Information Processing:Information Processing:
Complex Risk EnvironmentsComplex Risk Environments
Topic 1 --Topic 1 -- Cha...
Controlled access (limitedControlled access (limited
entry and exit)entry and exit)
High speed (up to 65 mph)High speed ...
Cloverleaf InterchangeCloverleaf Interchange
T – 6.2
Topic 1 Lesson 2
A cloverleaf interchangeA cloverleaf interchange has...
Diamond InterchangeDiamond Interchange
T – 6.3
Topic 1 Lesson 2
A diamond interchangeA diamond interchange is designed
to ...
Trumpet InterchangeTrumpet Interchange
T – 6.4
Topic 1 Lesson 2
A trumpet interchangeA trumpet interchange is used when an...
Frontage Road InterchangeFrontage Road Interchange
T – 6.5
Topic 1 Lesson 2
Frontage Road InterchangesFrontage Road Interc...
Common Expressway SignsCommon Expressway Signs
Interstate signsInterstate signs
Warning signsWarning signs
Guide signsGuid...
Common Expressway SignalsCommon Expressway Signals
Lane SignalsLane Signals
T – 6.7
Topic 1 Lesson 3
A GREEN arrowGREEN ar...
Expressway Lane MarkingsExpressway Lane Markings
T – 6.8
Topic 1 Lesson 3
SolidSolid YELLOWYELLOW
lineline
Solid WHITE lin...
Entrance RampsEntrance Ramps
T – 6.9
Topic 2 Lesson 1
Entrance
Ramp
Acceleration
Lane
Merge
Area
Entrance ramps provide on...
Entering the Entrance RampEntering the Entrance Ramp
Entrance
Ramp
Enter the Entrance RampEnter the Entrance Ramp
Begin Se...
Use the left-lane signal indicator
Adjust speed to match the speed
of the traffic on the expressway
Monitor gap on express...
 Accelerate to blend with the speed ofAccelerate to blend with the speed of
traffic on the expresswaytraffic on the expre...
Check Front ZoneCheck Front Zone
Check Rear and Left Rear ZonesCheck Rear and Left Rear Zones
Select GapSelect Gap
Ide...
Merging into the Traffic FlowMerging into the Traffic Flow
T – 6.14
Topic 2 Lesson 1
 Continue searching for adequate gap...
Selecting the Appropriate LaneSelecting the Appropriate Lane
Topic 2 Lesson 1
T – 6.15
When merging onto an expressway, st...
Reduced Risk Lane ChangesReduced Risk Lane Changes
T – 6.16
Topic 2 Lesson 2
 Entering or exitingEntering or exiting
 Al...
Reduced Risk Lane ChangesReduced Risk Lane Changes
T – 6.16a
Topic 2 Lesson 2
Steps to safely change lanes:Steps to safely...
Choosing Lanes at Exit or EntranceChoosing Lanes at Exit or Entrance
Right Lane:Right Lane:
Heavier and slower vehicles
...
Passing on Multi-Lane RoadsPassing on Multi-Lane Roads
T – 6.19
Topic 2 Lesson 3
Check traffic ahead, to the sides, and b...
When Being PassedWhen Being Passed
Monitor passing vehicle’s position
Move to lane position 3 to increase space cushion
Do...
Multiple Lane Roadway ExitMultiple Lane Roadway Exit
Topic 2 Lesson 4
T – 6.21
An expressway exit has twoAn expressway exi...
Identify theIdentify the ExitExit EarlyEarly
T – 6.21a
Topic 2 Lesson 4
Exits are marked with guide signs,
usually one to ...
Exiting the ExpresswayExiting the Expressway
Deceleration LaneDeceleration Lane
Signal
Maintain speed while on the expre...
Deceleration LaneDeceleration Lane
Deceleration LaneDeceleration Lane
T – 6.23
Topic 2 Lesson 4
Enter Deceleration Lane by...
Adjusting Exit SpeedAdjusting Exit Speed
Deceleration LaneDeceleration Lane
Exit
Ramp
 Brake to Warning Sign Speed — Chec...
Weave LaneWeave Lane
T – 6.25
Topic 2 Lesson 4
Traffic entering and exiting the expressway uses the same lane.Traffic ente...
