1. BAC Factors
BAC & factors
Types of drinks
Male VS Female
2. 5 reasons people choose to drink
• Peer pressure
• Parents or siblings drink
• Have a good time
• Relieve stress/anxiety
• Our culture accepts
& encourages it
3. At what age is Drinking & Driving
• Legal limit VA over 21 = .08
• Teens = .02 (zero tolerance)
• Most DUI’s are right at the legal limit, not
• Social drinkers
4. Blood Alcohol Concentration FactorsBlood Alcohol Concentration Factors
• Weight (blood volume)Weight (blood volume)
• Time Spent DrinkingTime Spent Drinking
• Alcohol Content andAlcohol Content and
Size of DrinkSize of Drink
BAC is theBAC is the mathematicalmathematical ratio of the percentage ofratio of the percentage of
alcoholalcohol in thein the blood streamblood stream..
Factors affecting BACFactors affecting BAC
5. 100 proof = 50% alcohol
Proof = Half
.042 % - 12 oz. Beer = .50 oz
.045 % - 16 oz. Beer = .72 oz
.035 % - 12 oz. Lt Beer = .42 oz
80 proof – 1 oz. Whiskey = .40 oz.
80 proof – 1.5 oz. Whiskey = .60 oz.
.12 % - 5 oz. Wine = .60 oz.
.077 % - 12 oz Malt Liquor = .92 oz.
6. Are They The SameAre They The Same ??
T – 7.7BeerBeer
A “DRINK” is:
•a 12-ounce beer,
•a 4- to 6-ounce glass
of wine, or
•a shot of liquor.
A “DRINK” is ½ an
ounce of alcohol.
7. What two factors are responsible
for the differences in alcohol
• The size of the drink
• Percentage of alcohol in the drink
8. 200 LBS vs. 150 LBS Men &
• 22oz-200 lb Male
• 18oz-200 lb Female
• 17oz-150 lb Male
• 13oz- 150 lb Female
9. BAC FactorsBAC Factors
WeightWeight **Heavier people have more blood**Heavier people have more blood
and other body fluids to diluteand other body fluids to dilute
alcohol consumed.alcohol consumed.
****Their BAC level will be lowerTheir BAC level will be lower
than the BAC of a smallerthan the BAC of a smaller
person who drank the sameperson who drank the same
volume of alcohol.volume of alcohol.
GenderGender Women process alcohol at a
slower rate than men. This is
because they usually weigh less
and produce less of the enzyme
dehydrogenase needed by the liver
to break down alcohol.
**Men also have a higher percentage of bodyMen also have a higher percentage of body
fluids which dilutes the alcohol.fluids which dilutes the alcohol.
10. Time Spent DrinkingTime Spent Drinking
On average, a person’s BAC isOn average, a person’s BAC is oxidizedoxidized at aat a
rate ofrate of 0.015 per hour0.015 per hour
90% of the alcohol detoxified
is oxidized (burned up) by the
10% is eliminated in breath,
urine, and sweat
NOTE: Alcohol is toxic to the liver and brain. Hence, the term intoxication
denotes the toxic effect alcohol has on these organs.
•Food in your stomach does very little to
reduce the effect alcohol has on the brain
•However, food coats the lining of the stomach and
slows (some) absorption into the blood stream.
Note: When alcohol is mixed with carbonated beverages the
absorption rate is faster because gases are absorbed faster
11. Elimination RateElimination Rate
The average person can tolerate one drink perThe average person can tolerate one drink per
hour without substantial impairment.hour without substantial impairment.
•Sobriety returns ONLY withSobriety returns ONLY with time.time.
•Alcohol is eliminated at approximately .015 BACAlcohol is eliminated at approximately .015 BAC
per hour.per hour.
Titanic PrincipleTitanic Principle
If you take in more than your system can pumpIf you take in more than your system can pump
out, sooner or later you’ll sink!out, sooner or later you’ll sink!
