Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Ethyl alcohol

1,633 views

Published on

Pharmacology

Published in: Health & Medicine
  • Linda Allen - certified nutritionist and former yeast infection sufferer teaches you her candida freedom step by step success system jam-packed with a valuable information on how to naturally and permanently eliminate your yeast infection from the ROOT and achieve LASTING freedom from candida related symptoms. ♥♥♥ https://tinyurl.com/y3flbeje
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
  • Yeast Infection No More! Cure yeast infection, end your candida related symptoms and regain your natural inner balance ... Guaranteed! -- Discover how Linda Allen has taught thousands of people to achieve yeast infection freedom faster than they ever thought possible... Even if you've never succeeded at curing your candida before... Right here you've found the candida freedom success system you've been looking for! ●●● https://tinyurl.com/y4uu6uch
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
  • I am so thankful and thrilled to know that someone had found a solution to such a disturbing problem in this country! There are too many women and men that are suffering from this horrendous disease! Before I ordered your program, I used to itch and scratch constantly sometimes all night long. Above all the annoyance it was very embarrassing, especially at work. Since I started your system, I don't use drugs or creams anymore to bring me through the nightmare of yeast infections that was my reality for too long! The constant itching and rashes that sometimes continued for mouths are completely gone. Additionally, the lack of energy and heartburn which I now know were caused by candida overgrowth have also disappeared in a matter of weeks. I feel so rejuvenated and lucky to have found your system. I am also amazed and thankful that your product worked so fast and well. ➤➤ https://tinyurl.com/y4uu6uch
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
  • I was searching for a way to explain my recently frequent yeast infections and other related conditions stumbled upon your program on the internet. I suffered from chronic mouth thrush (with creamy white lesions on my tongue and inner cheeks). My baby daughter had the same problem in her mouth and your program was the only thing that helped us! I highly recommend your book to anyone who is perceptive about their health, and for those who are tired of being told that it's all in their heads. I feel so rejuvenated and lucky to have found this system. ■■■ https://tinyurl.com/y3flbeje
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
  • I Cured My Yeast Infection. Top ranked Candida plan for download Unique holistic System. ♣♣♣ http://scamcb.com/index7/pdf
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here

