BAC Factors
BAC & factors
Types of drinks
Different weights
Male VS Female
5 reasons people choose to drink
• Peer pressure
• Parents or siblings drink
• Have a good time
• Relieve stress/anxiety
•...
At what age is Drinking & Driving
Legal???
• Legal limit VA over 21 = .08
• Teens = .02 (zero tolerance)
• Most DUI’s are ...
Blood Alcohol Concentration FactorsBlood Alcohol Concentration Factors
LiquorLiquor
BeerBeer
• Weight (blood volume)Weight...
100 proof = 50% alcohol
Proof = Half
.042 % - 12 oz. Beer = .50 oz
.045 % - 16 oz. Beer = .72 oz
.035 % - 12 oz. Lt Beer =...
Are They The SameAre They The Same ??
LiquorLiquor
• BeerBeer
• WhiskeyWhiskey
• WineWine
• CoolerCooler
• MargaritaMargar...
What two factors are responsible
for the differences in alcohol
content?
• The size of the drink
• Percentage of alcohol i...
200 LBS vs. 150 LBS Men &
Women
• 22oz-200 lb Male
• 18oz-200 lb Female
• 17oz-150 lb Male
• 13oz- 150 lb Female
BAC FactorsBAC Factors
WeightWeight **Heavier people have more blood**Heavier people have more blood
and other body fluids...
Time Spent DrinkingTime Spent Drinking
On average, a person’s BAC isOn average, a person’s BAC is oxidizedoxidized at aat ...
Elimination RateElimination Rate
MythMyth
The average person can tolerate one drink perThe average person can tolerate one...
Elimination of AlcoholElimination of Alcohol
ELIMINATION PROCESSELIMINATION PROCESS
An adult male with normal liver functi...
0
0.05
0.1
0.15
0.2
9 10 11 12 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 1
HRS 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16
Elimination RateEli...
Tolerance
• Consume more of a drug to reach a given
effect. Or body to eliminate the drug
faster.
– Many drinkers develop ...
Mood & Alcohol
One of two things:
• Existing mood intensifies (upset to angry)
• Completely alters mood (happy to mad)
Alcohol affects the heart:
• Reduces
contractibility
• Increased blood
pressure
• Congestive heart
failure
Alcohol affects the stomach
• Irritates the lining of the stomach
• Increases acidity
• Causes ulcers
Alcohol affects the Brain:
• Kills brain cells
• Causes memory loss
Attention
• Reduced ability to comprehend several
sources of info at the same time (multi-
task)
• Significant for driving...
Memory
• Reduced ability to
store and retain info
with BAC’s as low as .
03.
• Excessive use causes
Blackouts
Emotions
• Emotional control is diminished
• Honesty
• Crying
• Loving (I love you, man!)
Aggression
• Aggressive behavior
is enhanced.
Especially when
combined with
competition
• Deadly when
combined with road
r...
Alcohol & Other Drugs
• Synergistic effect
• Chemical reaction that produces much greater
effect than one drug alone.
• Ca...
BAC Levels Affect the BrainBAC Levels Affect the Brain
.01 - .05
Reduces Inhibitions
Impairs Judgment
Gives a False Sense ...
How does alcohol affect vision?
• Eye Focus – Delayed ability to change focus
close to far, the faster the worse.
• Double...
BAC’s
 BAC form .015-.049
produce risk taking
 .03 diminish multi-
tasking
 16-19 .015 is 2.5
times more likely to
be k...
Drugs and DrivingDrugs and Driving
 PerceptionPerception
 JudgmentJudgment
 CoordinationCoordination
 VisionVision
 M...
Marijuana and DrivingMarijuana and Driving
MarijuanaMarijuana
The active ingredient THC (delta-9-
tetrahydrocannabinol) impairs
memory and learning
perception (sig...
Other Types of Drugs and DrivingOther Types of Drugs and Driving
Over the CounterOver the Counter Medications That AffectM...
