Module 2 2009

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  • Module 2 2009

    1. 1. Mod 2 Driver Preparation Procedures Vehicle & Operating Control Devices Vehicle Balance BGE Settings/Footprint Reference Points/Lane Positions
    2. 2. Pre-DrivePre-Drive TasksTasks Check around the outsideCheck around the outside of the vehicle for broken glass (windows, lights,etc.), body damage, condition of tires, fluid leaks, direction of front tires, or debris on the ground that could interfere with movement. Check forCheck for small children or pets near vehicle.
    3. 3. Pre-DrivePre-Drive TasksTasks • Sliding books or book bags on seats when slowing or stopping will distract the driver. • Food or beverages also distract the driver from the driving task. • Valuables visible in the car may attract a thief. When parked at theWhen parked at the curbcurb • Approach vehicle from the front to monitor oncoming traffic. • Approach driver’s door with key in hand. When parked inWhen parked in parking lotparking lot • Approach vehicle from the rear to observe people or objects near the car. • Approach driver’s door with key in hand. Store personal items in trunk of vehicleStore personal items in trunk of vehicle
    4. 4. Seating in driver’s seat • Driver should sit 10-12 inches from the wheel • Hand position should be at 8 & 4 for hand to hand steering • Two hands for good control • Head restraint – middle of the back of the head
    5. 5. Rear-View Mirror T – 4.21 Traditional and Contemporary (BGE) Mirror Setting Rear-View Mirror SettingRear-View Mirror Setting
    6. 6. Rear Mirror View Right Side Mirror View Left Side Mirror View BGE settings --15 degrees out (S.V.) 200 ft behind
    7. 7. Starting Tasks (1-12) 2 Adjust mirrors 1 Adjust seat 4 Chk parking brake 6 Key in ignition 7 Gear in “P” or “N” 3 Adjust seat belt 5 Foot on brake 9 Check alert lights 8 Turn key “ON” 10 Start engine 12 Chk warning lights 11 Set accessories
    8. 8. Securing TasksSecuring Tasks Stop in a legal, safe parking spaceStop in a legal, safe parking space  Park an appropriate distance from a fire hydrant, intersection, RR crossing, loading zone, etc.  Keep foot on service brake. Set Parking BrakeSet Parking Brake Recommended in most new vehicle owner’s manuals to protect transaxle and constant velocity joints. Place gear selector in (P)ark.Place gear selector in (P)ark. Or place in recommended gear (Reverse or First gear) for manual shift transmission. Turn off any vehicle accessoriesTurn off any vehicle accessories Check that all systems are functioning and ready to use next time.
    9. 9. Under the Hood ChecksUnder the Hood Checks 3 8 11 10 9 1 2 6 7 4 5 1. Engine Coolant Reservoir 2. Windshield Washer Fluid Reservoir 3. Engine Oil Filler Cap 4. Transmission Fluid Dipstick (Automatic Transmission) 5. Engine Oil Dipstick 6. Brake Fluid Reservoir 7. Clutch Fluid Reservoir (Manual Transmission) 8. Battery 9. Power Steering Fluid Reservoir 10. Drive Belts 11. Air Filter Assembly T – 2.4
    10. 10. Tires • Tire pressure – Check recommendation in owner’s manual • Tread wear, damage, or bars showing • Cuffing (uneven wear on inside or outside tread areas) • Bald spots • Cuts, stones, metal fragments, or other damage Vehicle Safety,Vehicle Safety, Communication DevicesCommunication Devices & Accessories& Accessories • Headlights, tail lights, and turn signals • Emergency lights and markers • Emergency kit • Windshield wiper blades, operation, and washer fluid • HVAC • Safety warning lamps (brake, ABS, air bag, safety belts) Weekly Self-Checks Topic 1 Lesson 2
