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Virginia Driver Responsibilities:Virginia Driver Responsibilities:
Preparing to Operate a VehiclePreparing to Operate a Ve...
Check around the outsideCheck around the outside of the vehicle for broken glass (windows,
lights,etc.), body damage, cond...
T – 2.2
Pre-DrivePre-Drive TasksTasks
Topic 1 Lesson 1
• Sliding books or book bags on seats when
slowing or stopping will...
T – 2.3
Pre-DrivePre-Drive TasksTasks
Topic 1 Lesson 1
• Unlock DoorsUnlock Doors
• Check traffic flowCheck traffic flow
•...
Under the Hood ChecksUnder the Hood Checks
3
8
11
10
9
1
2
6
7
4
5
1. Engine Coolant
Reservoir
2. Windshield Washer Fluid
...
Tires
• Tire pressure
– Check recommendation
in owner’s manual
• Tread wear, damage, or
bars showing
• Cuffing (uneven wea...
Under the Hood ChecksUnder the Hood Checks
Topic 1 Lesson 2
Self-CheckSelf-Check
Check every 1-2 MonthsCheck every 1-2 Mon...
Driver ReadinessDriver Readiness TasksTasks
T – 2.5
Topic 1 Lesson 3
SecuritySecurity
- Check passengers for safe entry
- ...
Driver ReadinessDriver Readiness TasksTasks
T – 2.6
Topic 1 Lesson 3
RestraintsRestraints
- Safety belt positioned across ...
Driver ReadinessDriver Readiness TasksTasks
Topic 1 Lesson 3
- Set rear view mirror to see
200 feet to the rear.
- Set sid...
Starting TasksStarting Tasks
 Check/set parking brakeCheck/set parking brake
 Place foot on servicePlace foot on service...
Starting TasksStarting Tasks
 Turn ignition to the onTurn ignition to the on
positionposition
 Check gaugesCheck gauges
...
Stop in a legal, safe parking spaceStop in a legal, safe parking space
 Park an appropriate distance from a fire hydrant...
 Turn ignition switch to “off”Turn ignition switch to “off”
- The engine and all accessories should shut off.
 Lock igni...
Alert/Warning Symbols and ControlsAlert/Warning Symbols and Controls
THEFT
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
N.
F.
G.
H.
I.
J.
L.
K.
M.
O.
P....
Alert/Warning Symbols and ControlsAlert/Warning Symbols and Controls
T.
U.
V.
W.
X.
GG.
Y.
Z.
AA.
BB.
CC.
EE.
DD.
FF.
HH.
...
Control, Information, Comfort, and Safety DevicesControl, Information, Comfort, and Safety Devices
• Headlamp ControlHeadl...
Location and description for all instruments and
features can be found in Vehicle’s Owner’s Manual
• SpeedometerSpeedomete...
Location and description for all instruments and
features can be found in Vehicle’s Owner’s Manual
• Safety Belt Reminder
...
Location and description for all instruments and
features can be found in Vehicle’s Owner’s Manual
• Oil Pressure Gauge
• ...
Control, Information, Comfort, and Safety DevicesControl, Information, Comfort, and Safety Devices
• Electronic Sound Syst...
Operating Vehicle Control DevicesOperating Vehicle Control Devices
• Safety Considerations to Minimize Risks
- Maintain st...
Operating Vehicle Control Devices
Brake Pedal
Used to stabilize, decrease,
and increase speed.
The driver can:
- cover the...
Operating Vehicle Control DevicesOperating Vehicle Control Devices
T – 2.20
Topic 3 Lesson 1
Gear Selector LeverGear Selec...
Safety, Communication, Comfort, & Convenience DevicesSafety, Communication, Comfort, & Convenience Devices
T – 2.20a
Topic...
Safety, Communication, Comfort, & Convenience DevicesSafety, Communication, Comfort, & Convenience Devices
T – 2.21
Topic ...
Safety, Communication, Comfort, & Convenience DevicesSafety, Communication, Comfort, & Convenience Devices
T – 2.22
Topic ...
Vehicle Balance (Roll, Pitch, and Yaw)Vehicle Balance (Roll, Pitch, and Yaw)
– Roll: vehicle’s weight shifts from side to ...
Controlling Vehicle BalanceControlling Vehicle Balance
• Steering Wheel BalanceSteering Wheel Balance
– Smaller steering w...
Changing Vehicle Load from Side to Side (Roll)Changing Vehicle Load from Side to Side (Roll)
• Steering Wheel Movements
• ...
Vehicle Direction / Speed RequirementsVehicle Direction / Speed Requirements
Vehicle ControlVehicle Control
• Releasing th...
Vehicle ControlVehicle Control
Weight Shifts Change
Vehicle Balanced
DROPS
Front
LIFTS
Rear
T – 2.28
Topic 4 Lesson 2
Acce...
Vehicle Direction / Speed RequirementsVehicle Direction / Speed Requirements
Vehicle ControlVehicle Control
• Sudden braki...
CorneringCornering
InertiaInertia
Actual PathActual Path
Intended PathIntended Path
Vehicle ControlVehicle Control
When co...
Vehicle ControlVehicle Control
Vehicle Direction / Speed RequirementsVehicle Direction / Speed Requirements
Steering Wheel...