DUI forDUI for::
Alcohol
Illegal drugs
Prescription
medication
OTC medications
DUIDUI
• Criminal offense
(Jail), not traffic
At arrest you will:
• Lose license for
one week (7 days)
• Spend the night i...
Fatigue:Fatigue:
 The Body’s “Downtime”
 Follows a Period of:
• Extended mental activity
• Extended physical activity
 ...
Examples of FatigueExamples of Fatigue
• Not enough sleep—
several days.
• Burnt out
• SAT/ACT test
• AP tests.
Circadian RhythmCircadian Rhythm
• Body’s natural “down time”
• 1-5 PM
• Normal bedtime—Night time
Delaying Fatigue OnsetDelaying Fatigue Onset
 AvoidAvoid Long DrivesLong Drives
 AvoidAvoid Leaning Forward or BackwardL...
Three Types of Aggressive DriversThree Types of Aggressive Drivers
• complainingcomplaining
• rushingrushing
• competingco...
Aggressive Driving/Road RageAggressive Driving/Road Rage
MostMost CrashesCrashes are NOTare NOT AccidentsAccidents
•They a...
Signs of an Aggressive DriverSigns of an Aggressive Driver
• Tailgating to pressure a driver to go faster or get outTailga...
Signs of an Aggressive DriverSigns of an Aggressive Driver
• Behaving impatiently withBehaving impatiently with
slower dri...
Factors Leading toFactors Leading to Aggressive DrivingAggressive Driving//RoadRoad
RageRage
•More Traffic CongestionMore ...
Did you know?
In the past 30 years in the US:
• population has increased 30%
• number of licensed vehicles has
increased 8...
Preventing Road RagePreventing Road Rage
• Don’t RespondDon’t Respond ---- Stay COOL. Don’t react to otherStay COOL. Don’t...
Useful AttitudesUseful Attitudes
DRIVING IS ADRIVING IS A
COOPERATIVE VENTURE:COOPERATIVE VENTURE:
NOT A COMPETITIVENOT A ...
Preventing Road RagePreventing Road Rage
How will you respond?How will you respond?
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Module 7 2009

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Module 7 2009

  1. 1. BAC Factors BAC & factors Types of drinks Different weights Male VS Female
  2. 2. 5 reasons people choose to drink • Peer pressure • Parents or siblings drink • Have a good time • Relieve stress/anxiety • Our culture accepts & encourages it
  3. 3. At what age is Drinking & Driving Legal??? • Legal limit VA over 21 = .08 • Teens = .02 (zero tolerance) • Most DUI’s are right at the legal limit, not drunk • Social drinkers NEVER!
  4. 4. Blood Alcohol Concentration FactorsBlood Alcohol Concentration Factors LiquorLiquor BeerBeer • Weight (blood volume)Weight (blood volume) • Time Spent DrinkingTime Spent Drinking • GenderGender • FoodFood • Alcohol Content andAlcohol Content and Size of DrinkSize of Drink WineWine BAC is theBAC is the mathematicalmathematical ratio of the percentage ofratio of the percentage of alcoholalcohol in thein the blood streamblood stream.. Factors affecting BACFactors affecting BAC
  5. 5. 100 proof = 50% alcohol Proof = Half .042 % - 12 oz. Beer = .50 oz .045 % - 16 oz. Beer = .72 oz .035 % - 12 oz. Lt Beer = .42 oz 80 proof – 1 oz. Whiskey = .40 oz. 80 proof – 1.5 oz. Whiskey = .60 oz. .12 % - 5 oz. Wine = .60 oz. .077 % - 12 oz Malt Liquor = .92 oz. Are all alcoholic drinks the same? NO, but similar
  6. 6. Are They The SameAre They The Same ?? LiquorLiquor • BeerBeer • WhiskeyWhiskey • WineWine • CoolerCooler • MargaritaMargarita T – 7.7BeerBeer WineWine Myth A “DRINK” is: •a 12-ounce beer, •a 4- to 6-ounce glass of wine, or •a shot of liquor. Fact A “DRINK” is ½ an ounce of alcohol.
