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Learning About the Lives of Pacific Northwest BatsUsing radio-telemetry to study base habitat use requirementsJeffrey Tayl...
Bats: Background Information<br />1000 species of bats world-wide, second to rodents<br />Only group of mammals capable of...
Bats: Background Information<br />Broken up into two large groups:<br />	-  Megachiroptera: fruit-eating <br />			i.e. “fl...
The Lifestyles of Northwest Bats(Everything is based on energy conservation)<br />Bats have extremely high metabolisms <br...
The Lifestyles of Northwest Bats(Everything is based on energy conservation)<br />To conserve energy they sleep… a lot!	<b...
The Lifestyles of Northwest Bats(Everything is based on energy conservation)<br />To conserve energy they sleep… a lot!	<b...
The Lifestyles of Northwest Bats(Everything is based on energy conservation)<br />Because they sleep so much and hibernate...
Myth or Truth?<br />Do bats fly into people’s hair?<br />•	Do bats have rabies?<br />•	Do bats eat 600 mosquitoes per hour...
Myth or Truth?<br />Do bats fly into people’s hair?<br />No, bats have excellent vision and sonar <br />•	Do bats have rab...
Myth or Truth?<br />Do bats fly into people’s hair?<br />No, bats have excellent vision and sonar<br />•	Do bats have rabi...
Your Neighborhood Bats<br />Twelve species of bats in the forested regions of the Pacific Northwest<br />Some are very com...
Little Brown Myotis (Myotis lucifugus)<br />Yuma Myotis<br />(Myotis yumanensis)<br />These two species are difficult to d...
Big Brown Bat(Eptesicus fuscus)<br />A very common bat that ranges across North America <br />Weighs about the same as a m...
Foliage Roosting Bats<br />Migrate south for the winter<br />Silver-haired Bat(Lasionycteris noctivagans)<br />Found acros...
Townsend’s Big-eared Bat(Plecotus townsendii)<br />A rare cave roosting batHuge ears used to detect low-frequency moths<br...
California Myotis(Myotis californicus)<br />A very small somewhat common bat More common eastside of the CascadesOften fou...
Western Long-eared Myotis(Myotis evotis)<br />A common bat found in forests west of the Rockies<br />Uses peeling bark of ...
Fringed Myotis(Myotis thysanodes)<br />A rare bat, uses caves and rock crevasses for roosting<br />Species of concern beca...
Keen’s Myotis(Myotis keenii)<br />A cave roosting species found in coastal spruce forests <br />Endangered in Canada, stat...
Long-legged Myotis(Myotis volans)<br />An uncommon bat of the montane forests<br />It is the largest of the Myotis bats in...
Control Methods for Bats in Your Homes<br />There are ways to exclude bats without killing them:<br />•	Hire pest manageme...
Control Methods for Bats in Your Homes<br />There are ways to exclude bats without killing them:<br />Between November and...
Control Methods for Bats in Your Homes<br />There are ways to exclude bats without killing them:<br />If you do exclude th...
Control Methods for Bats in Your Homes<br />There are ways to exclude bats without killing them:<br />NEVER exclude them i...
How do we Conserve Bat Populations?<br />Bats are very important to the ecology and economy of many ecosystems.<br />They ...
Understanding the Ecology of Bats in Pacific Northwest Forests<br />
Habitat Fragmentation is Considered <br />the Biggest Threat to Bat Populations<br />
My Job<br />Learn about the ecology of bats in the forests of the Cascade range.<br />Find out what habitat types and ecol...
The Long-legged Myotis<br />•	The long-legged myotis is generally considered to be associated with late-successional fores...
Information Needs for Myotis volans<br />What are the specific roost-site structures preferred by the long-legged myotis?<...
#1- Capture long-legged myotis with mist-nets <br />at water sources (caves and water troughs)<br />
Mist Nets<br />
Alien Abduction!<br />Your on your way to get a drink<br />Then boom, you caught in a giant net, bright lights shine upon ...
Alien Abduction!<br />Take Measurements and Place Radio-transmitters on Their Backs<br />
Unexpected Results and More Questions<br />My hypothesis was that they were roosting in the cave in the day and would head...