Targeting and Visual RequirementsTargeting and Visual Requirements
T – 2.32
Topic 5 Lesson 1
Visual FunctionsVisual Functi...
Determining Vehicle Operating SpaceDetermining Vehicle Operating Space
Markers represent edge ofMarkers represent edge of
...
Traditional Mirror Views and Blind SpotsTraditional Mirror Views and Blind Spots
Notice the large blind zone areas and the...
Mirror Blind Spot and Glare Elimination (BGE)Mirror Blind Spot and Glare Elimination (BGE)
BGE LEFT SIDE MIRROR VIEW
BGE R...
Standard Referencing PointsStandard Referencing Points
Referencing Points:Referencing Points:
• Provide visual cues to
est...
Front LimitationFront LimitationFrontLimitation
• AT INTERSECTIONSAT INTERSECTIONS
• IN A STOPPING POSITIONIN A STOPPING P...
Front LimitationFront Limitation
Where are your visual reference points toWhere are your visual reference points to
determ...
Front Limitation Reference PointsFront Limitation Reference Points
• To stop 3-6 inches from the line in front of your bum...
Rear LimitationRear Limitation
• BACKINGBACKING
• PARKINGPARKING
You need to know where the rear of yourYou need to know w...
Rear LimitationRear Limitation
T – 2.41
Topic 5 Lesson 2
Where are your visual reference points forWhere are your visual r...
Rear LimitationRear Limitation
To align the rear bumper three to six inchesTo align the rear bumper three to six inches
fr...
Right Side LimitationRight Side Limitation
T – 2.43
Topic 5 Lesson 2
Establishing reference points forEstablishing referen...
Right Side LimitationRight Side Limitation
T – 2.44
Topic 5 Lesson 2
TheThe right side limitationright side limitation ref...
Left Side LimitationLeft Side Limitation
• determine position when parking ondetermine position when parking on
the left s...
Left Side LimitationLeft Side Limitation
YourYour left side limitationleft side limitation reference pointreference point ...
Angle ParkingAngle Parking
5 Feet
To angle park, place your vehicleTo angle park, place your vehicle
5 feet from the right...
Lane Position # 1Lane Position # 1
• VEHICLE IS CENTERED IN THE LANEVEHICLE IS CENTERED IN THE LANE
• CAR IS 3 FEET AWAY F...
Lane Position # 1Lane Position # 1
LaneLane
PositionPosition
ONEONE
(LP(LP 11))
T – 2.49
Topic 5 Lesson 3
3 FEET
3 FEET
• ...
Lane Position # 2Lane Position # 2
• VEHICLE IS 3-6 INCHES AWAY FROMVEHICLE IS 3-6 INCHES AWAY FROM
LINE TO THE LEFTLINE T...
Lane Position # 2Lane Position # 2
YourYour lane position #2lane position #2 reference pointreference point is about 1is a...
Lane Position # 3Lane Position # 3
CAR IS POSITIONED 3-6 INCHESCAR IS POSITIONED 3-6 INCHES
AWAY FROM EDGE OR LINE TOAWAY ...
Lane Position # 3Lane Position # 3
YourYour lanelane position #3 reference pointposition #3 reference point
is through the...
Lane PositionsLane Positions
LP 1
Position 2Position 2 is near the lane line to your left and is usedis near the lane line...
Lane PositionsLane Positions
Position 3Position 3 is near the lane line to your right and isis near the lane line to your ...
Possible Lane PositionsPossible Lane Positions
The width of the lane allows drivers to make laneThe width of the lane allo...
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Module 02 2004

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Module 02 2004

  1. 1. Virginia Driver Responsibilities:Virginia Driver Responsibilities: Preparing to Operate a VehiclePreparing to Operate a Vehicle Topic 1 --Topic 1 -- Driver Preparation ProceduresDriver Preparation Procedures Topic 2 --Topic 2 -- Identifying Vehicle Control DevicesIdentifying Vehicle Control Devices Topic 3 --Topic 3 -- Operating Vehicle Control DevicesOperating Vehicle Control Devices Topic 4 --Topic 4 -- Vehicle Balance ConsiderationsVehicle Balance Considerations Topic 5 --Topic 5 -- Standard Vehicle Reference PointsStandard Vehicle Reference Points Module Two TransparenciesModule Two Transparencies VirginiaVirginia Department of EducationDepartment of Education Provided in cooperation with the Virginia Department of Motor VehiclesProvided in cooperation with the Virginia Department of Motor Vehicles
  2. 2. Check around the outsideCheck around the outside of the vehicle for broken glass (windows, lights,etc.), body damage, condition of tires, fluid leaks, direction of front tires, or debris on the ground that could interfere with movement. Pre-DrivePre-Drive TasksTasks T – 2.1 Topic 1 Lesson 1 Check forCheck for small children or pets near vehicle.
  3. 3. T – 2.2 Pre-DrivePre-Drive TasksTasks Topic 1 Lesson 1 • Sliding books or book bags on seats when slowing or stopping will distract the driver. • Food or beverages also distract the driver from the driving task. • Valuables visible in the car may attract a thief. Store personal items in trunk of vehicleStore personal items in trunk of vehicle When parked at theWhen parked at the curbcurb • Approach vehicle from the front to monitor oncoming traffic. • Approach driver’s door with key in hand. When parked inWhen parked in parking lotparking lot • Approach vehicle from the rear to observe people or objects near the car. • Approach driver’s door with key in hand.
