The Circulatory System
The Circulatory System <ul><li>The function of a circulatory system is to carry blood or hemolymph into close contact with...
Functions of the Circulatory System <ul><li>Transport oxygen to cells </li></ul><ul><li>Transport nutrients from the diges...
How Are Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide Transported in Blood? <ul><li>Blood   :  connective tissue that consists of cells in a w...
RBCs <ul><li>Red blood cells  (RBCs): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>transport oxygen from the lungs to tissues throughout the body...
Circulation Pulmonary Circuit Systemic Circuit
How Does the Heart Work? <ul><li>In animals with closed circulatory systems, the heart contains at least two chambers. </l...
How Does the Heart Work? <ul><li>Vertebrates evolved two separate pumping circuits:  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The  pulmonary ...
Components of the Human Circulatory System <ul><li>The Heart </li></ul><ul><li>Blood Vessels </li></ul><ul><li>Blood </li>...
Types of Blood Vessels <ul><li>Capillaries : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>smallest vessels  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the site w...
Location of Heart
Pericardial Cavity
Layers of Cardiac Tissue
<ul><li>Visceral pericardium   </li></ul><ul><li>Outer protective layer composed of a serous membrane  </li></ul><ul><li>I...
<ul><li>Endocardium   </li></ul><ul><li>Consists of epithelial and connective tissue that contains many elastic and collag...
Heart Anatomy
The Human Heart <ul><li>The human circulatory system returns oxygen-depleted blood from the body to the right atrium of th...
The Human Heart <ul><li>The oxygenated blood enters the left atrium: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>it contracts and pushes the blo...
Heart Anatomy
Heart Anatomy
VALVES
Heart valves bicuspid valve aortic semilunar valve tricuspid valve pulmonary semilunar valve
The Cardiac Cycle <ul><li>The contraction phase of the atria and the ventricles: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>called  systole   <...
<ul><li>systolic blood pressure  : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>blood pressure measured in the systemic arterial circulation at t...
Contraction cycle of the heart
Contraction Cycle of the Heart
Contraction Cycle of the Heart
Excitation of the Heart <ul><li>Depolarization of the atria </li></ul>
Excitation of the Heart Depolarization of the ventricles
Excitation of the Heart
Excitation of the Heart
Circulatory System -Gross and Cool Facts! <ul><li>The body of an adult contains over 60,000 miles of blood vessels!  </li>...
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Biology Project [Circulatory System] Vijay Raja Std Vii Navdeep With Sound

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My project was to prepare a presentation on human circulatory system.
This is what it finally looked like .
Hope it comes of some use to you all .
Vijay Raja

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Biology Project [Circulatory System] Vijay Raja Std Vii Navdeep With Sound