Potential Exiting ProblemsPotential Exiting Problems
 “Weave” lane conflicts
 Short deceleration lane
 Sharp curve on r...
On the Expressway…On the Expressway…
 Drive over or across theDrive over or across the
median or yellow painted line.medi...
On the Expressway…On the Expressway…
 Drive onto an expresswayDrive onto an expressway
except from an on-ramp.except from...
Multiple Lane Roadway DangersMultiple Lane Roadway Dangers
At higher speeds greater brakingAt higher speeds greater brakin...
Multiple Lane Roadway DangersMultiple Lane Roadway Dangers
Vehicles moving onto the shoulderVehicles moving onto the shoul...
Highway HypnosisHighway Hypnosis
Plan breaks and rest stops to combat
highway hypnosis or go to a safe area
for rest or sl...
Ramp MeteringRamp Metering
 Used to control large volumes of traffic enteringUsed to control large volumes of traffic ent...
Short Trips on ExpresswaysShort Trips on Expressways
Know the name, route, and number
of the
entrance and exit to be used...
Long Trips on ExpresswaysLong Trips on Expressways
Do vehicle maintenance checksDo vehicle maintenance checks
Balance ve...
Reducing Risk Entering the RoadwayReducing Risk Entering the Roadway
 Search for proper entranceSearch for proper entranc...
Increase Following DistanceIncrease Following Distance
 When following large trucks or busesWhen following large trucks o...
Special Roadway ConditionsSpecial Roadway Conditions
Disabled vehiclesDisabled vehicles
T – 6.37
Topic 3 Lesson 2
Expressw...
Special Roadway ConditionsSpecial Roadway Conditions
T – 6.37a
Topic 3 Lesson 2
Construction areasConstruction areas
Toll ...
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Module 06 2004

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Module 06 2004

  1. 1. Information Processing:Information Processing: Complex Risk EnvironmentsComplex Risk Environments Topic 1 --Topic 1 -- Characteristics of ExpresswaysCharacteristics of Expressways Topic 2 --Topic 2 -- Entering, Changing Lanes, and ExitingEntering, Changing Lanes, and Exiting Topic 3 --Topic 3 -- High Speed ConsiderationsHigh Speed Considerations Module Six TransparenciesModule Six Transparencies VirginiaVirginia Department of EducationDepartment of Education Provided in cooperation with the Virginia Department of Motor VehiclesProvided in cooperation with the Virginia Department of Motor Vehicles
  2. 2. Controlled access (limitedControlled access (limited entry and exit)entry and exit) High speed (up to 65 mph)High speed (up to 65 mph) Divided by a barrier orDivided by a barrier or medianmedian Multiple lanesMultiple lanes May have minimum speedMay have minimum speed limitlimit Only for motorized vehiclesOnly for motorized vehicles Characteristics of an ExpresswayCharacteristics of an Expressway T – 6.1 Topic 1 Lesson 1
  3. 3. Cloverleaf InterchangeCloverleaf Interchange T – 6.2 Topic 1 Lesson 2 A cloverleaf interchangeA cloverleaf interchange has a series of entrance and exit ramps that resemble the outline of a four leaf clover. allows for the interchange of two expressways or major roadways. has shared entrance and exit weave lanes. This designThis design Traffic is permitted to move ONLY in the direction indicated by the arrows.
  4. 4. Diamond InterchangeDiamond Interchange T – 6.3 Topic 1 Lesson 2 A diamond interchangeA diamond interchange is designed to be used when a road with slower speeds crosses a busy expressway. Traffic is permitted to move ONLY in the direction indicated by the arrows. for the interchange of a major roadway with a secondary dual or multiple lane roadway. This design allows:This design allows:
  5. 5. Trumpet InterchangeTrumpet Interchange T – 6.4 Topic 1 Lesson 2 A trumpet interchangeA trumpet interchange is used when an intersecting side road forms a T intersection with the expressway. Traffic is permitted to move ONLY in the direction indicated by the arrows. This design:This design: accommodates the T-intersection flow of traffic at the junction of two roadways. allows for traffic on a secondary two-way street to merge onto a multiple lane roadway.