  4. 4. T – 2.3 Pre-DrivePre-Drive TasksTasks Topic 1 Lesson 1 • Unlock DoorsUnlock Doors • Check traffic flowCheck traffic flow • Enter the vehicleEnter the vehicle
  5. 5. Under the Hood ChecksUnder the Hood Checks 3 8 11 10 9 1 2 6 7 4 5 1. Engine Coolant Reservoir 2. Windshield Washer Fluid Reservoir 3. Engine Oil Filler Cap 4. Transmission Fluid Dipstick (Automatic Transmission) 5. Engine Oil Dipstick 6. Brake Fluid Reservoir 7. Clutch Fluid Reservoir (Manual Transmission) 8. Battery 9. Power Steering Fluid Reservoir 10. Drive Belts 11. Air Filter Assembly T – 2.4 Topic 1 Lesson 2
  6. 6. Tires • Tire pressure – Check recommendation in owner’s manual • Tread wear, damage, or bars showing • Cuffing (uneven wear on inside or outside tread areas) • Bald spots • Cuts, stones, metal fragments, or other damage Vehicle Safety,Vehicle Safety, Communication DevicesCommunication Devices & Accessories& Accessories • Headlights, tail lights, and turn signals • Emergency lights and markers • Emergency kit • Windshield wiper blades, operation, and washer fluid • HVAC • Safety warning lamps (brake, ABS, air bag, safety belts) T – 2.4a Weekly Self-Checks Topic 1 Lesson 2
  7. 7. Under the Hood ChecksUnder the Hood Checks Topic 1 Lesson 2 Self-CheckSelf-Check Check every 1-2 MonthsCheck every 1-2 Months • All interior and exterior lights • Engine oil level, brake fluid level, and engine coolant level • Lap/shoulder belts and seat latches for wear and smooth function Check Twice Per YearCheck Twice Per Year • Air pressure in spare tire • Power steering fluid level • Parking brake for proper operation • Hinges, latches, door weather strips, and outside locks (check and lubricate) • Body and door drain holes (check and clean) • Cooling system coolant strength • Battery connections (clean if necessary) • Transmission fluid level Professional ServiceProfessional Service Every 3,000 - 5,000 Miles • Oil change/filter replacement • Tire rotation/balance Every 15,000 Miles • Automatic transmission fluid level • Brake pads/shoes/rotors/drums, brake lines, hoses, and parking brake system • Engine cooling system • Steering linkage, suspension and, if equipped, drive shaft and ball joints • Cabin air filter replacement, if equipped Every 30,000 Miles • Exhaust system and heat shield • Engine air filter and fuel filter replacement • Accessory drive belts • Automatic transmission/transaxle service, if equipped T – 2.4b
  8. 8. Driver ReadinessDriver Readiness TasksTasks T – 2.5 Topic 1 Lesson 3 SecuritySecurity - Check passengers for safe entry - Lock doors - Place key in appropriate location Driver’s Seating PositionDriver’s Seating Position - Adjust so driver’s heel can pivotAdjust so driver’s heel can pivot smoothly between foot pedalssmoothly between foot pedals - Adjust to allow at least 10” betweenAdjust to allow at least 10” between driver’s chest and the steering wheeldriver’s chest and the steering wheel - Adjust seat back for driver’s visualAdjust seat back for driver’s visual needsneeds
  9. 9. Driver ReadinessDriver Readiness TasksTasks T – 2.6 Topic 1 Lesson 3 RestraintsRestraints - Safety belt positioned across chest and over pelvis (strongest skeletal bones) - Sit at least 10” from the steering wheel and side air bags - Head restraint – middle of the back of the skull • Adjust the seat, place your lower back firmly against the seat and sit up straight (if equipped with adjustable center post mountings for shoulder belt height, adjust height setting so the belt does not rub against your neck) • grab the bracket above the latch plate and pull the belt across your pelvis (make sure it is not twisted) • push the latch into the buckle until you hear it click (check to make sure the latch is locked) • snug the lap belt by pulling down on the buckle end as you pull up on the shoulder belt Adjusting Safety Belt for Proper FitAdjusting Safety Belt for Proper Fit
  10. 10. Driver ReadinessDriver Readiness TasksTasks Topic 1 Lesson 3 - Set rear view mirror to see 200 feet to the rear. - Set side view mirror 15 degrees out to view adjacent lane. MirrorsMirrors T – 2.6a NOTE: If rear view is blocked, adjust side view mirrors to see the side of vehicle and area behind the vehicle. This mirror setting will increase your blind spot.
