Alcohol

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Kinds of alcohol. Effects of Alcohol.

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Alcohol

  1. 1. Alcohol
  2. 2. Types of Alcohol • Undistilled or Fermented • Distilled
  3. 3. How is alcohol fermented?
  4. 4. Kinds of Fermented Alcohol • Beer • Chicha • Cider(apple juice) • Icarinne Liquor(Korea)- • Palm Wine(sap of palm trees) • Sake(rice) • Tapache(Mexico)-pineapple+brown sugar with beer • Tiswin(corn) • Wine • Plum Wine • Basi (sugarcane)
  5. 5. Types of Beer • Ale • Fruit Beer(cherry, raspberry and peach) • Lager • Sahti • Wheat Beer
  6. 6. Distilled • Arrack • Awamori • Baiju • Gin • Mezcal • Palinka • Rum • Vodka • Whiskey (Bourbon Whiskey, Scotch Whiskey) • Brandy • Horilka • Cognac • Tequila • Guaro
  7. 7. Blood Alcohol Content or BAC Blood Alcohol Content (BAC) refers to the milligrams of alcohol per 100 milligrams of blood, usually expressed as a percentage. there are many factors that affect your Blood Alcohol concentration (BAC) when you drink. Some of these include: a person's size, gender and physical condition; what they have had to eat; how much sleep they have had; what medications they are taking and, importantly, the actual alcohol content of their chosen "drink." 1kg=0.45359237lbs
  8. 8. Men Approximate Blood Alcohol Percentage Drinks Body Weight in Pounds 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 0 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 Only Safe Driving Limit 0 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 Only Safe Driving Limit 1 .04 .03 .03 .02 .02 .02 .02 .02 Driving Skills Significantly AffectedPossible Criminal Penalties 2 .08 .06 .05 .05 .04 .04 .03 .03 3 .11 .09 .08 .07 .06 .06 .05 .05 4 .15 .12 .11 .09 .08 .08 .07 .06 5 .19 .16 .13 .12 .11 .09 .09 .08 6 .23 .19 .16 .14 .13 .11 .10 .09 Legally Intoxicated Criminal Penalties 7 .26 .22 .19 .16 .15 .13 .12 .11 8 .30 .25 .21 .19 .17 .15 .14 .13 9 .34 .28 .24 .21 .19 .17 .15 .14 10 .38 .31 .27 .23 .21 .19 .17 .16 Death Possible Subtract .01% for each 40 minutes of drinking. One drink is 1.25 oz. of 80 proof liquor, 12 oz. of beer, or 5 oz. of table wine.
  9. 9. Women Approximate Blood Alcohol Percentage Drinks Body Weight in Pounds 90 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 0 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 Only Safe Driving Limit 0 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 Only Safe Driving Limit 1 .05 .05 .04 .03 .03 .03 .02 .02 .02 Driving Skills Significantly AffectedPossible Criminal Penalties 2 .10 .09 .08 .07 .06 .05 .05 .04 .04 3 .15 .14 .11 .10 .09 .08 .07 .06 .06 4 .20 .18 .15 .13 .11 .10 .09 .08 .08 5 .25 .23 .19 .16 .14 .13 .11 .10 .09 6 .30 .27 .23 .19 .17 .15 .14 .12 .11 Legally Intoxicated Criminal Penalties 7 .35 .32 .27 .23 .20 .18 .16 .14 .13 8 .40 .36 .30 .26 .23 .20 .18 .17 .15 9 .45 .41 .34 .29 .26 .23 .20 .19 .17 10 .51 .45 .38 .32 .28 .25 .23 .21 .19 Death Possible Subtract .01% for each 40 minutes of drinking. One drink is 1.25 oz. of 80 proof liquor, 12 oz. of beer, or 5 oz. of table wine.
  10. 10. Once the drinker has gone beyond the "Point of Diminishing Returns," it is impossible to return to the Buzz Zone. Remaining in the Buzz Zone maximizes the drinker's positive experience and reduces harm. Tolerance (being able to "hold one's liquor") hampers alcohol's positive effects by reducing the initial stimulant qualities (yellow line).
  11. 11. Alcohol Myopia or “cognitive nearsightedness” -refers to alcohol's ability to substantially decrease reasoning abilities, judgment, and the ability to concentrate.
  12. 12. Binge Drinking -drinking lots of alcohol in a short space of time or drinking to get drunk or feel the effects of alcohol. Binge drinking for men, therefore, is drinking more than 8 units of alcohol – or about three pints of strong beer. For women, it’s drinking more than 6 units of alcohol, equivalent to two large glasses of wine.
  13. 13. How can you tell if you’re a binge drinker? Even if you don't drink alcohol every day, you could be a binge drinker if you regularly drink: • to get drunk • more than the daily unit guidelines in a single session • quickly.
  14. 14. Short term effects of alcohol Depending on how much is taken and the physical condition of the individual, alcohol can cause: • Slurred speech • Drowsiness • Vomiting • Diarrhea • Upset stomach • Headaches • Breathing difficulties • Distorted vision and hearing • Impaired judgment • Decreased perception and coordination • Unconsciousness • Anemia (loss of red blood cells) • Coma • Blackouts (memory lapses, where the drinker cannot remember events that occurred while under the influence)
  15. 15. Long term effects of alcohol • Unintentional injuries (car crash, drowning…) • High blood pressure, stroke, and other heart-related diseases • Nerve damage • Alcohol Poisoning • Cancer • Diabetes • Vitamin B1 deficiency, which can lead to a disorder characterized by amnesia, apathy and disorientation • Gastritis (inflammation of stomach walls) • Malnutrition • Sexual function and menstruation. • Eye problems (Nystagmus) • Birth defects. • Bone loss