  7. 7. What two factors are responsible for the differences in alcohol content? • The size of the drink • Percentage of alcohol in the drink
  8. 8. 200 LBS vs. 150 LBS Men & Women • 22oz-200 lb Male • 18oz-200 lb Female • 17oz-150 lb Male • 13oz- 150 lb Female
  9. 9. BAC FactorsBAC Factors WeightWeight **Heavier people have more blood**Heavier people have more blood and other body fluids to diluteand other body fluids to dilute alcohol consumed.alcohol consumed. 0.04 0.08 220 lbs 110 lbs ****Their BAC level will be lowerTheir BAC level will be lower than the BAC of a smallerthan the BAC of a smaller person who drank the sameperson who drank the same volume of alcohol.volume of alcohol. GenderGender Women process alcohol at a slower rate than men. This is because they usually weigh less and produce less of the enzyme dehydrogenase needed by the liver to break down alcohol. **Men also have a higher percentage of bodyMen also have a higher percentage of body fluids which dilutes the alcohol.fluids which dilutes the alcohol.
  10. 10. Time Spent DrinkingTime Spent Drinking On average, a person’s BAC isOn average, a person’s BAC is oxidizedoxidized at aat a rate ofrate of 0.015 per hour0.015 per hour 90% of the alcohol detoxified is oxidized (burned up) by the liver 10% is eliminated in breath, urine, and sweat NOTE: Alcohol is toxic to the liver and brain. Hence, the term intoxication denotes the toxic effect alcohol has on these organs. FoodFood •Food in your stomach does very little to reduce the effect alcohol has on the brain and liver. •However, food coats the lining of the stomach and slows (some) absorption into the blood stream. Note: When alcohol is mixed with carbonated beverages the absorption rate is faster because gases are absorbed faster than liquids.
  11. 11. Elimination RateElimination Rate MythMyth The average person can tolerate one drink perThe average person can tolerate one drink per hour without substantial impairment.hour without substantial impairment. Facts •Sobriety returns ONLY withSobriety returns ONLY with time.time. •Alcohol is eliminated at approximately .015 BACAlcohol is eliminated at approximately .015 BAC per hour.per hour. Titanic PrincipleTitanic Principle If you take in more than your system can pumpIf you take in more than your system can pump out, sooner or later you’ll sink!out, sooner or later you’ll sink!
  12. 12. Elimination of AlcoholElimination of Alcohol ELIMINATION PROCESSELIMINATION PROCESS An adult male with normal liver function eliminates Breath Urine Sweat}10% LIVER 90% about 0.015 BAC per hour. Therefore: BAC of 0.05 = 3.5 hours for removal BAC of 0.07 = 5.0 hours for removal BAC of 0.10 = 7.0 hours for removal BAC of 0.15 = 10.0 hours for removal
  13. 13. 0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 9 10 11 12 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 1 HRS 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 Elimination RateElimination Rate Stops Drinking at 12:30amStops Drinking at 12:30am .16 = BAC Peak at 1 am.16 = BAC Peak at 1 am Still legally INTOXICATEDStill legally INTOXICATED (.08) at 6 am(.08) at 6 am StillStill IMPAIREDIMPAIRED (.05) at(.05) at 9:30AM9:30AM ABSORPTIONABSORPTION ELIMINATIONELIMINATION BACBAC
  14. 14. Tolerance • Consume more of a drug to reach a given effect. Or body to eliminate the drug faster. – Many drinkers develop an ability to mask theMany drinkers develop an ability to mask the effects alcohol has on their brain and body.effects alcohol has on their brain and body. – This ability, however, has NO affect on theirThis ability, however, has NO affect on their intoxication level.intoxication level.