  11. 11. Starting TasksStarting Tasks  Check/set parking brakeCheck/set parking brake  Place foot on servicePlace foot on service brakebrake  Put key in ignition andPut key in ignition and unlockunlock  Move shifter toMove shifter to park/neutralpark/neutral T – 2.7 Topic 1 Lesson 3
  12. 12. Starting TasksStarting Tasks  Turn ignition to the onTurn ignition to the on positionposition  Check gaugesCheck gauges  Adjust ventilation (HVAC)Adjust ventilation (HVAC)  Set needed accessoriesSet needed accessories (defroster, wipers, etc.)(defroster, wipers, etc.) T – 2.8 Topic 1 Lesson 4 Activate choke/fuel injectionActivate choke/fuel injection
  13. 13. Stop in a legal, safe parking spaceStop in a legal, safe parking space  Park an appropriate distance from a fire hydrant, intersection, RR crossing, loading zone, etc.  Keep foot on service brake. Set Parking BrakeSet Parking Brake Recommended in most new vehicle owner’s manuals to protect transaxle and constant velocity joints. Place gear selector in (P)ark.Place gear selector in (P)ark. Or place in recommended gear (Reverse or First gear) for manual shift transmission. Turn off any vehicle accessoriesTurn off any vehicle accessories Check that all systems are functioning and ready to use next time. Securing TasksSecuring Tasks T – 2.9 Topic 1 Lesson 4
  14. 14.  Turn ignition switch to “off”Turn ignition switch to “off” - The engine and all accessories should shut off.  Lock ignition switch and remove keyLock ignition switch and remove key - This is a safety feature for removing the key in most vehicles.  Remove occupant restraintsRemove occupant restraints - In some older cars, the shoulder restraints operate when the door is opened.  Check traffic and exit the vehicleCheck traffic and exit the vehicle - CheckCheck traffic flow to rear prior to opening the door.flow to rear prior to opening the door. - Rear child safety door locks may need to be opened from theRear child safety door locks may need to be opened from the driver’s door.driver’s door.  Secure doors and windowsSecure doors and windows - Protects valuables and unauthorized entry by others. Securing TasksSecuring Tasks T – 2.10 Topic 1 Lesson 4
  15. 15. Alert/Warning Symbols and ControlsAlert/Warning Symbols and Controls THEFT A. B. C. D. E. N. F. G. H. I. J. L. K. M. O. P. Q. R. S. T – 2.11 Topic 2 Lesson 1 Air Bag On/Off Switch Air Bag Functioning Antilock Brake System Functioning Theft-Deterrent System Activation 12 Volt Extension Outlet Battery/Alternator Warning Light Brake Warning Light Safety Alert Symbol Vent and Air Flow Control Door Locks Low Oil Pressure Warning Light Temperature Indicator Seat Belt Reminder Fog Lamps Drive Wheel Selector Emergency Flashers Fuse / Fuse Box Fuel Indicator Turn Signal Wipers Stalk
  16. 16. Alert/Warning Symbols and ControlsAlert/Warning Symbols and Controls T. U. V. W. X. GG. Y. Z. AA. BB. CC. EE. DD. FF. HH. II. JJ. KK. LL. MM. O/D OFF ETSETS OFFOFF T – 2.12 Topic 2 Lesson 1 Horn Hood Release Headlights/High Beam Indicator Lighter Indicator Interior Light Adjustment Fan Speed Indicator Adjust Left/Right Side Mirror Parking Lamp Indicator Overdrive On/Off Indicator Exterior Lights Steering Wheel Height Adjustment Cruise Control Device Rear Defroster Indicator Power Window Controls Left/Right Signal Indicator Electronic Traction Control System Trunk Release Windshield Washer Windshield Wipers Front Windshield Defroster
  17. 17. Control, Information, Comfort, and Safety DevicesControl, Information, Comfort, and Safety Devices • Headlamp ControlHeadlamp Control • Fuse PanelFuse Panel • Instrument PanelInstrument Panel • VentsVents Multi-Function LeverMulti-Function Lever • Headlight High/Low Beam SwitchHeadlight High/Low Beam Switch • Windshield Wiper/Washer ControlWindshield Wiper/Washer Control • Turn Signal SwitchTurn Signal Switch • Speed/Cruise ControlSpeed/Cruise Control Location and description for all instruments and features can be found in Vehicle’s Owner’s Manual T – 2.13 Topic 2 Lesson 2
  18. 18. Location and description for all instruments and features can be found in Vehicle’s Owner’s Manual • SpeedometerSpeedometer (mph-km/h)(mph-km/h) • OdometerOdometer • Trip OdometerTrip Odometer • Gear IndicatorGear Indicator T – 2.14 Control, Information, Comfort, and Safety DevicesControl, Information, Comfort, and Safety Devices Topic 2 Lesson 2 Center Instrument ClusterCenter Instrument Cluster
  19. 19. Location and description for all instruments and features can be found in Vehicle’s Owner’s Manual • Safety Belt Reminder • Antilock Brakes (ABS) • Brake Warning Light • Air Bag Warning Light • Battery/Alternator Warning light • Fuel indicator • Left/Right Turn Indicator Light • Engine Temperature • High Beam Indicator • Speed Control Settings T – 2.15 Control, Information, Comfort, and Safety DevicesControl, Information, Comfort, and Safety Devices Topic 2 Lesson 2 Instrument PanelInstrument Panel
  20. 20. Location and description for all instruments and features can be found in Vehicle’s Owner’s Manual • Oil Pressure Gauge • Door Ajar Warning Light • Anti-Theft Light • Speed Control Light • O/D On/Off • Driver Air Bag (SRS) • Lighter • Horn T – 2.16 Control, Information, Comfort, and Safety DevicesControl, Information, Comfort, and Safety Devices Topic 2 Lesson 2 Instrument Panel Con’tInstrument Panel Con’t
  21. 21. Control, Information, Comfort, and Safety DevicesControl, Information, Comfort, and Safety Devices • Electronic Sound SystemElectronic Sound System • Selector LeverSelector Lever • Auxiliary Power OutletsAuxiliary Power Outlets • Climate Control SystemsClimate Control Systems • Passenger Air Bag Cut OffPassenger Air Bag Cut Off SwitchSwitch NOTE:NOTE: Location and description for all instruments and features can be found in Vehicle’s Owner’s Manual T – 2.17 Topic 2 Lesson 1
  22. 22. Operating Vehicle Control DevicesOperating Vehicle Control Devices • Safety Considerations to Minimize Risks - Maintain steering control while adjusting information, comfort, or control devices - Always turn steering wheel in direction of desired movement when - Moving forward or - Moving backward - When adjusting steering wheel height and/or angle consider - Airbag deployment - Hand position - Wheel movement T – 2.18 Topic 3 Lesson 1 Crossing arms over airbag creates an injury risk!