12. Elimination of AlcoholElimination of Alcohol
ELIMINATION PROCESSELIMINATION PROCESS
An adult male with normal liver function eliminates
Sweat}10% LIVER 90%
about 0.015 BAC per hour.
Therefore: BAC of 0.05 = 3.5 hours for removal
BAC of 0.07 = 5.0 hours for removal
BAC of 0.10 = 7.0 hours for removal
BAC of 0.15 = 10.0 hours for removal
9 10 11 12 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 1
HRS 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16
Elimination RateElimination Rate
Stops Drinking at 12:30amStops Drinking at 12:30am
.16 = BAC Peak at 1 am.16 = BAC Peak at 1 am Still legally INTOXICATEDStill legally INTOXICATED
(.08) at 6 am(.08) at 6 am
StillStill IMPAIREDIMPAIRED (.05) at(.05) at
• Consume more of a drug to reach a given
effect. Or body to eliminate the drug
– Many drinkers develop an ability to mask theMany drinkers develop an ability to mask the
effects alcohol has on their brain and body.effects alcohol has on their brain and body.
– This ability, however, has NO affect on theirThis ability, however, has NO affect on their
intoxication level.intoxication level.
15. Mood & Alcohol
One of two things:
• Existing mood intensifies (upset to angry)
• Completely alters mood (happy to mad)
17. Alcohol affects the stomach
• Irritates the lining of the stomach
• Increases acidity
• Causes ulcers
18. Alcohol affects the Brain:
• Kills brain cells
• Causes memory loss
• Reduced ability to comprehend several
sources of info at the same time (multi-
• Significant for driving, especially at night
• Reduced ability to
store and retain info
with BAC’s as low as .
• Excessive use causes
• Emotional control is diminished
• Loving (I love you, man!)
• Aggressive behavior
• Deadly when
combined with road
• I bet you cant…
23. Alcohol & Other Drugs
• Synergistic effect
• Chemical reaction that produces much greater
effect than one drug alone.
• Can even cause death
24. BAC Levels Affect the BrainBAC Levels Affect the Brain
.01 - .05
Gives a False Sense of Confidence
.05 - .10
Slows Reaction Time
Reduces Coordination and Balance
Affects All Driving Skills
.10 - .20
Impaired Judgment, Memory and Self-
.20 - .35
Physical Abilities Become
Blackouts or Stupor are
.35 - higher
Little or No Reflexes
Breathing May Stop
•NOTE: “Chugging” large
amounts of alcohol in a short
period of time can result in
respiratory paralysis and death.
25. How does alcohol affect vision?
• Eye Focus – Delayed ability to change focus
close to far, the faster the worse.
• Double Vision – impairs ability of eyes to work
together. Closing eye would help, but no
• Distance – Can’t do it accurately.
• Side Vision – As alcohol increases, side vision
• Night Vision – Eyes dilate. Can’t control amount
of light entering the eyes—intensifies glare.
BAC form .015-.049
produce risk taking
.03 diminish multi-
16-19 .015 is 2.5
times more likely to
16-19 .08 40 times
more likely to be killed
27. Drugs and DrivingDrugs and Driving
28. Marijuana and DrivingMarijuana and Driving
The active ingredient THC (delta-9-
memory and learning
perception (sight, sound, time,
30. Other Types of Drugs and DrivingOther Types of Drugs and Driving
Over the CounterOver the Counter Medications That AffectMedications That Affect
Driving AbilityDriving Ability
• Blood PressureBlood Pressure
• Criminal offense
(Jail), not traffic
At arrest you will:
• Lose license for
one week (7 days)
• Spend the night in
• Post bail
The Body’s “Downtime”
Follows a Period of:
• Extended mental activity
• Extended physical activity
• Reduced capacity for work
• Reduced efficiency of brain
Definition of FatigueDefinition of Fatigue
34. Examples of FatigueExamples of Fatigue
• Not enough sleep—
• Burnt out
• SAT/ACT test
• AP tests.