  1. 1. The Circulatory System
  2. 2. The Circulatory System <ul><li>The function of a circulatory system is to carry blood or hemolymph into close contact with every cell in the body. </li></ul><ul><li>The most sophisticated circulatory systems consist of: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>one or more pumps called hearts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>arteries (tough, thick-walled tubes) that carry blood away from the heart under high pressure; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>small vessels called capillaries whose walls are just one cell thick, allows the exchange of gases and other molecules with tissues in networks called capillary beds ; and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>vessels called veins that return blood to the heart under low pressure </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Functions of the Circulatory System <ul><li>Transport oxygen to cells </li></ul><ul><li>Transport nutrients from the digestive system to body cells </li></ul><ul><li>Transport hormones to body cells </li></ul><ul><li>Transport waste from body cells to excretory organs </li></ul><ul><li>Distribute body heat </li></ul>
  4. 4. How Are Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide Transported in Blood? <ul><li>Blood : connective tissue that consists of cells in a watery extracellular matrix called plasma </li></ul><ul><li>Remainder of the blood is made up of formed elements : platelets, red blood cells, and several types of white blood cells : </li></ul><ul><li>Platelets : Cell fragments that minimize blood loss from ruptured blood vessels by releasing material that assists in the formation of clots </li></ul><ul><li>White blood cells: which are part of the immune system fight infections </li></ul>
  5. 5. RBCs <ul><li>Red blood cells (RBCs): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>transport oxygen from the lungs to tissues throughout the body </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>critical role in transporting carbon dioxide from tissues to lungs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>In humans, red blood cells make up 99.9% of the formed elements. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>contain an oxygen-carrying molecule called hemoglobin </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Circulation Pulmonary Circuit Systemic Circuit
  7. 7. How Does the Heart Work? <ul><li>In animals with closed circulatory systems, the heart contains at least two chambers. </li></ul><ul><li>the atrium receives blood returning from circulation </li></ul><ul><li>the ventricle generates force to propel the blood through the system. </li></ul><ul><li>Atria are separated from ventricles by atrioventricular valves. </li></ul><ul><li>The number of distinct heart chambers has increased as vertebrates diversified. </li></ul>
  8. 8. How Does the Heart Work? <ul><li>Vertebrates evolved two separate pumping circuits: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The pulmonary circulation is a lower-pressure circuit to the lungs. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The systemic circulation is a higher-pressure circuit to the rest of the body. </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Components of the Human Circulatory System <ul><li>The Heart </li></ul><ul><li>Blood Vessels </li></ul><ul><li>Blood </li></ul><ul><li>Lymphatic Vessels </li></ul><ul><li>Lymph </li></ul>
  10. 10. Types of Blood Vessels <ul><li>Capillaries : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>smallest vessels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the site where gases, nutrients, and wastes are exchanged between the blood and other tissues </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The smallest veins are venules; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>carry blood back to the heart after it passes through the capillaries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>veins have much thinner walls and much larger interior diameters than arteries </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Location of Heart
  12. 12. Pericardial Cavity
  13. 13. Layers of Cardiac Tissue
  14. 14. <ul><li>Visceral pericardium </li></ul><ul><li>Outer protective layer composed of a serous membrane </li></ul><ul><li>Includes blood capillaries, lymph capillaries, and nerve fibers. </li></ul><ul><li>Myocardium </li></ul><ul><li>Relatively thick. </li></ul><ul><li>Consists largely of cardiac muscle tissue responsible for forcing blood out of the heart chambers. </li></ul><ul><li>Muscle fibers are arranged in planes, separated by connective tissues that are richly supplied with blood capillaries, and nerve fibers. </li></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>Endocardium </li></ul><ul><li>Consists of epithelial and connective tissue that contains many elastic and collagenous fibers. </li></ul><ul><li>Connective tissue also contains blood vessels and some specialized cardiac muscle fibers called Purkinje fibers . </li></ul><ul><li>Lines all of the heart chambers and covers heart valves. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Heart Anatomy
  17. 17. The Human Heart <ul><li>The human circulatory system returns oxygen-depleted blood from the body to the right atrium of the heart through two large veins </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the inferior and superior venae cavae . </li></ul></ul><ul><li>When the right atrium contracts: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>deoxygenated blood is sent to the right ventricle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>it contracts and sends blood out to the lungs via the pulmonary artery </li></ul></ul><ul><li>One-way valves ensure that blood follows only this path. After blood has circulated through the capillary beds in the lung’s alveoli: </li></ul><ul><li>it becomes oxygenated </li></ul><ul><ul><li>returns to the heart through the pulmonary veins </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. The Human Heart <ul><li>The oxygenated blood enters the left atrium: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>it contracts and pushes the blood into the left ventricle </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The contraction of the left ventricle sends oxygenated blood at high pressure out the aorta and into: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the arteries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>capillaries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>veins </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>forms the systemic circulation </li></ul></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Heart Anatomy
  20. 20. Heart Anatomy
  21. 21. VALVES
  22. 22. Heart valves bicuspid valve aortic semilunar valve tricuspid valve pulmonary semilunar valve
  23. 23. The Cardiac Cycle <ul><li>The contraction phase of the atria and the ventricles: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>called systole </li></ul></ul><ul><li>is coordinated with their relaxation phase </li></ul><ul><ul><li>called diastole </li></ul></ul><ul><li>A cardiac cycle: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>consists of one complete systole and one complete diastole </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. <ul><li>systolic blood pressure : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>blood pressure measured in the systemic arterial circulation at the peak of ventricular ejection into the aorta </li></ul></ul><ul><li>diastolic blood pressure: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>blood pressure measured just prior to ventricular ejection </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Contraction cycle of the heart
  26. 26. Contraction Cycle of the Heart
  27. 27. Contraction Cycle of the Heart
  28. 28. Excitation of the Heart <ul><li>Depolarization of the atria </li></ul>
  29. 29. Excitation of the Heart Depolarization of the ventricles
  30. 30. Excitation of the Heart
  31. 31. Excitation of the Heart
  32. 32. Circulatory System -Gross and Cool Facts! <ul><li>The body of an adult contains over 60,000 miles of blood vessels! </li></ul><ul><li>An adult's heart pumps nearly 4000 gallons of blood each day! </li></ul><ul><li>Your heart beats some 30 million times a year! </li></ul><ul><li>The average three-year-old has two pints of blood in their body; the average adult at least five times more! </li></ul><ul><li>A &quot;heartbeat&quot; is really the sound of the valves in the heart closing as they push blood through its chambers. </li></ul>

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