Unit 23 Plant Reproduction
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Unit 23 Plant Reproduction

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Unit 23 Plant Reproduction Unit 23 Plant Reproduction Presentation Transcript

  • KEY CONCEPTAll plants alternate between two phases in their life cycles.
  • SPOROPHYTE
    PHASE
    fertilization
    meiosis
    GAMETOPHYTE
    PHASE
    Plant life cycles alternate between producing spores and gametes.
    A two-phase life cycle is called alternation of generations.
    haploid phase
    diploid phase
    alternates betweenthe two
  • The spore-producing plant is the mature sporophyte.
    sporophyte phase is diploid
    begins with fertilized egg
    spores produced through meiosis
    The gamete-producing plant is the mature gametophyte.
    • gametophyte phase is haploid
    • begins with spore
    • gametes produced through mitosis
  • sporophyte (2n)
    capsule
    spores (1n)
    gametophyte (1n)
    Life cycle phases look different among various plant groups.
    Nonvascular plants have a dominant gametophyte phase.
    moss gametophytes look like green carpet
    moss sporophytes shoot up as stalklike structures
  • sporophyte (2n)
    sori
    The sporophyte is the dominant phase for seedless vascular plants.
    • Fern spores form in sacs, sori, on underside of mature sporophytes (fronds).
  • A fern gametophyte, or prothallus, produces sperm and eggs.
    gametophyte (1n))
    rhizoid
    • A zygote forms on the prothallus, growing into the sporophyte.
  • The sporophyte is the dominant phase for seed plants.
    pine trees are typical seed plant sporophytes
    female spores produced in female cones
    male spores produced in male cones
    male spores develop into pollen grains, the male gametophytes
    female spores develop into female gametophytes that produce eggs
    sperm from pollen travel down pollen tube toward egg
    fertilized egg develops into embryo
    ovule develops into protective pine seed
  • The sporophyte is the dominant phase for seed plants.
  • KEY CONCEPTReproduction of flowering plants takes place within flowers.
  • sepal
    Flowers contain reproductive organs protected by specialized leaves.
    Sepals and petals are modified leaves.
    Sepals are outermostlayer that protectsdeveloping flower
  • petal
    Petals can help to attract animal pollinators
  • stamen
    filament
    anther
    A stamen is the male structure of the flower.
    • anther produces pollen grains
    • filament supports the anther
  • stigma
    style
    carpel
    ovary
    The innermost layer of a flower is the female carpel.
    • stigma is sticky tip
    • style is tube leading from stigma to ovary
    • ovary produces female gametophyte
  • Flowering plants can be pollinated by wind or animals.
    Flowering plants pollinated when pollen grains land on stigma.
    Wind pollinated flowers have small flowers and large amounts of pollen.
  • Animal pollinated flowers have larger flowers and less pollen.
    many flowering plants pollinated by animal pollinators
    pollen grains
    • pollination occurs as animal feeds from flower to flower
    • animal pollination more efficient than wind pollination
  • Fertilization takes place within the flower.
    Male gametophytes, or pollen grains, are produced in the anthers.
    • male spores produced inanthers by meiosis
    • each spore divides bymitosis to form twohaploid cells
    • two cells form asingle pollen grain
    pollen grain
  • One female gametophyte can form in each ovule of a flower’s ovary.
    four female spores produced in ovule by meiosis
    one spore develops into female gametophyte
    female gametophyte contains seven cells
    one cell has two nuclei, or polar nuclei
    one cell will develop into an egg
  • pollen tube
    sperm
    stigma
    Pollination occurs when a pollen grain lands on a stigma.
    • one cell from pollen grain forms pollen tube
    • other cell forms two sperm that travel down tube
  • female
    gametophyte
    egg
    sperm
    polar nuclei
    ovule
    Flowering plants go through the process of double fertilization.
  • endosperm
    seed coat
    embryo
    Flowering plants go through the process of double fertilization.
    • one sperm fertilizes the egg
    • other sperm unites with polar nuclei, forming endosperm
    • endosperm provides food supply for embryo
  • Each ovule becomes a seed.
    The surrounding ovary grows into a fruit.
  • KEY CONCEPTSeeds disperse and begin to grow when conditions are favorable.
  • Animals, wind, and water can spread seeds.
    Seeds dispersed by animals can have nutritious fruits or fruits that cling.
  • Cypselae
    Double samaras
    Seeds dispersed by wind can have wing- or parachute-like fruits.
  • Seeds begin to grow when environmental conditions are favorable.
    Seed dormancy is a state in which the embryo has stopped growing.
    • Dormancy may end when conditions are favorable.
    • While dormant, embryo can withstand extreme conditions.
  • Germination begins the growth of an embryo into a seedling.
    • water causes seed to swell and crack coat
    • embryonic root, radicle, is first to emerge
    • water activates enzymes that help send sugars to embryo
  • Germination begins the growth of an embryo into a seedling.
    water causes seed to swell and crack coat
    embryonic root, radicle, is first to emerge
    water activates enzymes that help send sugars to embryo
    • embryonic shoot, plumule, emerges next
  • Germination begins the growth of an embryo into a seedling.
    water causes seed to swell and crack coat
    embryonic root, radicle, is first to emerge
    water activates enzymes that help send sugars to embryo
    embryonic shoot, plumule, emerges next
    • leaves emerge last
  • Once photosynthesis begins, the plant is called a seedling.
  • KEY CONCEPTPlants can produce genetic clones of themselves through asexual reproduction.
  • Plants can reproduce asexually with stems, leaves, or roots.
    Asexual reproduction allows a plant to make copies of itself.
    Regeneration is one type of asexual reproduction.
    plants grow a new individual from fragment of parent
    occurs when piece of a stem, leaf, or root falls off parent plant
  • Vegetative reproduction is another type of asexual reproduction.
    stems, leaves, or roots attached to parent plant produce new individuals
    specific adaptations include stolons, rhizomes, and tubers
  • Humans can produce plants with desirable traits using vegetative structures.
    Vegetative propagation takes advantage of plants’ ability to reproduce asexually.
    Humans use one plant with desirable traits to produce many individuals.
    • cutting of leavesor stems may grow new roots
    • grafting joins the parts of two plants together to form a hybrid plant