35. Circadian RhythmCircadian Rhythm
• Body’s natural “down time”
• 1-5 PM
• Normal bedtime—Night time
36. Delaying Fatigue OnsetDelaying Fatigue Onset
AvoidAvoid Long DrivesLong Drives
AvoidAvoid Leaning Forward or BackwardLeaning Forward or Backward
Keep Your Eyes MovingKeep Your Eyes Moving
Get Plenty of Fresh AirGet Plenty of Fresh Air
37. Three Types of Aggressive DriversThree Types of Aggressive Drivers
• cutting offcutting off
Quiet Road-Rage:Quiet Road-Rage: Verbal Road-Rage:Verbal Road-Rage: Epic Road-Rage:Epic Road-Rage:
YOU’RE TOOYOU’RE TOO
What’s the hold up!!!What’s the hold up!!!
Come on, HURRY UPCome on, HURRY UP
LET’S GO!!!LET’S GO!!!
38. Aggressive Driving/Road RageAggressive Driving/Road Rage
MostMost CrashesCrashes are NOTare NOT AccidentsAccidents
•They are often the result of drivers whoThey are often the result of drivers who
•run red lights;run red lights;
•weave in and out of traffic; orweave in and out of traffic; or
•vent frustrations or emotions in thevent frustrations or emotions in the
39. Signs of an Aggressive DriverSigns of an Aggressive Driver
• Tailgating to pressure a driver to go faster or get outTailgating to pressure a driver to go faster or get out
of the wayof the way
• Flashing lights to signal the driver to move out of theFlashing lights to signal the driver to move out of the
• Weaving in and out of trafficWeaving in and out of traffic
• Cutting people offCutting people off
• Racing to beat a yellow lightRacing to beat a yellow light
40. Signs of an Aggressive DriverSigns of an Aggressive Driver
• Behaving impatiently withBehaving impatiently with
slower driversslower drivers
• Honking the horn or screamingHonking the horn or screaming
• Not coming to a complete stopNot coming to a complete stop
at stop signsat stop signs
• Making gesturesMaking gestures
• Passing on shoulder or unpavedPassing on shoulder or unpaved
41. Factors Leading toFactors Leading to Aggressive DrivingAggressive Driving//RoadRoad
•More Traffic CongestionMore Traffic Congestion
•More CarsMore Cars
•More FrustrationMore Frustration
•More StressMore Stress
•More HostilityMore Hostility
•More ViolenceMore Violence
42. Did you know?
In the past 30 years in the US:
• population has increased 30%
• number of licensed vehicles has
• vehicle miles traveled increased 130%
• highway capacity has only increased
Factors Leading toFactors Leading to Aggressive DrivingAggressive Driving//RoadRoad
43. Preventing Road RagePreventing Road Rage
• Don’t RespondDon’t Respond ---- Stay COOL. Don’t react to otherStay COOL. Don’t react to other
drivers’ aggressive actions.drivers’ aggressive actions.
• Don’t EngageDon’t Engage ---- Stay away from vehicles drivingStay away from vehicles driving
• Don’t Up the AnteDon’t Up the Ante ---- Don’t take traffic problemsDon’t take traffic problems
• Swallow Your PrideSwallow Your Pride ---- Take a courteous and helpfulTake a courteous and helpful
attitude toward other drivers.attitude toward other drivers.
• Choose the Road “LESS Traveled”Choose the Road “LESS Traveled” ---- AvoidAvoid
aggressive drivers by traveling less congested roadways.aggressive drivers by traveling less congested roadways.
44. Useful AttitudesUseful Attitudes
DRIVING IS ADRIVING IS A
COOPERATIVE VENTURE:COOPERATIVE VENTURE:
NOT A COMPETITIVENOT A COMPETITIVE
45. Preventing Road RagePreventing Road Rage
How will you respond?How will you respond?