  6. 6. Frontage Road InterchangeFrontage Road Interchange T – 6.5 Topic 1 Lesson 2 Frontage Road InterchangesFrontage Road Interchanges allow vehicles using parallel secondary two-way or one-way roadways to merge onto a major multiple lane roadway. Traffic is permitted to move ONLY in the direction indicated by the arrows. drivers to exit a multiple lane roadway and use the parallel frontage road. secondary road traffic flows to mix efficiently with higher speed traffic flows on the multiple lane roadway. This design allows:This design allows:
  7. 7. Common Expressway SignsCommon Expressway Signs Interstate signsInterstate signs Warning signsWarning signs Guide signsGuide signs Speed limit signsSpeed limit signs T – 6.6 Topic 1 Lesson 3 A major contributor to your decision as to how you will maintain a safeA major contributor to your decision as to how you will maintain a safe path of travel, proper lane position, and your lane choice, is based onpath of travel, proper lane position, and your lane choice, is based on the information provided by the road signs and lane markings.the information provided by the road signs and lane markings.
  8. 8. Common Expressway SignalsCommon Expressway Signals Lane SignalsLane Signals T – 6.7 Topic 1 Lesson 3 A GREEN arrowGREEN arrow over a lane — the lane is open for travel. A YELLOW “X”YELLOW “X” over a lane — travel in that lane is about to change or close. A RED “X”RED “X” over a lane — travel in that lane is closed or prohibited. Reversible lane signals
  9. 9. Expressway Lane MarkingsExpressway Lane Markings T – 6.8 Topic 1 Lesson 3 SolidSolid YELLOWYELLOW lineline Solid WHITE line Broken WHITE line HOV lanes marks the left edge of the roadway. should always be on the driver’s left side. separates lanes of traffic going in the same direction. marks the right edge of the roadway, or entrance and exit lanes. are marked with a white diamond. require a minimum number of passengers in the vehicle. Traffic FlowTraffic Flow (high occupancy vehicle)
  10. 10. Entrance RampsEntrance Ramps T – 6.9 Topic 2 Lesson 1 Entrance Ramp Acceleration Lane Merge Area Entrance ramps provide one-wayEntrance ramps provide one-way directional access to an expressway.directional access to an expressway. The ramp is divided into three sections:The ramp is divided into three sections: 1.1. The Entrance or Access RampThe Entrance or Access Ramp —— gives the driver time to begin evaluating traffic conditions. 2.2. The Acceleration LaneThe Acceleration Lane —— allows a driver to adjust vehicle speed to the speed of traffic on the expressway. 3.3. The Merging AreaThe Merging Area —— allows the driver to merge onto the expressway.
  11. 11. Entering the Entrance RampEntering the Entrance Ramp Entrance Ramp Enter the Entrance RampEnter the Entrance Ramp Begin Searching for aBegin Searching for a Gap / Open SpaceGap / Open Space Identify Gap / SpaceIdentify Gap / Space T – 6.10 Topic 2 Lesson 1 Entrance Ramp
  12. 12. Use the left-lane signal indicator Adjust speed to match the speed of the traffic on the expressway Monitor gap on expressway Acceleration LaneAcceleration Lane T – 6.11 Topic 2 Lesson 1 Acceleration LaneAcceleration Lane
  13. 13.  Accelerate to blend with the speed ofAccelerate to blend with the speed of traffic on the expresswaytraffic on the expressway  Check Rear and Left Rear ZonesCheck Rear and Left Rear Zones Entering Merge AreaEntering Merge Area T – 6.12 Topic 2 Lesson 1 Merge Area Merge AreaMerge Area
  14. 14. Check Front ZoneCheck Front Zone Check Rear and Left Rear ZonesCheck Rear and Left Rear Zones Select GapSelect Gap Identify a Target Area in the Open SpaceIdentify a Target Area in the Open Space Selecting a Gap in TrafficSelecting a Gap in Traffic T – 6.13 Topic 2 Lesson 1 Merge AreaMerge Area Target Area
