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Unit 20 Protists And Fungi


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Unit 20 Protists And Fungi

  1. 1. KEY CONCEPT Kingdom Protista is the most diverse of all the kingdoms.<br />
  2. 2. Protists can be animal-like, plantlike, or funguslike.<br />Protists are eukaryotes (meaning they have a nucleus and other organelles) that are not animals, plants, or fungi.<br />
  3. 3. Animal-like protists consume other organisms. <br /><ul><li>They are called heterotrophs
  4. 4. They are often predators. </li></li></ul><li>Plantlike protists are photosynthetic. <br /><ul><li>single-celled, colonial, or multicellular
  5. 5. no roots, stems, or leaves </li></ul>Kelp<br />Diatoms<br />
  6. 6. Funguslike protists decompose dead organisms. <br /><ul><li>heterotrophs
  7. 7. can move, whereas fungi cannot </li></li></ul><li>Protists are difficult to classify.<br />Protista is often called one kingdom<br />But it may be broken down into more than one after scientists learn more about them.<br />
  8. 8. Protist classification will likely change. <br /><ul><li>Some protists are not closely related.
  9. 9. Molecular evidence supports reclassification.</li></ul>Know this!!<br />
  10. 10. KEY CONCEPTAnimal-like protists are single-celled heterotrophs that can move. <br />
  11. 11. Animal-like protists move in various ways.<br />macronucleus<br />contractile vacuole<br />food vacuole<br />oral groove<br />micronucleus<br />cilia<br />Animal-like protists are often called protozoa. <br />
  12. 12. Protozoa with flagella are zooflagellates.<br /><ul><li>flagella help zooflagellates swim
  13. 13. more than 2000 zooflagellates</li></li></ul><li>Some protists move with pseudopods.<br /><ul><li> change shape as they move
  14. 14. amoebas</li></ul><br />
  15. 15. <ul><li>Some protists move with pseudopods.
  16. 16. change shape as they move
  17. 17. amoebas and…</li></ul>Forams<br />
  18. 18. macronucleus<br />contractile vacuole<br />food vacuole<br />oral groove<br />micronucleus<br />cilia<br />Some protozoa move with cilia. <br /><ul><li> cilia help protists swim and capture food
  19. 19. more than 8000 ciliates</li></li></ul><li>Some animal-like protists cause disease.<br />human liver<br />sporozoites<br />liver cells<br />developed<br />parasites<br />red blood<br />cells<br />Protists cause some well-known infectious diseases. <br /><ul><li>Malaria is caused by Plasmodium and spread by mosquitoes.
  20. 20. Sleeping sickness is caused by Trypanosomaand spread by flies.
  21. 21. A giardia infection is caused by Giardia and spread through water. </li></ul>Malaria Infection<br />
  22. 22. KEY CONCEPTAlgae are plantlike protists. <br />
  23. 23. Plantlike protists can be single-celled or multicellular.<br />colony<br />daughter colony<br />Photosynthetic plantlike protists are called algae. <br />Volvox<br />
  24. 24. Protists<br />(Diatoms)<br />Do photosynthesis, but are protected by a silica (glass) shell<br />
  25. 25. pellicle<br />contractile<br />vacuole<br />nucleus<br />flagellum<br />chloroplast<br />eye spot<br />Euglenoids are a large group of plantlike protists.<br /><ul><li> mostly photosynthetic
  26. 26. some heterotrophic
  27. 27. single-celled
  28. 28. one or two flagella</li></li></ul><li>Dinoflagellates are mostly marine plantlike protists. <br /><ul><li> have two flagella
  29. 29. may be bioluminescent
  30. 30. have stiff protective plates
  31. 31. can cause red tide</li></ul>Dinoflagellates<br />
  32. 32. Multicellular algae are classified by their pigments. <br /><ul><li> Green algae contain chlorophyll a and b.
  33. 33. Brown algae contain chlorophyll c.
  34. 34. Red algae contain chlorophyll a and phycoerythrin.</li></ul>thickening agents used in ice cream like agar and carrageen come from <br />Red Algae!<br />
  35. 35. Many plantlike protists can reproduce both sexually and asexually.<br /><ul><li>All algae can reproduce asexually.