  15. 15. Mood & Alcohol One of two things: • Existing mood intensifies (upset to angry) • Completely alters mood (happy to mad)
  16. 16. Alcohol affects the heart: • Reduces contractibility • Increased blood pressure • Congestive heart failure
  17. 17. Alcohol affects the stomach • Irritates the lining of the stomach • Increases acidity • Causes ulcers
  18. 18. Alcohol affects the Brain: • Kills brain cells • Causes memory loss
  19. 19. Attention • Reduced ability to comprehend several sources of info at the same time (multi- task) • Significant for driving, especially at night
  20. 20. Memory • Reduced ability to store and retain info with BAC’s as low as . 03. • Excessive use causes Blackouts
  21. 21. Emotions • Emotional control is diminished • Honesty • Crying • Loving (I love you, man!)
  22. 22. Aggression • Aggressive behavior is enhanced. Especially when combined with competition • Deadly when combined with road rage. • I bet you cant…
  23. 23. Alcohol & Other Drugs • Synergistic effect • Chemical reaction that produces much greater effect than one drug alone. • Can even cause death
  24. 24. BAC Levels Affect the BrainBAC Levels Affect the Brain .01 - .05 Reduces Inhibitions Impairs Judgment Gives a False Sense of Confidence Weakens Willpower .05 - .10 Slows Reaction Time Reduces Coordination and Balance Affects All Driving Skills .10 - .20 Slurred Speech Blurred Vision Impaired Judgment, Memory and Self- Control .20 - .35 Physical Abilities Become Severely Impaired Mental Confusion Unconsciousness, Blackouts or Stupor are Common .35 - higher Subnormal Temperature Little or No Reflexes Breathing May Stop DEATH •NOTE: “Chugging” large amounts of alcohol in a short period of time can result in respiratory paralysis and death.
  25. 25. How does alcohol affect vision? • Eye Focus – Delayed ability to change focus close to far, the faster the worse. • Double Vision – impairs ability of eyes to work together. Closing eye would help, but no peripheral vision. • Distance – Can’t do it accurately. • Side Vision – As alcohol increases, side vision decreases. • Night Vision – Eyes dilate. Can’t control amount of light entering the eyes—intensifies glare.
  26. 26. BAC’s  BAC form .015-.049 produce risk taking  .03 diminish multi- tasking  16-19 .015 is 2.5 times more likely to be killed  16-19 .08 40 times more likely to be killed
  27. 27. Drugs and DrivingDrugs and Driving  PerceptionPerception  JudgmentJudgment  CoordinationCoordination  VisionVision  MoodMood
  28. 28. Marijuana and DrivingMarijuana and Driving
  29. 29. MarijuanaMarijuana The active ingredient THC (delta-9- tetrahydrocannabinol) impairs memory and learning perception (sight, sound, time, touch) problem-solving ability motor coordination tracking ability concentration
  30. 30. Other Types of Drugs and DrivingOther Types of Drugs and Driving Over the CounterOver the Counter Medications That AffectMedications That Affect Driving AbilityDriving Ability • TranquilizersTranquilizers • StimulantsStimulants • NarcoticsNarcotics • Blood PressureBlood Pressure • InsulinInsulin PrescriptionPrescription MedicationsMedications •Antihistamines •Cold Medications
  31. 31. DUI forDUI for:: Alcohol Illegal drugs Prescription medication OTC medications
  32. 32. DUIDUI • Criminal offense (Jail), not traffic At arrest you will: • Lose license for one week (7 days) • Spend the night in jail • Post bail
  33. 33. Fatigue:Fatigue:  The Body’s “Downtime”  Follows a Period of: • Extended mental activity • Extended physical activity  Characterized by: • Reduced capacity for work • Reduced efficiency of brain function Definition of FatigueDefinition of Fatigue
  34. 34. Examples of FatigueExamples of Fatigue • Not enough sleep— several days. • Burnt out • SAT/ACT test • AP tests.
