Unit 30 Lymphatic System


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Unit 30 Lymphatic System

  1. 1. KEY CONCEPT The respiratory and circulatory systems bring oxygen and nutrients to the cells.
  2. 2. <ul><li>The respiratory and circulatory systems work together to maintain homeostasis. </li></ul><ul><li>The circulatory system transports blood and other materials. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>brings supplies to cells </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>carries away wastes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>separates oxygen-poor and oxygen-rich blood </li></ul></ul>Oxygen-poor blood Oxygen-rich blood
  3. 3. <ul><li>The respiratory system is where gas exchange occurs. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>picks up oxygen from inhaled air </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>expels carbon dioxide and water </li></ul></ul>nose sinus mouth epiglottis trachea lungs
  4. 4. <ul><li>The respiratory system moves gases into and out of the blood. </li></ul><ul><li>The lungs contain the bronchi, bronchioles, and alveoli. </li></ul><ul><li>Millions of alveoli give the lungs a huge surface area. </li></ul><ul><li>The alveoli absorb oxygen from the air you inhale. </li></ul>alveoli bronchiole
  5. 5. <ul><li>Breathing involves the diaphragm and muscles of the rib cage. </li></ul><ul><li>Air flows from areas of high pressure to low pressure. </li></ul>Air inhaled. Muscles contract and rib cage expands. Diaphragm flattens and moves downward. Air exhaled. Muscles and rib cage relax. Diaphragm relaxes and rises.
  6. 6. <ul><li>The circulatory system moves blood to all parts of the body. </li></ul><ul><li>The system includes the heart, arteries, veins, and capillaries. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>heart pumps blood throughout body </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>arteries move blood away from heart </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>veins move blood back to heart </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>capillaries get blood to and from cells </li></ul></ul>veins arteries
  7. 7. <ul><li>There are three major functions of the circulatory system. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>collecting waste materials </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>maintaining body temperature </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>transporting blood, gases, nutrients </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. KEY CONCEPT The respiratory system exchanges oxygen and carbon dioxide.
  9. 9. <ul><li>Gas exchange occurs in the alveoli of the lungs. </li></ul><ul><li>Oxygen and carbon dioxide are carried by the blood to and from the alveoli. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>oxygen diffuses from alveoli into capillary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>oxygen binds to hemoglobin in red blood cells </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>carbon dioxide difuses from capillary into alveoli </li></ul></ul>ALVEOLI GAS EXCHANGES capillaries alveolus capillary co 2 o 2 Co 2 diffuses into alveolus. O 2 diffuses into blood.
  10. 10. <ul><li>Gas exchange occurs in the alveoli of the lungs. </li></ul><ul><li>Breathing is regulated by the brain stem. </li></ul>midbrain pons medulla oblongata spinal chord
  11. 11. <ul><li>Respiratory diseases interfere with gas exchange. </li></ul><ul><li>Lung diseases reduce airflow and oxygen absorption. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Emphysema destroys alveoli. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Asthma constricts airways. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cystic fibrosis produces sticky mucus. </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>Smoking is the leading cause of lung diseases. </li></ul>
  13. 13. KEY CONCEPT The heart is a muscular pump that moves the blood through two pathways.
  14. 14. <ul><li>The tissues and structures of the heart make it an efficient pump. </li></ul><ul><li>Cardiac muscle tissue works continuously without tiring. </li></ul>NORMAL HUMAN HEART
  15. 15. <ul><li>The heart has four chambers: two atria, two ventricles. </li></ul><ul><li>Valves in each chamber prevent backflow of blood. </li></ul><ul><li>Muscles squeeze the chambers in a powerful pumping action. </li></ul>aortic valve left atrium mitral valve left ventricle septum pulmonary valve right atrium tricuspid right ventricle
  16. 16. <ul><ul><li>SA node, or pacemaker, stimulates atria to contract </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>AV node stimulates ventricles to contract </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The heartbeat consists of two contractions. </li></ul>SA node VA node
  17. 17. <ul><li>Blood flows through the heart in a specific pathway. </li></ul>1 2 4 3
  18. 18. <ul><li>Blood flows through the heart in a specific pathway. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>oxygen-poor blood enters right atrium, then right ventricle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>right ventricle pumps blood to lungs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>oxygen-rich blood from lungs enters left atrium, then left ventricle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>left ventricle pumps blood to body </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. <ul><li>The heart pumps blood through two main pathways. </li></ul><ul><li>Pulmonary circulation occurs between the heart and the lungs. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>oxygen-poor blood enters lungs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>excess carbon dioxide and water expelled </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>blood picks up oxygen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>oxygen-rich blood returns to heart </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. <ul><li>Systemic circulation occurs between the heart and the rest of the body. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>oxygen-rich blood goes to organs, extremities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>oxygen-poor blood returns to heart </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The two pathways help maintain a stable body temperature. </li></ul>
  21. 21. KEY CONCEPT The circulatory system transports materials throughout the body.
