIL HEATER AND THEN ROUTED TO THE CRUDE DISTILLATION UNIT OR CDU. • THE MAIN PRINCIPLE OF DISTILLATION IS TO VAPORIZE A LIQUID BY HEATING IT AT ITS BOILING POINT AND THEN RECONDENSING AND COLLECTING. THIS SAME PRINCIPLE IS USED TO SEPARATE DIFFERENT COMPOUNDS FROM CRUDE OIL INSIDE THE FRACTIONATION DISTILLATION COLUMN. • A TEMPERATURE GRADIENT IS MAINTAINED THROUGHOUT THE HEIGHT OF THE COLUMN. THE LOWER BOILING, HIGH VOLATILE HYDROCARBONS ARE SEPARATED AT THE TOP OF THE COLUMN WHILE LESS VOLATILE, HIGHER BOILING PRODUCTS ARE SEPARATED TOWARDS THE BOTTOM OF THE COLUMN.
  • 16. • A REBOILER SUPPLIES HEAT AT THE BOTTOM OF THE DISTILLATION COLUMN AND THE TOP IS COOLED BY AN OVERHEAD CONDENSER. SO, TEMPERATURE DECREASES AS THE HEIGHT OF THE FRACTIONATION COLUMN INCREASE • THE BOILED CRUDE OIL (LIQUID/GAS MIXTURE) AT THE BOTTOM OF THE DISTILLATION COLUMN CREATES ITS VAPOR WHICH RISES THROUGH THE VERTICAL COLUMN PASSING THROUGH THE HOLES IN DISTILLATION TRAYS. • AS TEMPERATURE DECREASES WHEN GAS RISES THROUGH THE TOWER, CERTAIN HYDROCARBON COMPONENTS CONDENSES ONCE ONE COMPONENT COOLS BELOW THEIR BOILING POINTS. THIS SEPARATION OCCURS AT DIFFERENT TEMPERATURES AT DIFFERENT HEIGHT LEVELS AND IS COLLECTED THROUGH THE TRAYS. • DIFFERENT BOILING-POINT CUTS OF DIFFERENT HYDROCARBONS ALLOW THEM TO BE SEPARATED OUT IN A SINGLE DISTILLATION PROCESS.
  • 17. THE TYPICAL CRUDE OIL DISTILLATION CUTS Hydrocarbon Fraction Boiling Point Cut/Distillation Range (0C) Gases (C1-C4) <=50 Gasoline/Petrol (C5-C7) 50-100 Naphtha (C8-C11) 80-200 Kerosene (C11-C12) 170-280 Light Diesel (C13-C17) 220-320 Heavy Diesel (C18-C25) 290-350 Atmospheric Residue (C25+) 350-390
  • 18. THE TYPICAL CRUDE OIL DISTILLATION CUTS
  • 19. CONVERSION PROCESSES IN CRUDE OIL REFINING • IN THIS PROCESS, RESIDUAL OILS, FUEL OILS, AND LIGHT ENDS ARE CONVERTED TO HIGH-OCTANE GASOLINE, JET FUEL, AND DIESEL FUEL. PROCESSES LIKE CRACKING, COKING, VISBREAKING, ETC. ARE USED TO BREAK LARGE PETROLEUM MOLECULES INTO SMALLER ONES. CRACKING IN PETROLEUM REFINING • CRACKING DURING THE CRUDE OIL REFINING PROCESS IS A VERY IMPORTANT PROCESS WHERE HEAVY HYDROCARBON MOLECULES FROM THE CRUDE OIL ARE BROKEN DOWN INTO LIGHTER SHORTER MOLECULES. THERE ARE THREE CRACKING PROCESSES THAT ARE USED IN PETROLEUM REFINERIES. THEY ARE
  • 20. TYPE OF PETROLEUM CRACKING? • THERMAL CRACKING: USES INTENSE HEAT TO BREAK DOWN THE HEAVIEST HYDROCARBON MOLECULES INTO SMALLER ONES. USUALLY USED TO CONVERT RESIDUAL OIL TO FUEL OIL, PETROL, DIESEL, AND NAPHTHA. • HYDRO CRACKING: THIS PROCESS BREAKS DOWN THE LARGER MOLECULES OF GAS OIL, KEROSENE, AND NAPHTHA AND PRODUCES PETROL. THE HYDROCRACKING PROCESS CONSISTS OF USING HYDROGEN IN THE PRESENCE OF A CATALYST AT HIGH PRESSURE AT AROUND 4000C. THIS PROCESS ALSO REMOVES IMPURITIES LIKE SULFUR, NITROGEN, AND METAL TRACES. • CATALYTIC CRACKING: IN THE CATALYTIC CRACKING PROCESS, THE GAS OIL OR RESIDUAL OIL IS BROKEN DOWN INTO PETROL AND DIESEL USING INTENSE HEAT IN THE PRESENCE OF A CATALYST. THIS METHOD PRODUCES HIGH- QUALITY PRODUCTS COMPARED TO OTHER CRACKING METHODS.