#2- Release them and track them to their day-roost locations the next morning.<br />
They were roosting in trees in the day!<br />As it turns out, they were using the caves to get a drink after they woke up ...
#3- Take roost measurements including:<br />Roost height, diameter, canopy cover, canopy height, snag class and snag speci...
Analysis<br />GPS each roost-site location<br />Create a circle with a radius from the <br />	water source to the furthest...
Eight habitat types were delineated<br />Douglas fir/grand fir forests<br />Stem initiation<br />Earliest Succession Stage...
Retention Types in Managed Forests<br />
Early Successional Retention Types<br />Aggregate Retention Patch<br />Shelterwood<br />
Mid-successionalStages<br />Stem Exclusion<br />Stem Initiation Small<br />Young trees are so densely packed that no new s...
Late-SuccessionalStages<br />Stem Reinitiation Medium<br />Stem Reinitiation Large<br />
Where the Bats Roosted<br />
West Site Habitat Selection<br />
Snag Species Selection<br />
Conclusions<br />Long-legged myotis use snags as day-roosts <br />Prefers late-successionalforests<br />Strongly prefers <...
Conclusions<br />Avoid early successional stages, but occasionally use aggregate retention patches and shelterwoods.<br />...
What can you do to protect bat <br />populations?<br />• Leave dead or dying trees on your property<br />• Place a bat box...
Management Implications<br />Leave snags for bat species<br />Leave at least small patches of late-successional forests in...
SDS Episode2 - The Habitat Requirements of Pacific Northwest Bats
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SDS Episode2 - The Habitat Requirements of Pacific Northwest Bats

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Habitat Requirements of Pacific Northwest Bats

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SDS Episode2 - The Habitat Requirements of Pacific Northwest Bats

  1. 1. Learning About the Lives of Pacific Northwest BatsUsing radio-telemetry to study base habitat use requirementsJeffrey TaylorScience InstructorOlympus High School<br />Get Your High School Diploma Online<br />
  2. 2. Bats: Background Information<br />1000 species of bats world-wide, second to rodents<br />Only group of mammals capable of sustained flight<br />
  3. 3. Bats: Background Information<br />Broken up into two large groups:<br /> - Megachiroptera: fruit-eating <br /> i.e. “flying foxes” (Old World)<br /> - Microchiroptera: small, primarily insect-eating (our bats) <br /> * use echolocation to detect prey <br /> * use their good night vision to see larger objects and navigate<br />
  4. 4. The Lifestyles of Northwest Bats(Everything is based on energy conservation)<br />Bats have extremely high metabolisms <br />To maintain flight, conduct echolocation, and <br /> maintain warmth due to their large surface area<br />
  5. 5. The Lifestyles of Northwest Bats(Everything is based on energy conservation)<br />To conserve energy they sleep… a lot! <br />They hibernate in winter using stored fat<br />
  6. 6. The Lifestyles of Northwest Bats(Everything is based on energy conservation)<br />To conserve energy they sleep… a lot! <br />Enter torpor during the day to conserve fat reserves<br />Only active about 15 min of every night hour <br />
  7. 7. The Lifestyles of Northwest Bats(Everything is based on energy conservation)<br />Because they sleep so much and hibernate, they live much longer than other mammals of similar size.<br />A shrew weighing 5-10 grams lives about 1 year<br />A bat weighing 5-10 grams can live 12-30 years<br />
  8. 8. Myth or Truth?<br />Do bats fly into people’s hair?<br />• Do bats have rabies?<br />• Do bats eat 600 mosquitoes per hour?<br />• Do bats drink blood?<br />
  9. 9. Myth or Truth?<br />Do bats fly into people’s hair?<br />No, bats have excellent vision and sonar <br />• Do bats have rabies?<br />Some do, bats carry rabies around 1-5 per 1000 <br /> Less often than raccoons, skunks, or foxes <br />• Do bats eat 600 mosquitoes per hour?<br />• Do bats drink blood?<br />
  10. 10. Myth or Truth?<br />Do bats fly into people’s hair?<br />No, bats have excellent vision and sonar<br />• Do bats have rabies?<br />Rabies is actually rare in bats<br />• Do bats eat 600 mosquitoes per hour?<br />Probably an exaggeration – especially since they roost 45 min per hour digesting food<br />• Do bats drink blood?<br />Only the Vampire bat of Central America<br />
  11. 11. Your Neighborhood Bats<br />Twelve species of bats in the forested regions of the Pacific Northwest<br />Some are very common, while others are rare or endangered<br />There are two species likely to inhabit human dwellings in the PNW <br />(Big Brown Bat and Little Brown Bat).<br />