  22. 22. <ul><li>Arteries, veins, and capillaries transport blood to all parts of the body. </li></ul><ul><li>Arteries carry blood away from the heart. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>blood under great pressure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>thicker, more muscular walls </li></ul></ul>ARTERY VEIN CAPILLARIES arteriole venule endothelium connective tissue smooth muscle valve
  23. 23. <ul><li>Veins carry blood back to the heart. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>blood under less pressure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>thinner walls, larger diameter </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>valves prevent backflow </li></ul></ul>ARTERY VEIN CAPILLARIES arteriole venule endothelium connective tissue smooth muscle valve
  24. 24. <ul><li>Capillaries move blood between veins, arteries, and cells. </li></ul>ARTERY VEIN CAPILLARIES arteriole endothelium connective tissue smooth muscle venule valve
  25. 25. <ul><li>Blood pressure is a measure of the force of blood pushing against artery walls. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>systolic pressure: left ventricle contracts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>diastolic pressure: left ventricle relaxes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>High blood pressure can precede a heart attack or stroke. </li></ul>
  26. 26. <ul><li>Lifestyle plays a key role in circulatory diseases. </li></ul><ul><li>Some choices lead to an increased risk of circulatory diseases. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>smoking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>long-term stress </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>excessive weight </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>lack of exercise </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>diet low in fruits and vegetables, high in saturated fats </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. <ul><li>Circulatory diseases affect mainly the heart and the arteries. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>artery walls become thick and inflexible </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>plaque blocks blood flow in arteries </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. KEY CONCEPT Blood is a complex tissue that transports materials.
  29. 29. <ul><li>Blood is composed mainly of cells, cell fragments, and plasma. </li></ul><ul><li>Whole blood is made up of different materials. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>plasma </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>red blood cells </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>white blood cells </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>platelets </li></ul></ul>red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets plasma
  30. 30. <ul><li>Plasma is a key factor in maintaining homeostasis. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>molecules diffuse into and out of plasma </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>contains proteins that stabilize blood volume </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>contains clotting factors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>contains immune proteins </li></ul></ul>
  31. 31. <ul><li>Platelets and different types of blood cells have different functions. </li></ul><ul><li>The bone marrow manufactures most of the blood components. </li></ul>red blood cell platelet white blood cell
  32. 32. <ul><li>Red blood cells make up 40-45 % of all blood cells. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>transport oxygen to cells and carry away carbon dioxide </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>have no nuclei and contain hemoglobin </li></ul></ul>
  33. 33. <ul><li>White blood cells fight pathogens and destroy foreign matter. </li></ul>red blood cell platelet white blood cell
  34. 34. <ul><li>Protein markers define blood types and Rh factors. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ABO blood group the most common </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rh factor can be negative or positive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>blood types must be compatible for transfusions </li></ul></ul>
  35. 35. <ul><li>Platelets help form clots that control bleeding. </li></ul>platelets fibrin red blood cell white blood cell
  36. 36. KEY CONCEPT The lymphatic system provides another type of circulation in the body.
  37. 37. <ul><li>Lymph is collected from tissues and returned to the circulatory system. </li></ul><ul><li>The lymphatic system collects fluid that leaks out of the capillaries. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lymph vessels have valves to prevent backflow. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lymph nodes filter the lymph and destroy foreign matter. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lymph vessels return cleaned fluid to the circulatory system. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>If lymph vessels or nodes are damaged, lymph collects in an area. </li></ul>heart lymph nodes lymph vessels
  38. 38. <ul><li>The lymphatic system is a major part of the immune system. </li></ul><ul><li>Structures in the lymphatic system help fight disease. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>tonsils filter bacteria and viruses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>thymus develops white blood cells </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>spleen filters lymph, contains immune cells </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Lymphocytes help destroy pathogens, parasites, and foreign matter. </li></ul>tonsils thymus spleen
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