Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Unit 33 Musculoskeletal System

4,858 views

Published on

Published in: Health & Medicine, Technology

Unit 33 Musculoskeletal System

  1. 1. 33.1 Skeletal System KEY CONCEPT The skeletal system includes bones and tissues that are important for supporting, protecting, and moving your body.
  2. 2. 33.1 Skeletal System Your skeletal system is made up of the appendicular and axial skeletons. • The skeletal system protects, supports, and moves the body.
  3. 3. 33.1 Skeletal System • The appendicular skeleton includes legs, arms, feet and hands. – allows for movement – includes bones called girdles that connect limbs to body
  4. 4. 33.1 Skeletal System • The axial skeleton includes the skull, rib cage, and spinal column. – supports body and protects skull tissues – allows for limited movement rib breastbone vertebra
  5. 5. 33.1 Skeletal System • Cartilage is connective tissue between bones. – cushions bones – allows for smooth movement – connect two bones cartilage
  6. 6. 33.1 Skeletal System Bones connect to form joints. • Joints are places were two bones meet. • There are three types of joints. – fibrous, which does not fibrous joint allow for movement
  7. 7. 33.1 Skeletal System Bones connect to form joints. • Joints are places were two bones meet. • There are three types of joints. – cartilaginous, which allows partial movement cartillage
  8. 8. 33.1 Skeletal System Bones connect to form joints. • Joints are places were two bones meet. • There are three types of joints. – synovial, which allows for greater movement
  9. 9. 33.1 Skeletal System • Ligaments are long bands of tissue that connect bones across a joint. ligament
  10. 10. 33.1 Skeletal System • There are several types of synovial joints. – gliding – pivot GLIDING JOINT – ball-and-socket PIVOT JOINT – saddle – hinge BALL-AND-SOCKET JOINT SADDLE JOINT HINGE JOINT
  11. 11. 33.1 Skeletal System Bones are living tissue. • Bone is made of compact bone tissue and spongy bone tissue. Compact bone Spongy bone
  12. 12. 33.1 Skeletal System • Compact bone is hard and dense. – Osteocytes (bone cells) maintain compact bone rings. – Haversian canals allow blood vessels in the bone. blood vessel osteocytes Haversian canals
  13. 13. 33.1 Skeletal System • Spongy bone protects red or yellow bone marrow. – Red bone marrow produces blood cells. – Yellow bone marrow is mostly fat. Periosteum A layer of connective tissue that covers bone Red bone marrow
  14. 14. 33.1 Skeletal System • Calcification is the process of building hard bone. – combines collagen and calcium phosphate – transforms cartilage into hard bone during childhood osteocyte compact bone
  15. 15. 33.1 Skeletal System KEY CONCEPT Muscles are tissues that can contract, enabling movement.
  16. 16. 33.1 Skeletal System Humans have three types of muscle. • The muscular system moves substances throughout the body. – bones of the skeletal system – food through digestive system – blood through circulatory system – fluids through excretory system
  17. 17. 33.1 Skeletal System • There are three types of muscle tissue. – skeletal muscle – smooth muscle – cardiac muscle SKELETAL MUSCLE SMOOTH MUSCLE CARDIAC MUSCLE
  18. 18. 33.1 Skeletal System • Skeletal muscle attaches to the skeleton by tendons. – Tendons connect muscle to bone. – Skeletal muscles are mostly voluntary. SKELETAL MUSCLE
  19. 19. 33.1 Skeletal System • Smooth muscle lines organs and is involuntary. – move food through digestive organs – empty liquid from the bladder – control width of blood vessels Smooth muscle around this artery allows the artery to regulate blood flow by shrinking and expanding. SMOOTH MUSCLE
  20. 20. 33.1 Skeletal System • Cardiac muscle is found only in the heart. – pumps blood throughout body – controlled by pacemaker – contains more mitochondria than skeletal muscle cells CARDIAC MUSCLE
  21. 21. 33.1 Skeletal System Muscles contract when the nervous systems causes muscle filaments to move. • Muscle fibers are cells of the muscular system. muscle fiber muscle
  22. 22. 33.1 Skeletal System • Myofibrils are long strands of protein in the muscle fiber. myofibril muscle fiber muscle
  23. 23. 33.1 Skeletal System • Each myofibril is divided into sarcomeres. • Sarcomeres contain filaments that cause contraction. muscle fiber myofibril sarcomere muscle
  24. 24. 33.1 Skeletal System • Each myofibril is divided into sarcomeres. • Sarcomeres contain filaments that cause contraction. – Actin filaments are pulled during contraction. – Myosin filaments pull actin during contraction. RELAXATION myosin M line Z line CONTRACTION
  25. 25. 33.1 Skeletal System • Neuron stimulates muscle at the neuromuscular junction. neuromuscular junction neuron MUSCLE
  26. 26. 33.1 Skeletal System • Neuron stimulates muscle at the neuromuscular junction. – Neurotransmitters cause calcium regulatory protein channels in the sarcomere to open. – Calcium exposes binding sites. – Myosin binds to actin and pulls it. actin – As the sarcomere shortens, the muscle contracts. myosin Z line
  27. 27. 33.1 Skeletal System KEY CONCEPT The integumentary system has many tissues that protect the body.
  28. 28. 33.1 Skeletal System The integumentary system helps maintain homeostasis. • The integument is the body system that surrounds all your other organ systems.
  29. 29. 33.1 Skeletal System The integumentary system helps maintain homeostasis. • The integumentary system consists of many parts. – skin – hair – nails – oil glands – sweat glands – proteins, such as keratin
  30. 30. 33.1 Skeletal System • Integumentary system removes substances from the body. – water – salts – urea pore sweat glands
  31. 31. 33.1 Skeletal System The integumentary system consists of many different tissues. • The outermost layer of the skin is the epidermis. pore – dead skin cells – oils – pores epidermis
  32. 32. 33.1 Skeletal System • Cells in the epidermis produce keratin and melanin. – Keratin makes cells waterproof and tough feeling. – Melanin is a dark pigment that absorbs UV rays.
  33. 33. 33.1 Skeletal System • The dermis contains most of the tissues in the skin. – sweat glands – oil glands – pressure receptors – blood vessels – hair follicles hair follicle oil gland dermis pressure receptors sweat gland
  34. 34. 33.1 Skeletal System • A hair follicle is pit of cells that produces hair. • The dermis also produces elastin and collagen. – Elastin makes skin flexible. – Collagen gives skin its shape.
  35. 35. 33.1 Skeletal System • Beneath the dermis is a layer of fat. fat layer

×