  36. 36. Multicellular algae can fragment.
  37. 37. Chlamydomonas divides into zoospores.</li></li></ul><li>Some algae produce sexually. <br /><ul><li> Some species alternate generations.
  38. 38. Sexual reproduction can be triggered by environmental stress.</li></li></ul><li>KEY CONCEPTFunguslike protists decompose organic matter. <br />
  39. 39. Slime molds and water molds are funguslike protists.<br /><ul><li>Slime molds have both funguslike and animallike traits.
  40. 40. decomposers, like fungi
  41. 41. can move, like animals </li></li></ul><li>Slime molds can be plasmodial or cellular. <br /><ul><li> Plasmodial slime molds are giant cells with many nuclei.
  42. 42. Cellular slime molds contain independent cells.</li></ul>Watch ‘em move:<br /><br />
  43. 43. Water molds are freshwater, funguslike protists.<br /><ul><li> one type of water mold caused Great Potato Famine of Ireland in the 1800’s
  44. 44. made of branching strands of cells
  45. 45. can be parasites of plants or fish
  46. 46. If you see a dead-fish with filiments on it, that’s a watermold</li></li></ul><li>Fungi are adapted to absorb their food from the environment.<br /><ul><li>Plants and fungi have different traits.
  47. 47. Fungal cell walls are made of chitin.
  48. 48. Plant cell walls are made of cellulose.
  49. 49. Plants have chlorophyll and photosynthesize.
  50. 50. Fungi absorb food through hyphae. </li></li></ul><li>Fungi are multicellular organisms, with the exception of yeasts. <br /><ul><li> hyphae
  51. 51. mycellium
  52. 52. fruiting body</li></li></ul><li>Fungi come in many shapes and sizes.<br /><ul><li>Primitive fungi are aquatic and have flagellated spores.
  53. 53. Sac fungi form a reproductive sac, or ascus.
  54. 54. Yeasts are single-celled sac fungi.
  55. 55. Morels and truffles are multicellular sac fungi.</li></li></ul><li>Bread molds are often found on spoiled food. <br /><ul><li> form zygospores during reproduction
  56. 56. mycorrhizae belong to this group </li></li></ul><li>Club fungi have fruiting bodies which are club-shaped.<br /><ul><li> reproductive structures called basidia
  57. 57. include mushrooms, puffballs, and shelf fungi </li></li></ul><li>Fungi reproduce sexually and asexually.<br /><ul><li>Most fungi reproduce both sexually and asexually.
  58. 58. Yeasts reproduce asexually through budding.
  59. 59. Yeasts form asci during sexual reproduction. </li></li></ul><li>Multicellular fungi have complex reproductive cycles.<br /><ul><li>distinctive reproductive structures</li></li></ul><li>
  60. 60. <ul><li>Multicellular fungi have complex reproductive cycles.</li></ul>life cycles may include either sexual or asexual reproduction or both <br />
  61. 61. KEY CONCEPTFungi recycle nutrients in the environment. <br />
  62. 62. Fungi may be decomposers, pathogens, or mutualists.<br /><ul><li>Fungi and bacteria are the main decomposers </li></ul>in any ecosystem.<br /><ul><li>decompose dead leaves, twigs, logs, and animals
  63. 63. return nutrients to the soil
  64. 64. can damage fruit trees and wooden structures</li></li></ul><li>Fungi can act as pathogens. <br /><ul><li> human diseases include ringworm and athlete’s foot
  65. 65. plant diseases include Dutch elm disease</li></li></ul><li>Fungi can act as mutualists. <br /><ul><li> lichens form between fungi and algae
  66. 66. mycorrhizae form between fungi and plants</li></li></ul><li><ul><li>Fungi can act as mutualists. </li></ul>relationships form between fungi and some insects<br />
  67. 67. Fungi are studied for many purposes.<br /><ul><li>Fungi are useful in several ways.
  68. 68. as food
  69. 69. as antibiotics</li></ul>Because Yeasts have many of the same genes and proteins found in plants AND animals, yeasts (and other fungi) are used as model systems for molecular biology<br />