  23. 23. Operating Vehicle Control Devices Brake Pedal Used to stabilize, decrease, and increase speed. The driver can: - cover the brake; - trail brake; - control squeeze brake; - threshold brake; - lock the brakes; - apply ABS; - jab (stab) brake; or - lift off the brake. Accelerator Pedal Used to stabilize, increase, and decrease speed. The driver can: – cover the accelerator; – use progressive acceleration; – use thrust acceleration; or – lift off the accelerator. Topic 2 Lesson 1 T-2.19
  24. 24. Operating Vehicle Control DevicesOperating Vehicle Control Devices T – 2.20 Topic 3 Lesson 1 Gear Selector LeverGear Selector Lever • Transmission Type and Location • Overdrive and Drive gear use Parking BrakeParking Brake • Owner’s Manual suggests engaging parking brake before placing in Park. Cruise / Speed Control –Cruise / Speed Control – Why andWhy and HowHow• To maintain a constant speed. • Never use in stop-and-go traffic or on slick surfaces. Ignition Switch -Ignition Switch - Location and FunctionsLocation and Functions
  25. 25. Safety, Communication, Comfort, & Convenience DevicesSafety, Communication, Comfort, & Convenience Devices T – 2.20a Topic 3 Lesson 2 • MirrorsMirrors • Safety BeltsSafety Belts • Head RestraintsHead Restraints • HornHorn • Turn SignalsTurn Signals • Door LocksDoor Locks • Hazard FlashersHazard Flashers • Windshield Wipers andWindshield Wipers and WashersWashers • Headlights / DaytimeHeadlights / Daytime Running LightsRunning Lights • Hood ReleaseHood Release • Trunk ReleaseTrunk Release • Heat / Defroster /Heat / Defroster / Air ConditionerAir Conditioner ControlsControls • Seat AdjustmentSeat Adjustment
  26. 26. Safety, Communication, Comfort, & Convenience DevicesSafety, Communication, Comfort, & Convenience Devices T – 2.21 Topic 3 Lesson 2 MirrorsMirrors • Adjust Inside and OutAdjust Inside and Out Safety BeltsSafety Belts • Adjust for Maximum EffectivenessAdjust for Maximum Effectiveness Head RestraintsHead Restraints • Protect Against WhiplashProtect Against Whiplash HornHorn • Know Location andKnow Location and UseUse Turn SignalsTurn Signals • Know Location and UseKnow Location and Use Door LocksDoor Locks • Manual / PowerManual / Power • Child Proof Rear Door LocksChild Proof Rear Door Locks Hazard FlashersHazard Flashers • Know Location and UseKnow Location and Use
  27. 27. Safety, Communication, Comfort, & Convenience DevicesSafety, Communication, Comfort, & Convenience Devices T – 2.22 Topic 3 Lesson 2 Windshield Wipers and WashersWindshield Wipers and Washers Headlights / Running LightsHeadlights / Running Lights • Location and UseLocation and Use Hood ReleaseHood Release • LocationLocation Trunk ReleaseTrunk Release • LocationLocation Heat / Defroster / Air Conditioner ControlsHeat / Defroster / Air Conditioner Controls Seat AdjustmentSeat Adjustment • Power / Manual ControlsPower / Manual Controls • Location and Use Location and Use
  28. 28. Vehicle Balance (Roll, Pitch, and Yaw)Vehicle Balance (Roll, Pitch, and Yaw) – Roll: vehicle’s weight shifts from side to side – Pitch: vehicle’s weight shifts forward or backward – Yaw: vehicle’s rear tire weight shifts to one side – Note: These weight transfers occur when the amount of weight or force pulling on each tire changes – Optimum balance is achieved at rest with no movement – Suspension and tire pressure also affect vehicle balance Vehicle Movement on Crowned or Banked RoadwayVehicle Movement on Crowned or Banked Roadway – Can create dramatic changes to vehicle balance due to suspension and weight shifts Controlling Vehicle BalanceControlling Vehicle Balance T – 2.24 Topic 4 Lesson 1
  29. 29. Controlling Vehicle BalanceControlling Vehicle Balance • Steering Wheel BalanceSteering Wheel Balance – Smaller steering wheel design – Rack and pinion steering control • Precise Steering, Braking, and Accelerator InputPrecise Steering, Braking, and Accelerator Input – Less steering movement needed in modern vehicles – Need smooth acceleration/deceleration – Squeeze brakes for balanced stops • Changes in Steering Ratios, 1980's to DateChanges in Steering Ratios, 1980's to Date - Steering input has been significantly reducedSteering input has been significantly reduced T – 2.25 Topic 4 Lesson 1 Maintaining Vehicle BalanceMaintaining Vehicle Balance
  30. 30. Changing Vehicle Load from Side to Side (Roll)Changing Vehicle Load from Side to Side (Roll) • Steering Wheel Movements • Brake Application and Steering Combinations • Slope of pavement Controlling Vehicle BalanceControlling Vehicle Balance SeatingSeating • Driver position/balance and safety belt/pedal use T – 2.26 Topic 4 Lesson 1