    11. 11. Under the Hood ChecksUnder the Hood Checks Self-CheckSelf-Check Check every 1-2 MonthsCheck every 1-2 Months • All interior and exterior lights • Engine oil level, brake fluid level, and engine coolant level • Lap/shoulder belts and seat latches for wear and smooth function Check Twice Per YearCheck Twice Per Year • Air pressure in spare tire • Power steering fluid level • Parking brake for proper operation • Hinges, latches, door weather strips, and outside locks (check and lubricate) • Body and door drain holes (check and clean) • Cooling system coolant strength • Battery connections (clean if necessary) • Transmission fluid level Professional ServiceProfessional Service Every 3,000 - 5,000 Miles • Oil change/filter replacement • Tire rotation/balance Every 15,000 Miles • Automatic transmission fluid level • Brake pads/shoes/rotors/drums, brake lines, hoses, and parking brake system • Engine cooling system • Steering linkage, suspension and, if equipped, drive shaft and ball joints • Cabin air filter replacement, if equipped Every 30,000 Miles • Exhaust system and heat shield • Engine air filter and fuel filter replacement • Accessory drive belts • Automatic transmission/transaxle service, if equipped T – 2.4b
    12. 12. Alert/Warning Symbols and ControlsAlert/Warning Symbols and Controls THEFT A. B. C. D. E. N. F. G. H. I. J. L. K. M. O. P. Q. R. S. T – 2.11 Air Bag On/Off Switch Air Bag Functioning Antilock Brake System Functioning Theft-Deterrent System Activation 12 Volt Extension Outlet Battery/Alternator Warning Light Brake Warning Light Safety Alert Symbol Vent and Air Flow Control Door Locks Low Oil Pressure Warning Light Temperature Indicator Seat Belt Reminder Fog Lamps Drive Wheel Selector Emergency Flashers Fuse / Fuse Box Fuel Indicator Turn Signal Wipers Stalk
    13. 13. Alert/Warning Symbols and ControlsAlert/Warning Symbols and Controls T. U. V. W. X. GG. Y. Z. AA. BB. CC. EE. DD. FF. HH. II. JJ. KK. LL. MM. O/D OFF ETSETS OFFOFF T – 2.12 Horn Hood Release Headlights/High Beam Indicator Lighter Indicator Interior Light Adjustment Fan Speed Indicator Adjust Left/Right Side Mirror Parking Lamp Indicator Overdrive On/Off Indicator Exterior Lights Steering Wheel Height Adjustment Cruise Control Device Rear Defroster Indicator Power Window Controls Left/Right Signal Indicator Electronic Traction Control System Trunk Release Windshield Washer Windshield Wipers Front Windshield Defroster
    14. 14. Location and description for all instruments and features can be found in Vehicle’s Owner’s Manual • SpeedometerSpeedometer (mph-km/h)(mph-km/h) • OdometerOdometer • Trip OdometerTrip Odometer • Gear IndicatorGear Indicator T – 2.14 Control, Information, Comfort, and Safety DevicesControl, Information, Comfort, and Safety Devices Center Instrument ClusterCenter Instrument Cluster
    15. 15. How do you know the anti-lock brakes, air bags & traction control are working properly? • The lights come on & go off. The system has been checked & is working properly.
    16. 16. How do you know if lights are high beam or low beam? • The blue indicator light will be illuminated when the high beams are on.
    17. 17. What’s the function? • Alternator – electrical system • Oil – engine lubricating system • Temperature – engine operating system • Brakes – braking system
    18. 18. Operating Vehicle Control Devices Brake Pedal Used to stabilize, decrease, and increase speed. The driver can: - cover the brake; - trail brake; - control squeeze brake; - threshold brake; - lock the brakes; - apply ABS; - jab (stab) brake; or - lift off the brake. Accelerator Pedal Used to stabilize, increase, and decrease speed. The driver can: – cover the accelerator; – use progressive acceleration; – use thrust acceleration; or – lift off the accelerator. T-2.19
    19. 19. Operating Vehicle Control DevicesOperating Vehicle Control Devices T – 2.20 Gear Selector LeverGear Selector Lever • Transmission Type and Location • Overdrive and Drive gear use Parking BrakeParking Brake • Owner’s Manual suggests engaging parking brake before placing in Park. Cruise / Speed Control –Cruise / Speed Control – Why andWhy and HowHow• To maintain a constant speed. • Never use in stop-and-go traffic or on slick surfaces. Ignition Switch -Ignition Switch - Location and FunctionsLocation and Functions
    20. 20. Back to right? • Turn the wheel to the… • RIGHT • Turn the wheel the way you want back up!
