Unit 18b genetic screening and gene therapy

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Unit 18b genetic screening and gene therapy

  1. 1. KEY CONCEPT Entire genomes are sequenced, studied, and compared. <br />
  2. 2. Genomics involves the study of genes, gene functions, and entire genomes. Why do we study genomics?<br />Genomics is the study of genomes.<br />can include the sequencing of the genome<br />comparisons of genomes within and across species<br />
  3. 3. <ul><li>Gene sequencing is determining the order of DNA nucleotides in genes or in genomes.
  4. 4. The genomes of several different organisms have been sequenced.</li></li></ul><li><ul><li>The Human Genome Project has sequenced all of the DNA base pairs of human chromosomes.
  5. 5. analyzed DNA from a few people
  6. 6. still working to identify and map human genes</li></li></ul><li>Technology allows the study and comparison of both genes and proteins. <br />Bioinformatics is the use of computer databases to organize and analyze biological data. Why do we use computers for this process?<br />DNA microarrays are used to study the expression of many genes at once. <br /><ul><li>Proteomics is the study and comparison of proteins.</li></li></ul><li>KEY CONCEPT Genetics provides a basis for new medical treatments.<br />
  7. 7. DMD<br />N<br />Genetic screening can detect genetic disorders. <br />Genetic screening involves the testing of DNA.<br />determines risk of havingor passing on a geneticdisorder<br />used to detect specificgenes or proteins<br />can detect some genesrelated to an increasedrisk of cancer<br />can detect some genesknown to cause geneticdisorders<br />Would finding genes known to cause genetic disorders determine if you would get a disease?<br />
  8. 8. Think About It…<br />Would you be in favor of mandatory screening of all newborns?<br />Do you think certain rules or laws would need to be in place first?<br />
  9. 9. Gene therapy is the replacement of faulty genes.<br />Gene therapy replaces defective or missing genes, or adds new genes, to treat a disease.<br />
  10. 10. <ul><li>Several experimental techniques are used for gene therapy.
  11. 11. genetically engineered viruses used to “infect” a patient’s cells
  12. 12. insert gene to stimulate immune system to attack cancer cells
  13. 13. insert “suicide” genes into cancer cells that activate a drug</li></li></ul><li><ul><li>Gene therapy has many technical challenges. Can you name one?
  14. 14. inserting gene into correct cells
  15. 15. controlling gene expression
  16. 16. determining effect on other genes</li></li></ul><li>Why is DNA fingerprinting able to identify people? <br />A. The number of repeats in each location varies from person to person. <br />B. The base sequence in each location varies from person to person. <br />C. Every person has different genes. <br />D. Every person has a unique restriction enzyme, which is analyzed in fingerprinting. <br />
  17. 17. Why is DNA fingerprinting able to identify people? <br />A. The number of repeats in each location varies from person to person. <br />B. The base sequence in each location varies from person to person. <br />C. Every person has different genes. <br />D. Every person has a unique restriction enzyme, which is analyzed in fingerprinting. <br />Correct Answer = A<br />What is the purpose of genetic screening? <br />A. to treat a person who has a genetic disorder <br />B. to find the right type of medication to cure a disorder <br />C. to replace mutated genes <br />D. to test DNA for the risk of having a genetic disorder <br />
  18. 18. Why is DNA fingerprinting able to identify people? <br />A. The number of repeats in each location varies from person to person. <br />B. The base sequence in each location varies from person to person. <br />C. Every person has different genes. <br />D. Every person has a unique restriction enzyme, which is analyzed in fingerprinting. <br />Correct Answer = A<br />What is the purpose of genetic screening? <br />A. to treat a person who has a genetic disorder <br />B. to find the right type of medication to cure a disorder <br />C. to replace mutated genes <br />D. to test DNA for the risk of having a genetic disorder <br />Correct Answer = D<br />
  19. 19. Review<br /><ul><li>Genomics involves the study of genes, gene functions, and entire genomes
  20. 20. Technology allows the study and comparison of both genes and proteins
  21. 21. Genetic screening is the examination of genes for possible issues
  22. 22. Gene therapy is the replacement of faulty genes
  23. 23. Gene therapy has many potential benefits but several obstacles before it can be used</li>

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