  31. 31. Vehicle Direction / Speed RequirementsVehicle Direction / Speed Requirements Vehicle ControlVehicle Control • Releasing the accelerator • Controlled braking (Squeeze on) • Threshold braking • Trail braking (Squeeze off) T – 2.27 Topic 4 Lesson 2 Changing Vehicle Load from Front to Rear (Pitch)Changing Vehicle Load from Front to Rear (Pitch) • Light accelerator pressure • Releasing the brake • Progressive accelerator pressure • Thrust accelerator pressure Changing Vehicle Load from Rear to Front (Pitch)Changing Vehicle Load from Rear to Front (Pitch)
  32. 32. Vehicle ControlVehicle Control Weight Shifts Change Vehicle Balanced DROPS Front LIFTS Rear T – 2.28 Topic 4 Lesson 2 Accelerating, braking, or steering shifts the vehicle’s weight from tire to tire and affects vehicle balance and control.
  33. 33. Vehicle Direction / Speed RequirementsVehicle Direction / Speed Requirements Vehicle ControlVehicle Control • Sudden braking and steering • Sudden or excessive acceleration and steering • Sudden or excessive steering • Road tilted to right • Traction loss to right rear may cause yaw motion T – 2.29 Topic 4 Lesson 2 • Sudden braking and steering • Sudden or excessive acceleration and steering • Sudden or excessive steering • Road tilted to left • Traction loss to left rear may cause yaw motion Changing Vehicle Load fromChanging Vehicle Load from Right to Left (Roll)Right to Left (Roll) Changing Vehicle Balance from Left to Right (Roll)Changing Vehicle Balance from Left to Right (Roll)
  34. 34. CorneringCornering InertiaInertia Actual PathActual Path Intended PathIntended Path Vehicle ControlVehicle Control When cornering, tires tend to flex. If the tires are underinflated, the contact with the rim may be lost. AIR LOSS WILL OCCUR. RIM T – 2.30 Topic 4 Lesson 2 Tires turning left Excessive tire flexion increases tire heat and may result in a blowout. Apex
  35. 35. Vehicle ControlVehicle Control Vehicle Direction / Speed RequirementsVehicle Direction / Speed Requirements Steering Wheel ControlSteering Wheel Control  Hand position on steering wheelHand position on steering wheel • Holding top or upper half of wheel (excessive steering and air bag injury risk) • Hands located on lower half of wheel (relaxed, balanced control)  Steering techniquesSteering techniques • Hand-to-hand steering (Push/Pull/Slide) • Hand-over-hand steering (top third of wheel) • Evasive steering (ABS wheel limitation) • One-hand steering  To reach controls  At top when backing straight  At bottom when backing a trailer T – 2.31 Topic 4 Lesson 2
  36. 36. Targeting and Visual RequirementsTargeting and Visual Requirements T – 2.32 Topic 5 Lesson 1 Visual FunctionsVisual Functions - Focus Vision (Focal/Foveal)Focus Vision (Focal/Foveal) - Central Vision (Limited Fringe Area)- Central Vision (Limited Fringe Area) - Peripheral Vision (Side)Peripheral Vision (Side) Vision GoalsVision Goals - Maintaining an open line of sightMaintaining an open line of sight - Searching skillsSearching skills - Targeting line of sight, path of travelTargeting line of sight, path of travel - Referencing vehicle to path of travelReferencing vehicle to path of travel - Using visual references and turningUsing visual references and turning targetstargets - Forward visual turning points - Rear visual turning points
  37. 37. Determining Vehicle Operating SpaceDetermining Vehicle Operating Space Markers represent edge ofMarkers represent edge of sightlinessightlines Outline of pavement area aroundOutline of pavement area around the car the driver cannot see fromthe car the driver cannot see from the driver’s seatthe driver’s seat Rectangles are the tire patches andRectangles are the tire patches and asterisks represent the vehicle’sasterisks represent the vehicle’s forward and rear turning axisforward and rear turning axis T – 2.33 Topic 5 Lesson 1 * * Forward Rear
  38. 38. Traditional Mirror Views and Blind SpotsTraditional Mirror Views and Blind Spots Notice the large blind zone areas and theNotice the large blind zone areas and the overlap between the side and rear mirrorsoverlap between the side and rear mirrors when using traditional mirror settings.when using traditional mirror settings. T – 2.34 Topic 5 Lesson 1 Rear view mirror ( ) Left side view mirror Right side view mirror Left mirror blind zone Right mirror blind zone