    21. 21. Gear shift selector P R N D L1 L2 PARK – vehicle will not move REVERSE – vehicle will move backwards NEUTRAL - No pulling power but tires will roll DRIVE – Forward in most situations LOW 1 – More power for hills or uneven terrain LOW 2 – Max power for steep hills or heavy loads
    22. 22. Vehicle Balance (Roll, Pitch, and Yaw)Vehicle Balance (Roll, Pitch, and Yaw) – Roll: vehicle’s weight shifts from side to side – Pitch: vehicle’s weight shifts forward or backward – Yaw: vehicle’s rear tire weight shifts to one side – Note: These weight transfers occur when the amount of weight or force pulling on each tire changes – Optimum balance is achieved at rest with no movement – Suspension and tire pressure also affect vehicle balance Vehicle Movement on Crowned or Banked RoadwayVehicle Movement on Crowned or Banked Roadway – Can create dramatic changes to vehicle balance due to suspension and weight shifts Controlling Vehicle BalanceControlling Vehicle Balance
    23. 23. Changing Vehicle Load from Side to Side (Roll)Changing Vehicle Load from Side to Side (Roll) • Steering Wheel Movements • Brake Application and Steering Combinations • Slope of pavement Controlling Vehicle BalanceControlling Vehicle Balance SeatingSeating • Driver position/balance and safety belt/pedal use T – 2.26
    24. 24. Vehicle Direction / Speed RequirementsVehicle Direction / Speed Requirements Vehicle ControlVehicle Control • Releasing the accelerator • Controlled braking (Squeeze on) • Threshold braking • Trail braking (Squeeze off) T – 2.27 Topic 4 Lesson 2 Changing Vehicle Load from Front to Rear (Pitch)Changing Vehicle Load from Front to Rear (Pitch) • Light accelerator pressure • Releasing the brake • Progressive accelerator pressure • Thrust accelerator pressure Changing Vehicle Load from Rear to Front (Pitch)Changing Vehicle Load from Rear to Front (Pitch)
    25. 25. Vehicle ControlVehicle Control Weight Shifts Change Vehicle Balanced DROPS Front LIFTS Rear T – 2.28 Accelerating, braking, or steering shifts the vehicle’s weight from tire to tire and affects vehicle balance and control.
    26. 26. Vehicle Direction / Speed RequirementsVehicle Direction / Speed Requirements Vehicle ControlVehicle Control • Sudden braking and steering • Sudden or excessive acceleration and steering • Sudden or excessive steering • Road tilted to right • Traction loss to right rear may cause yaw motion T – 2.29 • Sudden braking and steering • Sudden or excessive acceleration and steering • Sudden or excessive steering • Road tilted to left • Traction loss to left rear may cause yaw motion Changing Vehicle Load fromChanging Vehicle Load from Right to Left (Roll)Right to Left (Roll) Changing Vehicle Balance from Left to Right (Roll)Changing Vehicle Balance from Left to Right (Roll)
    27. 27. Balanced seating position • Steering wheel – 10-12 in from driver chest • Backrest of driver seat – 90 degrees • Left foot – on the “dead pedal” • Right foot – on the floor • Hands – 8 & 4
    28. 28. Max lock to lock steering? • 2 1/2 – 3 turns • In most modern vehicles • Due to power steering
    29. 29. Why use hand to hand steering? • Better control • Smaller weight transfers • Hard to oversteer • It’s how you will be tested!
    30. 30. Braking • Cover the brake – foot over brake but no pressure on the brake • Controlled brake – slow vehicle & maintain balance • Threshold brake – just short of locking up • Trail brake – used to maintain speed & balance. Often used at end of controlled or threshold braking.