  35. 35. Circadian RhythmCircadian Rhythm • Body’s natural “down time” • 1-5 PM • Normal bedtime—Night time
  36. 36. Delaying Fatigue OnsetDelaying Fatigue Onset  AvoidAvoid Long DrivesLong Drives  AvoidAvoid Leaning Forward or BackwardLeaning Forward or Backward  Keep Your Eyes MovingKeep Your Eyes Moving  Get Plenty of Fresh AirGet Plenty of Fresh Air
  37. 37. Three Types of Aggressive DriversThree Types of Aggressive Drivers • complainingcomplaining • rushingrushing • competingcompeting • resistingresisting • yellingyelling • cussingcussing • staringstaring • honkinghonking • insultinginsulting • cutting offcutting off • blockingblocking • chasingchasing • fightingfighting • shootingshooting Quiet Road-Rage:Quiet Road-Rage: Verbal Road-Rage:Verbal Road-Rage: Epic Road-Rage:Epic Road-Rage: AAAAAGHH!!!AAAAAGHH!!! YOU’RE TOOYOU’RE TOO SLOW~SLOW~ MOVE!!!MOVE!!! What’s the hold up!!!What’s the hold up!!! Come on, HURRY UPCome on, HURRY UP LET’S GO!!!LET’S GO!!!
  38. 38. Aggressive Driving/Road RageAggressive Driving/Road Rage MostMost CrashesCrashes are NOTare NOT AccidentsAccidents •They are often the result of drivers whoThey are often the result of drivers who •speed;speed; •tailgate;tailgate; •run red lights;run red lights; •weave in and out of traffic; orweave in and out of traffic; or •vent frustrations or emotions in thevent frustrations or emotions in the vehicle.vehicle.
  39. 39. Signs of an Aggressive DriverSigns of an Aggressive Driver • Tailgating to pressure a driver to go faster or get outTailgating to pressure a driver to go faster or get out of the wayof the way • Flashing lights to signal the driver to move out of theFlashing lights to signal the driver to move out of the wayway • Weaving in and out of trafficWeaving in and out of traffic • Cutting people offCutting people off • Racing to beat a yellow lightRacing to beat a yellow light
  40. 40. Signs of an Aggressive DriverSigns of an Aggressive Driver • Behaving impatiently withBehaving impatiently with slower driversslower drivers • Honking the horn or screamingHonking the horn or screaming • SpeedingSpeeding • Not coming to a complete stopNot coming to a complete stop at stop signsat stop signs • Making gesturesMaking gestures • Passing on shoulder or unpavedPassing on shoulder or unpaved areasareas
  41. 41. Factors Leading toFactors Leading to Aggressive DrivingAggressive Driving//RoadRoad RageRage •More Traffic CongestionMore Traffic Congestion •More CarsMore Cars •More FrustrationMore Frustration •More StressMore Stress •More HostilityMore Hostility •More ViolenceMore Violence
  42. 42. Did you know? In the past 30 years in the US: • population has increased 30% • number of licensed vehicles has increased 87% • vehicle miles traveled increased 130% • highway capacity has only increased 5% Factors Leading toFactors Leading to Aggressive DrivingAggressive Driving//RoadRoad RageRage
  43. 43. Preventing Road RagePreventing Road Rage • Don’t RespondDon’t Respond ---- Stay COOL. Don’t react to otherStay COOL. Don’t react to other drivers’ aggressive actions.drivers’ aggressive actions. • Don’t EngageDon’t Engage ---- Stay away from vehicles drivingStay away from vehicles driving recklessly.recklessly. • Don’t Up the AnteDon’t Up the Ante ---- Don’t take traffic problemsDon’t take traffic problems personally.personally. • Swallow Your PrideSwallow Your Pride ---- Take a courteous and helpfulTake a courteous and helpful attitude toward other drivers.attitude toward other drivers. • Choose the Road “LESS Traveled”Choose the Road “LESS Traveled” ---- AvoidAvoid aggressive drivers by traveling less congested roadways.aggressive drivers by traveling less congested roadways.
  44. 44. Useful AttitudesUseful Attitudes DRIVING IS ADRIVING IS A COOPERATIVE VENTURE:COOPERATIVE VENTURE: NOT A COMPETITIVENOT A COMPETITIVE SPORT!SPORT!
  45. 45. Preventing Road RagePreventing Road Rage How will you respond?How will you respond?

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