Ethyl alcohol

  1. 1. ETHYL ALCOHOL
  2. 2. INTRODUCTION  Alcohols – Hydroxy derivatives of aliphatic hydrocarbons  Manufactured by fermentation of sugars C6H12O6 2CO2 + 2C2H5OH • Fermentation proceeds till alcohol content reaches 15% • Then reaction is inhibited by alcohol itself STARCH MALTOSE • Major source – Mollases, byproduct of sugar industry ZYMASE (IN YEAST) CONVERTASE
  3. 3. ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES  MALTED LIQUORS  WINES * LIGHT * FORTIFIED * EFFERVESCENT  SPIRITS
  4. 4. MALTED LIQUORS  Obtained by fermentation of germinating cereals  Undistilled – alcohol content is low (3-6%)  Eg : Beers , Stout
  5. 5. WINES • Fermentation of natural sugars as present in grapes and other fruits • Undistilled • Light wines (alcohol content 9-12%) • Fortified wines (alcohol content 16-22%) • Effervescent wines (alcohol content 12-16%) • Dry – all sugar fermented • Sweet – some sugar is left
  6. 6. SPIRITS  Distilled after fermentation  Alcohol content varies from 40-55%  Eg : Brandy, Whisky , Vodka , Rum etc
  7. 7. OTHER FORMS  ABSOLUTE ALCOHOL – 99% w/w ethanol  RECTIFIED SPIRIT – 90% w/w ethanol produced from mollases by distillation  PROOF SPIRIT- 100% proof spirit is 49.29% w/w or 57.1% v/v alcohol  METHYLATED SPIRIT (INDUSTRIAL)- denatured spirit, adding 5 parts of methanol to 95 parts of rectified spirit. Tinted blue
  8. 8. PHARMACOLOGICAL ACTIONS  Local actions  Central nervous system  Cardio vascular system  Body temperature  Respiratory system  Gastrointestinal system  Skeletal Muscle  Kidneys  Reproductive system  Endocrine system
  9. 9. LOCAL ACTIONS  Mild rubefacient and counterirritant on skin  Applied to delicate skin or mucous membranes produce irritation and burning sensation  When injected, it causes intense pain, inflammation and necrosis followed by fibrosis
  10. 10.  Applied to surface , alcohol is an astringent – precipitates surface proteins and hardens skin  Acts as an antiseptic – 100% ethanol is more dehydrating but poorer antiseptic than 90% ethanol  Does not kill bacterial spores
  11. 11. ACTIONS ON CNS  Neuronal depressant  Excitation and euphoria experienced at lower plasma concentration (30-60mg/dl)  Hesitation , caution, self criticism and restraint lost first  Mood and feelings altered, anxiety may be allayed
  12. 12. • With increasing concentration (80-150mg/dl) mental clouding, disorganisation of thought , impairment of attention and memory, alteration of gait and perception, and drowsiness supervene. • At 150-200mg/dl , person is sloppy, ataxic and blackouts occur • 200-300mg/dl result in stupor • Above this, unconsciousness prevails, medullary centres paralysed and death may occur
  13. 13.  Can produce anaesthesia  Cause slowing of reflexes  Performance is impaired, fine discrimination and precise movements obliterated, errors increase  Can induce sleep. Sleep architecture disorganised and sleep apnoea aggravated  Headache, dry mouth, laziness , disturbed mood , impaired performance may occur next morning
  14. 14.  Raises pain threshold- severe pain can precipitate confusion and convulsions  When acts on brain, it exerts anti convulsant action, but this is followed by lowering of threshold: seizures maybe precipitated in epileptics  Chronic alcohol abuse damages brain neurons, cause shrinkage of brain
  15. 15. ACTIONS ON CVS  Small doses – cutaneous (especially in face) and gastric vasodilatation. Skin is warm and flushed. BP not affected  Moderate doses- tachycardia, mild rise in BP (due to mild muscular activity and sympathetic stimulation)
  16. 16.  Large doses – direct myocardial and vasomotor centre depression and fall in BP • Chronic alcoholism contribute to hypertension and lead to cardiomyopathy. • Atrial fibrillation and other cardiac arrhythmias may occur due to conduction defects and Q-T prolongation
  17. 17. ACTION ON BLOOD  Regular intake of small to moderate amounts of alcohol (1-2 drinks) raise HDL- cholesterol levels and decrease LDL oxidation  Responsible for the 15-35% lower incidence of coronary artery disease  Protection lost if ≥ 3 drinks consumed daily  Megaloblastic anemia is common in chronic alcoholics due to interference with folate metabolism
  18. 18. ACTION ON BODY TEMPERATURE  Reputed to combat cold  Produce a sense of warmth due to cutaneous and gastric vasodilatation, but heat loss is actually increased in cold temperature  High doses depress temperature regulating centre
  19. 19. ACTION ON RESPIRATORY SYSTEM  Brandy or whiskey reputed as respiratory stimulants in collapse  They irritate buccal and pharyngeal mucosa – transiently stimulate respiration reflexly  Direct action of alcohol on respiratory centre is a depressant one
  20. 20. ACTION ON GIT  Dilute alcohol (optimum 10%) put in stomach by Ryle’s tube is a strong stimulant of gastric secretion (acid)  Higher concentration (above 20%) inhibit gastric secretion causing vomiting, mucosal congestion and gastritis
  21. 21.  Alcoholism – important cause of chronic gastritis  Lower esophageal sphincter tone reduced  Bowel movements may be altered in either direction  Acute pancreatitis – complication of heavy drinking
  22. 22. ACTION ON LIVER  Mobilize peripheral fat and increases fat synthesis in liver in a dose dependent manner  Proteins accumulate in liver as their secretion is decreased  Chronic alcoholism exposes liver to oxidative stress and cause cellular necrosis followed by fibrosis
  23. 23.  Acetaldehyde produced during metabolism of alcohol – damage hepatocytes and induce inflammation  Increased lipid peroxidation and glutathione depletion occurs  These combined with vitamin and other nutritional deficiencies – alcoholic cirrhosis  Regular intake induce microsomal enzymes
  24. 24. ACTION ON SKELETAL MUSCLE  Produce little direct effect  Fatigue caused by small doses  Muscle work increased or decreased depending on predominating central effect  Weakness and myopathy – chronic alcoholism
  25. 25. ACTION ON KIDNEYS  Diuresis  Due to water ingested along with drinks and alcohol induced inhibition of ADH secretion  Does not impair renal function
  26. 26. ACTION ON REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM  Reputed as aphrodisiac  Aggressive sexual behaviour- due to loss of restraint and inhibition  Performance of sexual act is often impaired  Chronic alcoholism produce impotence, testicular atrophy , gynaecomastia and infertility in both men and women  Uterine contractions suppressed at moderate blood levels
  27. 27. ACTION ON ENDOCRINE SYSTEM  Moderate amounts increase adrenaline release which cause hyperglycemia and other sympathetic effects  Acute intoxication – hypoglycemia and depletion of hepatic glycogen because gluconeogenesis is inhibited  Glucagon fails to reverse it and glucose must be given to counteract hypoglycemia

×