  • 21. REFORMING IN CRUDE OIL REFINING • THE REFORMING PROCESS IN PETROLEUM REFINING INCREASES THE PRODUCTION VOLUME OF GASOLINE FROM EACH BARREL OF CRUDE OIL. THE REFORMING PROCESS BASICALLY REARRANGES THE HYDROCARBON MOLECULES OF SIMILAR CARBON ATOMS NAPHTHA MOLECULES TO CONVERT INTO GASOLINE MOLECULES. • THE ALKYLATION OR CATALYTIC POLYMERISATION PROCESS IN CRUDE OIL REFINING CONVERTS PROPENE AND BUTENE MOLECULES INTO HIGH OCTANE HYDROCARBONS BY COMBINING IN THE PRESENCE OF AN ACID CATALYST. • THE ISOMERISATION PROCESS IN PETROLEUM REFINING CONVERTS STRAIGHT-CHAIN HYDROCARBONS TO BRANCHED CHAINS WHICH IMPROVE HYDROCARBON QUALITY
  • 22. TREATING IN CRUDE OIL REFINING PROCESS • TREATING IN PETROLEUM REFINING PROCESSES STABILIZE AND UPGRADE THE PETROLEUM PRODUCTS BY REMOVING LESS DESIRABLE PRODUCTS AND CONTAMINANTS OR OBJECTIONABLE ELEMENTS. PRODUCTS LIKE SULFUR, NITROGEN, OXYGEN, SALTS, DISSOLVED METALS, ETC ARE USUALLY PRESENT WHICH MUST BE REMOVED TO IMPROVE THE PETROLEUM QUALITY. VARIOUS PROCESSES USED IN TREATING ARE HYDRODESULFURIZATION, HYDROTREATING, CHEMICAL SWEETENING, DESALTING, DEASPHALTING, HYDROGEN SULFIDE SCRUBBING, AND ACID GAS REMOVAL. • THE SELECTION OF A PROPER TREATING METHOD IS DEPENDENT ON VARIOUS FACTORS LIKE: • THE NATURE OF THE PETROLEUM FRACTIONS, • AMOUNT AND TYPE OF IMPURITIES IN THE FRACTIONS TO BE TREATED, • THE EXTENT TO WHICH THE PROCESS REMOVES THE IMPURITIES, AND • END-PRODUCT SPECIFICATIONS. • THE TREATING PROCESS CAN BE AN INTERMEDIATE STAGE IN THE CRUDE OIL REFINING PROCESS, OR THE PRODUCTS CAN BE TREATED JUST BEFORE SENDING THE FINISHED PRODUCT TO STORAGE. VARIOUS TREATING MATERIALS INCLUDE
  • 23. BLENDING PROCESS IN CRUDE OIL REFINING • BLENDING IS THE LAST STEP IN THE PETROLEUM REFINING PROCESS AND IS QUITE COMPLICATED. THE BLENDING PROCESS INVOLVES THE OPTIMAL MIXING OF VARIOUS PETROLEUM COMPONENTS TO ACHIEVE THE FINAL FINISHED PRODUCT REQUIRING SPECIFIC OCTANE SPECIFICATIONS. • THE FINAL COST OF THE PRODUCT IS ALSO DECIDED BASED ON THE PROPER BLENDING OF THE COMPONENTS. THE BLENDING PROCESSES IN CRUDE OIL REFINING ARE VERY IMPORTANT TO ACHIEVE DESIRED PROPERTIES LIKE VISCOSITY, FLASHPOINT, POUR POINT, OCTANE NUMBER, ETC. DIFFERENT PROCESSES ARE USED TO BLEND COMPONENTS LIKE: • IN-LINE BLENDING THROUGH A MANIFOLD SYSTEM • BATCH BLENDING IN TANKS • ONBOARD BLENDING INTO MARINE VESSELS • USUALLY, FOUR PRODUCT BLENDING POOLS ARE TYPICAL IN A REFINERY. THEY ARE: • LPG POOL FOR BLENDING SATURATED C3S AND C4S. • GASOLENE POOL: MOST IMPORTANT AND COMPLEX BLENDING POOL TO PRODUCE PREMIUM AND REGULAR GASOLENE PRODUCTS BY BLENDING APPROPRIATE AMOUNTS OF N-BUTANE, REFORMATE, LIGHT NAPHTHA, ALKYLATE AND LIGHT CRACKED NAPHTHA. • GAS OIL/DIESEL POOL TO BLEND KEROSENE, SLURRY, LGO, AND LVGO.
  • 24. PRODUCTS FROM CRUDE OIL REFINING PROCESS • THE VARIOUS USABLE END PRODUCTS THAT ARE PRODUCED AFTER PETROLEUM REFINING IN A REFINERY ARE:: • LIGHT DISTILLATES • C1 AND C2 COMPONENTS • GASOLINE (PETROL) • LIGHT NAPHTHA • LIQUIFIED PETROLEUM GAS (LPG) • HEAVY NAPHTHA • MIDDLE DISTILLATES • AUTOMOTIVE AND RAILROAD DIESEL FUELS • KEROSENE • RESIDENTIAL HEATING FUEL • OTHER LIGHT FUEL OILS • HEAVY DISTILLATES • WAX • LUBRICATING OILS • HEAVY FUEL OILS • ASPHALT • OTHERS • COKE (SIMILAR TO COAL) • ELEMENTAL SULFUR