  15. 15. Merging into the Traffic FlowMerging into the Traffic Flow T – 6.14 Topic 2 Lesson 1  Continue searching for adequate gapContinue searching for adequate gap  Search for potential conflictsSearch for potential conflicts  Prepare to adjust speedPrepare to adjust speed  Avoid stopping on the rampAvoid stopping on the ramp  Be prepared to drive onto the shoulder ifBe prepared to drive onto the shoulder if necessarynecessary  Merge smoothlyMerge smoothly  Create space around your vehicle onceCreate space around your vehicle once you have entered the laneyou have entered the lane
  16. 16. Selecting the Appropriate LaneSelecting the Appropriate Lane Topic 2 Lesson 1 T – 6.15 When merging onto an expressway, stay in the right lane until you become accustomed to the faster traffic flow. Center Vehicle in Proper LaneCenter Vehicle in Proper Lane Adjust Speed to Traffic Flow and Legal LimitAdjust Speed to Traffic Flow and Legal Limit
  17. 17. Reduced Risk Lane ChangesReduced Risk Lane Changes T – 6.16 Topic 2 Lesson 2  Entering or exitingEntering or exiting  Allowing anotherAllowing another driver to enterdriver to enter  Following large orFollowing large or slow-moving vehiclesslow-moving vehicles  Lane ahead becomesLane ahead becomes blockedblocked  Being tailgatedBeing tailgated  AnimalsAnimals  PassingPassing Reasons for changing lanes include:Reasons for changing lanes include: EntranceEntrance RampRamp ExitExit RampRamp
  18. 18. Reduced Risk Lane ChangesReduced Risk Lane Changes T – 6.16a Topic 2 Lesson 2 Steps to safely change lanes:Steps to safely change lanes: Maintain a safe following distance from the vehicles in front of you. Check traffic ahead, behind and to the sides (mirrors and head check). Signal your intention to change lanes. Select a safe gap in traffic. Re-check blind spots in the direction of the lane change. Adjust your speed — if clear, steer smoothly to the new lane, if not, wait and cancel your turn signal. Move one lane at a time. Scan in direction of the BLUE arrows
  19. 19. Choosing Lanes at Exit or EntranceChoosing Lanes at Exit or Entrance Right Lane:Right Lane: Heavier and slower vehicles Vehicles entering the expressway Vehicles getting ready to exit Left Lane:Left Lane: Higher speed and passing traffic Exit / Entry Right Lane Center Lane Left Lane T – 6.17 Topic 2 Lesson 2 Center Lane:Center Lane: Long distance or passing
  20. 20. Passing on Multi-Lane RoadsPassing on Multi-Lane Roads T – 6.19 Topic 2 Lesson 3 Check traffic ahead, to the sides, and behind Signal Make a head check Accelerate smoothly Change lanes smoothly Cancel signal Pass and signal to return Check mirrors When both sets of headlights of the vehicle being passed are visible, return to the lane Cancel signal Adjust speed and/or vehicle position to create space all around your vehicle The RED line shows path of the red car. The BLUE arrows show where the driver’s eyes are searching.
  21. 21. When Being PassedWhen Being Passed Monitor passing vehicle’s position Move to lane position 3 to increase space cushion Do not increase speed—decelerate if necessary Once passed, create space ahead and behind move away T – 6.20 Topic 2 Lesson 3
  22. 22. Multiple Lane Roadway ExitMultiple Lane Roadway Exit Topic 2 Lesson 4 T – 6.21 An expressway exit has twoAn expressway exit has two components:components: 1. The Deceleration Lane —1. The Deceleration Lane — gives the driver the time and space needed to adjust his/her vehicle’s speed to the slower posted ramp speed without disrupting the flow of traffic on the expressway. 2. The Exit Ramp —2. The Exit Ramp — allows traffic to enter an adjoining roadway. Exit Ramp DecelerationLane
  23. 23. Identify theIdentify the ExitExit EarlyEarly T – 6.21a Topic 2 Lesson 4 Exits are marked with guide signs, usually one to two miles before the exit. You can determine if an exit is a right exit or a left exit by the position of the exit number on the sign. So, Exit 45A is a right exit, because in this picture the exit number on the upper right- hand side of the sign. In Virginia, exit numbers correspond with mile marker numbers. About one-half mile (20- to 30- seconds) before the exit, signal and move to the lane closest to the deceleration lane.