    31. 31. CorneringCornering InertiaInertia Actual PathActual Path Intended PathIntended Path Vehicle ControlVehicle Control When cornering, tires tend to flex. If the tires are underinflated, the contact with the rim may be lost. AIR LOSS WILL OCCUR. RIM Tires turning left Excessive tire flexion increases tire heat and may result in a blowout. Apex
    32. 32. Driver’s Useful Vision AreasDriver’s Useful Vision Areas Gathering Useful VisualGathering Useful Visual InformationInformation Focus Vision Area (Focal) Includes 3 to 5 degrees of usefulIncludes 3 to 5 degrees of useful information that is used when:information that is used when: TargetingTargeting Establishing a Visual LeadEstablishing a Visual Lead Reading Signs and Interpreting SignalsReading Signs and Interpreting Signals
    33. 33. Driver’s Useful Vision AreasDriver’s Useful Vision Areas  Referencing Vehicle Position to Roadway  Viewing Path of Travel  Viewing Line of Sight to Target Area T – 3.11 Topic 2 Lesson 2 Gathering Useful VisualGathering Useful Visual InformationInformation Central Vision Area (Inner Fringe) 30 to 36 degrees of useful information that includes:
    34. 34. Driver’s Useful Vision AreasDriver’s Useful Vision Areas Gathering Useful Visual InformationGathering Useful Visual Information T – 3.12 Peripheral Vision Peripheral Vision Peripheral Vision (Outer Fringe Area) • 175-180 degrees of useful information that detects: •Motion Changes •Color Changes
    35. 35. Traditional Mirror Views and Blind SpotsTraditional Mirror Views and Blind Spots Notice the large blind zone areas and theNotice the large blind zone areas and the overlap between the side and rear mirrorsoverlap between the side and rear mirrors when using traditional mirror settings.when using traditional mirror settings. Rear view mirror ( ) Left side view mirror Right side view mirror Left mirror blind zone Right mirror blind zone
    36. 36. Mirror Blind Spot and Glare Elimination (BGE)Mirror Blind Spot and Glare Elimination (BGE) BGE LEFT SIDE MIRROR VIEW BGE RIGHT SIDE MIRROR VIEW REAR MIRROR VIEW Reference: Blindzone & Glare Elimination (BGE) Mirror Settings (G. Platzer, 1996)Reference: Blindzone & Glare Elimination (BGE) Mirror Settings (G. Platzer, 1996) Adjusting the side mirror setting 15 degree outward (BGE) allows youAdjusting the side mirror setting 15 degree outward (BGE) allows you to see the lanes to the sides and does not overlap as much with theto see the lanes to the sides and does not overlap as much with the area you can already see in your rear view mirrorarea you can already see in your rear view mirror •Peripheral Vision Area Peripheral Vision Area
    37. 37. Determining Vehicle Operating SpaceDetermining Vehicle Operating Space Markers represent edge ofMarkers represent edge of sightlinessightlines Outline of pavement area aroundOutline of pavement area around the car the driver cannot see fromthe car the driver cannot see from the driver’s seatthe driver’s seat Rectangles are the tire patches andRectangles are the tire patches and asterisks represent the vehicle’sasterisks represent the vehicle’s forward and rear turning axisforward and rear turning axis * * Forward Rear
    38. 38. ReferencingReferencing Points:Points: Provide visual cues to establish vehicle position. Relate part of the vehicle to some part of the roadway. Allow the driver to determine proper placement within a lane. Allow for reduced-risk lane positions Side view mirrors windows Hood **Parking, turning, lane position, stopping
    39. 39. Front LimitationFront Limitation Where are your visual reference points toWhere are your visual reference points to determinedetermine FRONT LIMITATIONFRONT LIMITATION ??