  12. 12. Little Brown Myotis (Myotis lucifugus)<br />Yuma Myotis<br />(Myotis yumanensis)<br />These two species are difficult to distinguish<br />Most likely bat to be found in buildings<br />Little brown myotis are found across North America<br />Yuma Myotis are found only west of the Rockies<br />
  13. 13. Big Brown Bat(Eptesicus fuscus)<br />A very common bat that ranges across North America <br />Weighs about the same as a mouse (20-30 grams)<br />Known to occupy buildings and will bite if handled<br />
  14. 14. Foliage Roosting Bats<br />Migrate south for the winter<br />Silver-haired Bat(Lasionycteris noctivagans)<br />Found across northern North AmericaLittle is known about its population status<br />Hoary bat<br />(Lasiurus cinerus)<br />The largest bat in North America<br />Largest range: All North America & Hawaii<br />
  15. 15. Townsend’s Big-eared Bat(Plecotus townsendii)<br />A rare cave roosting batHuge ears used to detect low-frequency moths<br />Probably the most endangered bat in Washington<br />
  16. 16. California Myotis(Myotis californicus)<br />A very small somewhat common bat More common eastside of the CascadesOften found in rock crevasses<br />Western Small-footed Myotis<br />(Myotis ciliolabrum)<br />The smallest bat of Northwest forests<br />More common eastside of the Cascades<br />Found in rock crevasses and some caves<br />
  17. 17. Western Long-eared Myotis(Myotis evotis)<br />A common bat found in forests west of the Rockies<br />Uses peeling bark of snags as roost sites<br />
  18. 18. Fringed Myotis(Myotis thysanodes)<br />A rare bat, uses caves and rock crevasses for roosting<br />Species of concern because population status is unknown<br />Distinguished by the fringe of hair on the tail membrane <br />
  19. 19. Keen’s Myotis(Myotis keenii)<br />A cave roosting species found in coastal spruce forests <br />Endangered in Canada, status is unknown in the U.S.Smallest range of any North American bat<br />
  20. 20. Long-legged Myotis(Myotis volans)<br />An uncommon bat of the montane forests<br />It is the largest of the Myotis bats in the Northwest<br />It roosts under the peeling bark of snags<br />
  21. 21. Control Methods for Bats in Your Homes<br />There are ways to exclude bats without killing them:<br />• Hire pest management company to close off the access points<br />Some bats love attics for roosting or hibernating due to the warmer temperatures.<br />So, you may want to seal off the vents<br />
  22. 22. Control Methods for Bats in Your Homes<br />There are ways to exclude bats without killing them:<br />Between November and March is the best time<br />If the bats are hibernating elsewhere, then when they return in spring, they can not get into your house.<br />
  23. 23. Control Methods for Bats in Your Homes<br />There are ways to exclude bats without killing them:<br />If you do exclude them in the summer, wait until <br /> at least Augustafter the young have fledged<br />Otherwise the mothers will not be able to get back to them to feed them.<br />
  24. 24. Control Methods for Bats in Your Homes<br />There are ways to exclude bats without killing them:<br />NEVER exclude them in the day! Wait until they have emerged for the night. <br />Otherwise you will have an attic full of desperate bats that will starve to death.<br />
  25. 25. How do we Conserve Bat Populations?<br />Bats are very important to the ecology and economy of many ecosystems.<br />They feed on many insects that cause great damage to forests, agricultural crops, and people.<br />
  26. 26. Understanding the Ecology of Bats in Pacific Northwest Forests<br />
  27. 27. Habitat Fragmentation is Considered <br />the Biggest Threat to Bat Populations<br />
  28. 28. My Job<br />Learn about the ecology of bats in the forests of the Cascade range.<br />Find out what habitat types and ecological features are important to bats.<br />Determine and make recommendations for timber management practices with bats in mind.<br />
  29. 29. The Long-legged Myotis<br />• The long-legged myotis is generally considered to be associated with late-successional forests <br />Listed by the Northwest Forest Plan as a species of concern and in need of further study<br />Concerns that populations of this and other Myotis species were declining in the Northwest<br />
  30. 30. Information Needs for Myotis volans<br />What are the specific roost-site structures preferred by the long-legged myotis?<br />What is habitat use compared to availability? I.e. what successional stages do they prefer?<br />Will the long-legged myotis use retention implemented under the Northwest Forest Plan?<br />
  31. 31.