  24. 24. Exiting the ExpresswayExiting the Expressway Deceleration LaneDeceleration Lane Signal Maintain speed while on the expressway Use mirrors to check behind and to the sides Check mirror blindzones Move into deceleration lane Prepare to decelerate quickly T – 6.22 Topic 2 Lesson 4 DecelerationLane Exit Ramp
  25. 25. Deceleration LaneDeceleration Lane Deceleration LaneDeceleration Lane T – 6.23 Topic 2 Lesson 4 Enter Deceleration Lane by easing over several ofEnter Deceleration Lane by easing over several of the broken linesthe broken lines Release Accelerator and Cancel SignalRelease Accelerator and Cancel Signal Check Rear and Begin BrakingCheck Rear and Begin Braking
  26. 26. Adjusting Exit SpeedAdjusting Exit Speed Deceleration LaneDeceleration Lane Exit Ramp  Brake to Warning Sign Speed — Check Behind  Scan New Path of Travel to the Front  Search for Traffic Control Signs or Signals T – 6.24 Topic 2 Lesson 4
  27. 27. Weave LaneWeave Lane T – 6.25 Topic 2 Lesson 4 Traffic entering and exiting the expressway uses the same lane.Traffic entering and exiting the expressway uses the same lane. To avoid a conflict,To avoid a conflict, the driver in thethe driver in the BLUE car entering from thecar entering from the entrance ramp must yield the right-of-way to the driver in theentrance ramp must yield the right-of-way to the driver in the RED car who is leaving the expressway.who is leaving the expressway.
  28. 28. Potential Exiting ProblemsPotential Exiting Problems  “Weave” lane conflicts  Short deceleration lane  Sharp curve on ramp  Traffic stopped on the exit ramp There may be a STOPThere may be a STOP sign or a traffic light atsign or a traffic light at the end of the exit ramp.the end of the exit ramp. The driver must adjustThe driver must adjust from a fast speed to afrom a fast speed to a STOP in a short distance.STOP in a short distance. T – 6.26 Topic 2 Lesson 4
  29. 29. On the Expressway…On the Expressway…  Drive over or across theDrive over or across the median or yellow painted line.median or yellow painted line.  Make a left turn or a U-turn onMake a left turn or a U-turn on crossovers (designed forcrossovers (designed for emergency vehicles only).emergency vehicles only).  Use the left lane except forUse the left lane except for passing.passing.  Change lanes withoutChange lanes without signaling and checking for ansignaling and checking for an adequate gap in traffic.adequate gap in traffic. T – 6.27 Topic 3 Lesson 1 Do Not:Do Not:
  30. 30. On the Expressway…On the Expressway…  Drive onto an expresswayDrive onto an expressway except from an on-ramp.except from an on-ramp.  Park or Stop on anPark or Stop on an expressway shoulder unlessexpressway shoulder unless you have an emergency oryou have an emergency or mechanical difficulties.mechanical difficulties.  Backup.Backup.  Walk or ride a bike.Walk or ride a bike. T – 6.28 Topic 3 Lesson 1 Do Not:Do Not:
  31. 31. Multiple Lane Roadway DangersMultiple Lane Roadway Dangers At higher speeds greater brakingAt higher speeds greater braking distances are needed to stop and…distances are needed to stop and… T – 6.29 Topic 3 Lesson 1 Traffic may enter and/or exit on your leftTraffic may enter and/or exit on your left Velocitation may effectVelocitation may effect your ability to judge speedyour ability to judge speed Highway hypnosisHighway hypnosis may occurmay occur Field of vision isField of vision is narrowednarrowed BrakeBrake 20 mph 40 mph 60 mph 20 ft. 80 ft. 180 ft. 65 mph65 mph
  32. 32. Multiple Lane Roadway DangersMultiple Lane Roadway Dangers Vehicles moving onto the shoulderVehicles moving onto the shoulder or re-entering the roadwayor re-entering the roadway T – 6.30 Topic 3 Lesson 1 Tires losing traction and hydroplaningTires losing traction and hydroplaning during wet weather conditionsduring wet weather conditions Slow moving vehicles ahead or “PackSlow moving vehicles ahead or “Pack Driving”Driving” Two vehicles changing lanes at theTwo vehicles changing lanes at the same time into same lanesame time into same lane Windy and/or wet sections of the roadwayWindy and/or wet sections of the roadway
  33. 33. Highway HypnosisHighway Hypnosis Plan breaks and rest stops to combat highway hypnosis or go to a safe area for rest or sleep when tired. Is a dulled or drowsy condition that can occur when driving long distances T – 6.31 Topic 3 Lesson 1 Situation becomes worse when the driver’s eyes focus on the center line.