  39. 39. Mirror Blind Spot and Glare Elimination (BGE)Mirror Blind Spot and Glare Elimination (BGE) BGE LEFT SIDE MIRROR VIEW BGE RIGHT SIDE MIRROR VIEW REAR MIRROR VIEW Reference: Blindzone & Glare Elimination (BGE) Mirror Settings (G. Platzer, 1996)Reference: Blindzone & Glare Elimination (BGE) Mirror Settings (G. Platzer, 1996) Adjusting the side mirror setting 15 degree outward (BGE) allows youAdjusting the side mirror setting 15 degree outward (BGE) allows you to see the lanes to the sides and does not overlap as much with theto see the lanes to the sides and does not overlap as much with the area you can already see in your rear view mirrorarea you can already see in your rear view mirror T – 2.35 Topic 5 Lesson 1 •Peripheral Vision Area Peripheral Vision Area
  40. 40. Standard Referencing PointsStandard Referencing Points Referencing Points:Referencing Points: • Provide visual cues to establish vehicle position. • Relate part of the vehicle to some part of the roadway. • Allow the driver to determine proper placement within a lane. • Allow for reduced-risk lane positions. T – 2.36 Topic 5 Lesson 2 RIGHTRIGHT ReferenceReference PointsPoints LEFTLEFT ReferenceReference PointsPoints 6 inches from line or median 3 feet from line or median 6 inches from line or curb 3 feet from line or curb
  41. 41. Front LimitationFront LimitationFrontLimitation • AT INTERSECTIONSAT INTERSECTIONS • IN A STOPPING POSITIONIN A STOPPING POSITION • PARKINGPARKING You will need to know where the front end ofYou will need to know where the front end of your vehicle is when you are:your vehicle is when you are: T – 2.37 Topic 5 Lesson 2 STOP LINE
  42. 42. Front LimitationFront Limitation Where are your visual reference points toWhere are your visual reference points to determinedetermine FRONT LIMITATIONFRONT LIMITATION ?? T – 2.38 Topic 5 Lesson 2
  43. 43. Front Limitation Reference PointsFront Limitation Reference Points • To stop 3-6 inches from the line in front of your bumper,To stop 3-6 inches from the line in front of your bumper, stop whenstop when your line of sightyour line of sight runs under the side viewruns under the side view mirror reference point to the line in front of your vehicle.mirror reference point to the line in front of your vehicle. • Maintain a normal driving position when targeting yourMaintain a normal driving position when targeting your reference point and do not lean forward or sideways.reference point and do not lean forward or sideways. T – 2.39 Topic 5 Lesson 2 Reference Point Line of sight Reference point
  44. 44. Rear LimitationRear Limitation • BACKINGBACKING • PARKINGPARKING You need to know where the rear of yourYou need to know where the rear of your vehicle is when you arevehicle is when you are:: T – 2.40 Topic 5 Lesson 2
  45. 45. Rear LimitationRear Limitation T – 2.41 Topic 5 Lesson 2 Where are your visual reference points forWhere are your visual reference points for REAR LIMITATIONREAR LIMITATION ??
  46. 46. Rear LimitationRear Limitation To align the rear bumper three to six inchesTo align the rear bumper three to six inches from a line or curb,from a line or curb, you need to stop when theyou need to stop when the line or curb appears near the middle of the rearline or curb appears near the middle of the rear right window when looking over the rightright window when looking over the right shoulder.shoulder. T – 2.42 Topic 5 Lesson 2 Reference point Reference point
  47. 47. Right Side LimitationRight Side Limitation T – 2.43 Topic 5 Lesson 2 Establishing reference points forEstablishing reference points for right side limitation will allowright side limitation will allow you to:you to: • know where the curb or line is on the right side of the street • park parallel 3-6 inches away from a line or curb • establish lane position 3establish lane position 3 3-6 inches Line of sight Reference point Reference point
  48. 48. Right Side LimitationRight Side Limitation T – 2.44 Topic 5 Lesson 2 TheThe right side limitationright side limitation reference pointreference point toto position your vehicle 3-6 inches from the curbposition your vehicle 3-6 inches from the curb or line is the middle of your vehicle’s hood.or line is the middle of your vehicle’s hood. 3-6 inches Line of SightReference point The reference point for 3 feet from the curb or line is the right 1/4 section of the hood. 3 feet Reference point Line of Sight
  49. 49. Left Side LimitationLeft Side Limitation • determine position when parking ondetermine position when parking on the left side of a one-way street (3-6the left side of a one-way street (3-6 inches from the curb or line)inches from the curb or line) • determine lane position 2determine lane position 2 T – 2.45 Topic 5 Lesson 2 3-6 INCHES Establishing reference points forEstablishing reference points for left side limitation allows theleft side limitation allows the driver to:driver to:
  50. 50. Left Side LimitationLeft Side Limitation YourYour left side limitationleft side limitation reference pointreference point is aboutis about one foot from the left front corner of your car (itone foot from the left front corner of your car (it may be the seam between your left fender and themay be the seam between your left fender and the hood of your vehicle) to the curb.hood of your vehicle) to the curb. T – 2.46 Topic 5 Lesson 2 3-6 INCHES Reference Point Line of Sight Reference Point
  51. 51. Angle ParkingAngle Parking 5 Feet To angle park, place your vehicleTo angle park, place your vehicle 5 feet from the right side, target5 feet from the right side, target the middle of the parking space,the middle of the parking space, and use the right front turningand use the right front turning point to initiate steering towardspoint to initiate steering towards the middle of space.the middle of space. 5 feet T – 2.47 Topic 5 Lesson 2
  52. 52. Lane Position # 1Lane Position # 1 • VEHICLE IS CENTERED IN THE LANEVEHICLE IS CENTERED IN THE LANE • CAR IS 3 FEET AWAY FROM THE LINESCAR IS 3 FEET AWAY FROM THE LINES ON YOUR RIGHT AND LEFT SIDESON YOUR RIGHT AND LEFT SIDES T – 2.48 Topic 5 Lesson 3 3 FEET 3 FEET LaneLane PositionPosition ONEONE ( LP( LP 11 ))
  53. 53. Lane Position # 1Lane Position # 1 LaneLane PositionPosition ONEONE (LP(LP 11)) T – 2.49 Topic 5 Lesson 3 3 FEET 3 FEET • Your left sideYour left side reference pointreference point runs through the driver’sruns through the driver’s side left fender to the line on the left side of the vehicle.side left fender to the line on the left side of the vehicle. • Your right sideYour right side reference pointreference point runs through the center ofruns through the center of passenger’s side right half of the hood to the line on thepassenger’s side right half of the hood to the line on the right side of the vehicle.right side of the vehicle. Note: Lane position #1 is the lane position used most often.
  54. 54. Lane Position # 2Lane Position # 2 • VEHICLE IS 3-6 INCHES AWAY FROMVEHICLE IS 3-6 INCHES AWAY FROM LINE TO THE LEFTLINE TO THE LEFT T – 2.50 Topic 5 Lesson 3 3-6 INCHES LaneLane PositionPosition TWOTWO ( LP( LP 22 ))
  55. 55. Lane Position # 2Lane Position # 2 YourYour lane position #2lane position #2 reference pointreference point is about 1is about 1 foot from left side (it may be the crease betweenfoot from left side (it may be the crease between the left fender and hood of the vehicle) to the curb.the left fender and hood of the vehicle) to the curb. T – 2.51 Topic 5 Lesson 3 LaneLane PositionPosition TWOTWO (LP(LP 22)) 3-6 INCHES 6 FEET
  56. 56. Lane Position # 3Lane Position # 3 CAR IS POSITIONED 3-6 INCHESCAR IS POSITIONED 3-6 INCHES AWAY FROM EDGE OR LINE TOAWAY FROM EDGE OR LINE TO THE RIGHTTHE RIGHT T – 2.52 Topic 5 Lesson 3 3-6 INCHES LaneLane PositionPosition THREETHREE ( LP( LP 33 ))
  57. 57. Lane Position # 3Lane Position # 3 YourYour lanelane position #3 reference pointposition #3 reference point is through the center of your hood tois through the center of your hood to the right edge of the roadway.the right edge of the roadway. T – 2.53 Topic 5 Lesson 3 LaneLane PositionPosition THREETHREE (LP(LP 33)) 3-6 INCHES 6 FEET Reference point Line of Sight
  58. 58. Lane PositionsLane Positions LP 1 Position 2Position 2 is near the lane line to your left and is usedis near the lane line to your left and is used when there is a restriction to your path of travel or yourwhen there is a restriction to your path of travel or your line of sight and you cannot move to the adjacent lane.line of sight and you cannot move to the adjacent lane. T – 2.54 Topic 5 Lesson 3 Moving from Lane PositionMoving from Lane Position ONEONE toto TWOTWO LP 2 OBSTACLEOBSTACLE
  59. 59. Lane PositionsLane Positions Position 3Position 3 is near the lane line to your right and isis near the lane line to your right and is used when there is a restriction to your path of travelused when there is a restriction to your path of travel or line of sight and you cannot move out of the lane.or line of sight and you cannot move out of the lane. T – 2.55 Topic 5 Lesson 3 Moving from Lane PositionMoving from Lane Position ONEONE toto THREETHREE LP 1 LP 3 OBSTACLEOBSTACLE
  60. 60. Possible Lane PositionsPossible Lane Positions The width of the lane allows drivers to make laneThe width of the lane allows drivers to make lane position adjustments to minimize risk and create moreposition adjustments to minimize risk and create more space between their car and problem situations.space between their car and problem situations. T – 2.56 Topic 5 Lesson 3 Lane Positions –Lane Positions – 1, 2, 3, 4, and 51, 2, 3, 4, and 5 LP 3 LP 2 LP 4 LP 5 LP 1 OBSTACLEOBSTACLE

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