Blue Packet Notes


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Blue Packet Notes

  1. 1. Double Fertilization <ul><li>This process involves the joining of a female gametophyte (embryo sac) with two male gametes (sperm). </li></ul><ul><li>The union in flowering plants of two sperm nuclei. One sperm nucleus unites with the egg to form the diploid zygote, from which the embryo develops, and the other unites with two polar nuclei to form the triploid, primary endosperm nucleus. </li></ul>
  2. 3. Plant Reproduction
  3. 4. Introduction <ul><li>A flower has a set of adaptations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Petals have modified leaves </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Entire flower is a highly modified branch </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Flower shape, scent, color attracts insects , thereby ensuring the reproduction of the plant </li></ul>
  4. 6. Flower <ul><li>Function </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To produce seeds for reproduction </li></ul></ul>
  5. 7. Terminology <ul><li>Whorl </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Arrangement of three or more leaves, petals, or other organs radiating from the plant </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Non-essential flower parts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Not directly involved in reproduction </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Essential flower parts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Directly involved in reproduction </li></ul></ul>
  6. 8. Parts of the Flower <ul><li>Receptacle </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Base of the flower </li></ul></ul>
  7. 9. Parts of the Flower <ul><li>Sepals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Non-essential parts of the flower </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Compose the first whorl </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Collectively known as the calyx </li></ul></ul>
  8. 11. Parts of the Flower <ul><li>Petals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Non-essential parts of the flower </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Compose the second whorl </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Collectively known as the corolla </li></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 13. Parts of the Flower <ul><li>Stamen </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Essential flower parts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Compose the third whorl </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Male reproductive organ </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Anther : Produces pollen (contains sperm cells) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Filament : Supports the anther </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 16. Parts of the Flower <ul><li>Carpels </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Essential flower parts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Compose the last, fourth whorl </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Usually fused to make a single pistil </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Female reproductive organ </li></ul></ul>
  11. 17. Parts of the flower <ul><li>Female reproductive organ </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ovary : Swollen base of the pistil (contains ovules, which contain egg cells) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Style : Stalk of the pistil </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stigma : Tip of the pistil, sticky to capture falling pollen </li></ul></ul>
  12. 21. Types of Flowers <ul><li>Perfect </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Has both pistils and stamens in the same flower </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Have all 4 whorls of modified leaves </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Imperfect </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Has either pistil or stamens in the same flower </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Missing one or more flower parts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Two types </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Monoecious </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dioecious </li></ul></ul></ul>
  13. 22. Imperfect Flowers <ul><li>Monoecious </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Same house” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Separate male and female flowers on the same plant </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Example </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Corn </li></ul></ul></ul>
  14. 26. Imperfect Flowers <ul><li>Dioecious </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Two houses” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flowers are all male or all female on the same plant </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Example </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ginko tree </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Most are male </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Female produces seeds with foul odor </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  15. 28. Male Ginko Tree
  16. 32. Terminology <ul><li>Gametophyte </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Haploid form of a plant that produces gametes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sporophyte </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Diploid state of a plant that develops from the zygote </li></ul></ul>
  17. 33. Sexual Activity in Flowers <ul><li>It's the flower's job to produce the male and female gametophytes </li></ul><ul><li>Male gametophyte - 2 cells (pollen grain) </li></ul><ul><li>Female gametophyte - 7 cells (embryo sac) </li></ul>