  34. 34. Ramp MeteringRamp Metering  Used to control large volumes of traffic enteringUsed to control large volumes of traffic entering expresswaysexpressways  Uses a system of lights and sensorsUses a system of lights and sensors  Allows only a few cars at a time to enter congestedAllows only a few cars at a time to enter congested limited access highwayslimited access highways T – 6.32 Topic 3 Lesson 1
  35. 35. Short Trips on ExpresswaysShort Trips on Expressways Know the name, route, and number of the entrance and exit to be used Check vehicle for maintenance problems Take a local map Plan a time to travel to avoidPlan a time to travel to avoid congestion around major citiescongestion around major cities T – 6.33 Topic 3 Lesson 1
  36. 36. Long Trips on ExpresswaysLong Trips on Expressways Do vehicle maintenance checksDo vehicle maintenance checks Balance vehicle loadBalance vehicle load Plan stops for:Plan stops for: – FoodFood – RestRest – FuelFuel Know the route numbers you needKnow the route numbers you need to taketo take Take a map of the planned routeTake a map of the planned route Check with police or VDOT forCheck with police or VDOT for construction delaysconstruction delays Carry money or credit cardsCarry money or credit cards T – 6.34 Topic 3 Lesson 1
  37. 37. Reducing Risk Entering the RoadwayReducing Risk Entering the Roadway  Search for proper entranceSearch for proper entrance  Search for potential conflictsSearch for potential conflicts  Prepare to adjust speedPrepare to adjust speed  Avoid stopping on the rampAvoid stopping on the ramp  Be prepared to drive onto theBe prepared to drive onto the shouldershoulder  Merge smoothlyMerge smoothly  Create space around yourCreate space around your vehiclevehicle T – 6.35 Topic 3 Lesson 2
  38. 38. Increase Following DistanceIncrease Following Distance  When following large trucks or busesWhen following large trucks or buses  When following motorcyclesWhen following motorcycles  When driving in bad weatherWhen driving in bad weather  When being tailgatedWhen being tailgated  When driving with a heavy load orWhen driving with a heavy load or pulling a trailerpulling a trailer  When entering/exiting the expresswayWhen entering/exiting the expressway T – 6.36 Topic 3 Lesson 2 INCREASEINCREASE
  39. 39. Special Roadway ConditionsSpecial Roadway Conditions Disabled vehiclesDisabled vehicles T – 6.37 Topic 3 Lesson 2 Expressways through citiesExpressways through cities • Don’t be a “rubber necker” • Give the disabled vehicle plenty of room • Pull as far off the roadway as possible if your vehicle becomes disabled • Avoid driving in the right lane when vehicles are merging • Search for signs, signals, and roadway markings • Search for exits early and adjust position in adequate time to exit safely • Don’t make last minute lane changes to gain access to an exit • Monitor the zones around your vehicle and adjust position to create space cushions
  40. 40. Special Roadway ConditionsSpecial Roadway Conditions T – 6.37a Topic 3 Lesson 2 Construction areasConstruction areas Toll boothsToll booths  Exact change booths — The driver deposits coins (exact change) into a machine.  Attendant operated booths — For large vehicles or drivers without exact change.  Electronically operated booths — For drivers with prepaid accounts (Smart Tag). When exiting a toll-booth plaza, search traffic to both sides for open space, accelerate smoothly, and adjust speed to blend with the flow of traffic. Use caution when approaching:  Search ahead for warning signs.  Reduce your speed.  Adjust position to maintain a space around your vehicle.

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