  16. 16. Alcohol Poisoning Why is alcohol a poison? • slow down your brain functions so you lose your sense of balance. • irritate the stomach which causes vomiting and it stops your gag reflex from working properly – you can choke on, or inhale, your own vomit into your lungs. • affect the nerves that control your breathing and heartbeat, it can stop both. • dehydrate you, which can cause permanent brain damage. • lower the body’s temperature, which can lead to hypothermia. • lower your blood sugar levels, so you could suffer seizures.
  17. 17. Symptoms of Alcohol Poisoning • Confusion • Loss of coordination • Vomiting • Seizures • Irregular or slow breathing (less than eight breaths a minute) • Blue-tinged or pale skin • Low body temperature (hypothermia) • Stupor – when someone’s conscious but unresponsive • Unconsciousness – passing out
  18. 18. Never do these • Leave someone to sleep it off. • Give them a coffee. • Make them sick. • Walk them around. • Put them under a cold shower. • Let them drink any more alcohol.
  19. 19. Five things to do if someone is showing signs of alcohol poisoning 1.Try to keep them awake and sitting up. 2.Give them some water, if they can drink it. 3.Lie them on their side in the recovery position if they’ve passed out, and check they’re breathing properly. 4.Keep them warm. 5.Stay with them and monitor their symptoms.
  20. 20. Cancer Alcohol can cause 7 types of cancer: • Liver cancer • Bowel cancer • Breast cancer • Mouth cancer • Pharyngeal cancer(upperthroat) • Oesophageal cancer(foodpipe) • Laryngeal cancer(voicebox)
  21. 21. Diabetes There are three main ways drinking alcohol to excess can be a factor in causing diabetes: 1.Heavy drinking can reduce the body’s sensitivity to insulin, which can trigger type 2 diabetes. 2.Diabetes is a common side effect of chronic pancreatitis, which is overwhelmingly caused by heavy drinking. 3.Alcohol contains a huge amount of calories – one pint of lager can be equivalent to a slice of pizza. So drinking can also increase your chance of becoming overweight and your risk of developing type 2 diabetes.
  22. 22. Alcoholism Alcoholism- is a chronic and often progressive disease that includes problems controlling your drinking, being preoccupied with alcohol, continuing to use alcohol even when it causes problems, having to drink more to get the same effect (physical dependence), or having withdrawal symptoms when you rapidly decrease or stop drinking.
  23. 23. Symptoms of Alcoholism • Be unable to limit the amount of alcohol you drink • Feel a strong need or compulsion to drink • Develop tolerance to alcohol so that you need more to feel its effects • Drink alone or hide your drinking • Experience physical withdrawal symptoms — such as nausea, sweating and shaking — when you don't drink • Not remember conversations or commitments, sometimes referred to as a "black out" • Make a ritual of having drinks at certain times and become annoyed when this ritual is disturbed or questioned • Be irritable when your usual drinking time nears, especially if alcohol isn't available • Keep alcohol in unlikely places at home, at work or in your car • Gulp drinks, order doubles or become drunk intentionally to feel good, or drink to feel "normal" • Have legal problems or problems with relationships, employment or finances due to drinking • Lose interest in activities and hobbies that used to bring you pleasure
  24. 24. How to know if you already have Alcoholism? Ask yourself these questions: • If you're a man, do you ever have five or more drinks in a day? • If you're a woman, do you ever have four or more drinks in a day? • Do you ever need a drink to get you started in the morning? • Do you feel guilty about your drinking? • Do you think you need to cut back on how much you drink? • Are you annoyed when other people comment on or criticize your drinking habits?
  25. 25. Risk Factors • Steady drinking over time • Age • Family history • Depression and other mental health problems • Social and cultural factors • Mixing medication and alcohol.
  26. 26. Treatment • Detoxification and withdrawal • Learning skills and establishing a treatment plan • Psychological counseling • Oral medications • Injected medication • Continuing support • Treatment for psychological problems • Medical treatment for other conditions • Spiritual practice
  27. 27. Smoking Alcohol Can cause: • Eye injuries • Burns • Lung diseases
  28. 28. Injecting Alcohol -literally injecting alcohol using a needle into the blood stream
  29. 29. Enema Alcohol
  30. 30. Alcohol in Sports • Greater risk of muscle cramps • Greater risk for injuries and complications: Alcohol increases the bleeding and swelling around soft tissue injuries (sprains, bruises, and cuts - the most common sports injuries) requiring a longer recovery period. • Greater body heat loss: Alcohol is a vasodilator (it causes the blood vessels near the surface of the skin to expand) and thereby promotes heat loss and a lowered body temperature. • Reduced endurance • Dehydration • Vitamin and Mineral Depletion • Slower reactions • Reduced aerobic performance • Muscle injury

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