    40. 40. Front Limitation Reference PointsFront Limitation Reference Points • To stop 3-6 inches from the line in front of your bumper, stopTo stop 3-6 inches from the line in front of your bumper, stop whenwhen your line of sightyour line of sight runs under the side view mirrorruns under the side view mirror reference point to the line in front of your vehicle.reference point to the line in front of your vehicle. • Maintain a normal driving position when targeting yourMaintain a normal driving position when targeting your reference point and do not lean forward or sidewaysreference point and do not lean forward or sideways.. Reference Point Line of sight Reference point
    41. 41. Rear LimitationRear Limitation • BACKINGBACKING • PARKINGPARKING You need to know where the rear of yourYou need to know where the rear of your vehicle is when you arevehicle is when you are::
    42. 42. Rear LimitationRear Limitation To align the rear bumper three to six inches from aTo align the rear bumper three to six inches from a line or curb,line or curb, you need to stop when the line or curbyou need to stop when the line or curb appears near theappears near the middle of the rear right windowmiddle of the rear right window when looking over the right shoulder.when looking over the right shoulder. Reference point Reference point
    43. 43. Right Side LimitationRight Side Limitation TheThe right side limitationright side limitation reference pointreference point toto position your vehicle 3-6 inches from the curbposition your vehicle 3-6 inches from the curb or line is the middle of your vehicle’s hood.or line is the middle of your vehicle’s hood. 3-6 inches Line of SightReference point The reference point for 3 feet from the curb or line is the right 1/4 section of the hood. 3 feet Reference point Line of Sight
    44. 44. Left Side LimitationLeft Side Limitation YourYour left side limitationleft side limitation reference pointreference point is aboutis about one foot from the left front corner of your car (itone foot from the left front corner of your car (it may be the seam between your left fender and themay be the seam between your left fender and the hood of your vehicle) to the curb.hood of your vehicle) to the curb. 3-6 INCHES Reference Point Line of Sight Reference Point
    45. 45. Lane Position # 1Lane Position # 1 • VEHICLE IS CENTERED IN THE LANEVEHICLE IS CENTERED IN THE LANE • CAR IS 3 FEET AWAY FROM THE LINESCAR IS 3 FEET AWAY FROM THE LINES ON YOUR RIGHT AND LEFT SIDESON YOUR RIGHT AND LEFT SIDES 3 FEET 3 FEET LaneLane PositionPosition ONEONE ( LP( LP 11 ))
    46. 46. Lane Position # 1Lane Position # 1 LaneLane PositionPosition ONEONE (LP(LP 11)) 3 FEET 3 FEET • Your left sideYour left side reference pointreference point runs through the driver’sruns through the driver’s side left fender to the line on the left side of the vehicle.side left fender to the line on the left side of the vehicle. • Your right sideYour right side reference pointreference point runs through the center ofruns through the center of passenger’s side right half of the hood to the line on thepassenger’s side right half of the hood to the line on the right side of the vehicle.right side of the vehicle. Note: Lane position #1 is the lane position used most often.
    47. 47. Lane Position # 2Lane Position # 2 • VEHICLE IS 3-6 INCHES AWAY FROMVEHICLE IS 3-6 INCHES AWAY FROM LINE TO THE LEFTLINE TO THE LEFT 3-6 INCHES LaneLane PositionPosition TWOTWO ( LP( LP 22 ))
    48. 48. Lane Position # 2Lane Position # 2 YourYour lane position #2lane position #2 reference pointreference point is about 1is about 1 foot from left side (it may be the crease betweenfoot from left side (it may be the crease between the left fender and hood of the vehicle) to the curb.the left fender and hood of the vehicle) to the curb. LaneLane PositionPosition TWOTWO (LP(LP 22)) 3-6 INCHES 6 FEET
    49. 49. Lane Position # 3Lane Position # 3 CAR IS POSITIONED 3-6 INCHESCAR IS POSITIONED 3-6 INCHES AWAY FROM EDGE OR LINE TOAWAY FROM EDGE OR LINE TO THE RIGHTTHE RIGHT 3-6 INCHES LaneLane PositionPosition THREETHREE ( LP( LP 33 ))
    50. 50. Lane Position # 3Lane Position # 3 YourYour lanelane position #3 reference pointposition #3 reference point is through the center of your hood tois through the center of your hood to the right edge of the roadway.the right edge of the roadway. T – 2.53 LaneLane PositionPosition THREETHREE (LP(LP 33)) 3-6 INCHES 6 FEET Reference point Line of Sight
    51. 51. Possible Lane PositionsPossible Lane Positions The width of the lane allows drivers to make laneThe width of the lane allows drivers to make lane position adjustments to minimize risk and create moreposition adjustments to minimize risk and create more space between their car and problem situations.space between their car and problem situations. Lane Positions –Lane Positions – 1, 2, 3, 4, and 51, 2, 3, 4, and 5 LP 3 LP 2 LP 5 LP 1 OBSTACLEOBSTACLE LP 4

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