  32. 32. #1- Capture long-legged myotis with mist-nets <br />at water sources (caves and water troughs)<br />
  33. 33. Mist Nets<br />
  34. 34. Alien Abduction!<br />Your on your way to get a drink<br />Then boom, you caught in a giant net, bright lights shine upon you, giant hands handle you. Then…<br />
  35. 35. Alien Abduction!<br />Take Measurements and Place Radio-transmitters on Their Backs<br />
  36. 36. Unexpected Results and More Questions<br />My hypothesis was that they were roosting in the cave in the day and would head out at dusk<br />Instead, I captured them <br />going INTO the caves at dusk!<br />But why?<br />
  37. 37. #2- Release them and track them to their day-roost locations the next morning.<br />
  38. 38. They were roosting in trees in the day!<br />As it turns out, they were using the caves to get a drink after they woke up and before they’d head out to hunt for moths.<br />
  39. 39. #3- Take roost measurements including:<br />Roost height, diameter, canopy cover, canopy height, snag class and snag species<br />
  40. 40. Analysis<br />GPS each roost-site location<br />Create a circle with a radius from the <br /> water source to the furthest roost-site <br />Use a GIS and aerial photos to map roost-sites and available habitat<br />Place habitat polygons into circles <br />Use a computer program to determine habitat use versus availability<br />
  41. 41. Eight habitat types were delineated<br />Douglas fir/grand fir forests<br />Stem initiation<br />Earliest Succession Stage<br />
  42. 42. Retention Types in Managed Forests<br />
  43. 43. Early Successional Retention Types<br />Aggregate Retention Patch<br />Shelterwood<br />
  44. 44. Mid-successionalStages<br />Stem Exclusion<br />Stem Initiation Small<br />Young trees are so densely packed that no new sprouts can grow<br />Some of the young trees die, allowing more light to hit the ground and more new seedlings can survive<br />
  45. 45. Late-SuccessionalStages<br />Stem Reinitiation Medium<br />Stem Reinitiation Large<br />
  46. 46. Where the Bats Roosted<br />
  47. 47. West Site Habitat Selection<br />
  48. 48. Snag Species Selection<br />
  49. 49. Conclusions<br />Long-legged myotis use snags as day-roosts <br />Prefers late-successionalforests<br />Strongly prefers <br /> large grand fir snags<br />
  50. 50. Conclusions<br />Avoid early successional stages, but occasionally use aggregate retention patches and shelterwoods.<br />Unknown what effect lack of late-successionalstands has on population size or reproductive success<br />
  51. 51. What can you do to protect bat <br />populations?<br />• Leave dead or dying trees on your property<br />• Place a bat box on any large trees about 20 feet high<br />• Avoid using insecticides, bats can be poisoned<br />• If you find bats in buildings other than your homes, <br /> such as barns and sheds, let them stay! <br />• If you have bats in your attic,<br /> leave them if they are not causing problems<br />
  52. 52. Management Implications<br />Leave snags for bat species<br />Leave at least small patches of late-successional forests in managed forests<br />Grand fir should be maintained in management prescriptions for wildlife<br />

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