  18. 34. Male Gametophyte Formation <ul><li>Microsporangia or microspore mother cell </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Diploid </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Found in a pollen sac of the anther </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Undergoes meiosis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Produces 4 microspores (haploid) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Each microspore undergoes mitosis to produce microgametophytes (pollen grains each with two cells) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  19. 35. Male Gametophyte Formation <ul><li>Pollen grain </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hard bumpy outer cell wall </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contains 2 cells </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tube cell </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Forms the pollen tube </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Generative cell </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Suspended in the tube cell </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Undergoes mitosis to produce two sperm cells </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  20. 37. A B C
  21. 39. Female Gametophyte Formation <ul><li>Megasporangia or megaspore mother cell </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Diploid </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Found in the ovary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Undergoes meiosis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Produces 1 megaspore (the other 3 die) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Megaspore undergoes mitosis 3 times to produce the megagametophyte (embryo sac composed of 8 nuclei and 7 cells) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  22. 40. Female Gametophyte Formation <ul><li>Megagametophyte </li></ul><ul><ul><li>3 antipodals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Function in nutrition </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2 polar nuclei </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Function in nutrition </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1 egg </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Female sex cell </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2 synergids </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ Helper cells” </li></ul></ul></ul>
  23. 42. Male Gametophyte Female Gametophyte
  24. 44. Summary of Gametophytes
  25. 45. Pollination <ul><li>Process where pollen is transferred from the anther to the stigma of a flower of the same species </li></ul>
  26. 46. Types of Pollination <ul><li>Cross Pollination </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pollen travels from one anther of one plant to stigma of another plant </li></ul></ul>
  27. 47. Types of Pollination <ul><li>Self pollination </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pollen travels from anther to stigma of the same flower or the same plant </li></ul></ul>
  28. 48. Methods of Pollination <ul><li>Wind pollination </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Depends on: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The release of a lot of pollen </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sufficient wind </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Flower needs to be within traveling distance </li></ul></ul></ul>
  29. 50. Methods of Pollination <ul><li>Pollination via animals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Depends on… </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Brightly colored petals </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Distinctive scents </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Good tasting nectar (solutions of sugars and aa) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Attachment of pollen to the animal in hopes of successful transfer </li></ul></ul></ul>
  30. 51. Double Fertilization <ul><li>Union of gametes in plants </li></ul><ul><li>Type of sexual reproduction </li></ul>
  31. 52. Process of Double Fertilization <ul><li>1. Pollen grain germinates </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Begins to grow </li></ul></ul>
  32. 53. Process of Double Fertilization <ul><li>2. The tube cell of the pollen grain initiates the growth of a long tube through the style toward the ovule. </li></ul>
  33. 54. Process of Double Fertilization <ul><li>3. The generative cell of the pollen grain divides by mitosis to produce two, haploid , sperm cells </li></ul>
  34. 55. Process of Double Fertilization <ul><li>4. The pollen tube continues to grow through the ovary and into the micropyle. </li></ul>
  35. 59. Process of Double Fertilization <ul><li>5. Sperm enter the embryo sac through the micropyle </li></ul><ul><li>6. First sperm fuse with the egg and forms a zygote (2N), which will eventually develop into the embryo . </li></ul><ul><ul><li>7. Second sperm fuses with the two polar nuclei (3N) which eventually develop into the endosperm </li></ul></ul>
  36. 60. Process of Double Fertilization
  37. 61. Summary of Double Fertilization
  38. 62. The Seed <ul><li>Fertilized ovule is called a seed </li></ul>
  39. 64. Structure of Seeds Dicots - Beans <ul><li>1. Seed Coat </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Modified integuments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contains hormones that maintain seed dormancy until conditions are right for germination </li></ul></ul><ul><li>2. Hilum </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Point where the seed attaches to the ovary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Usually leaves a scar to the ovary </li></ul></ul>
  40. 66. Structure of Seeds - Dicots <ul><li>3. Micropyle </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Location where the sperm entered the ovule </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tiny hole is visible on the seed coat </li></ul></ul><ul><li>4. 2 cotyledons </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Endosperm </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Store food for the embryo until it is ready to photosythesize </li></ul></ul>
  41. 69. Structure of Seeds - Dicots <ul><li>5. Embryo - “Baby plant” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Radicle - Embryonic root </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Part of the embryo that emerges first </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Plumule - Surrounds the tip of the stem ( epicotyl ), both together make up the embryonic leaves </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hypocotyl - Embryonic stem </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Space between the radicle and plumule </li></ul></ul></ul>
  42. 72. Structure of Seeds Monocots - Corn <ul><li>1-Seed coat </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Modified integuments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contains hormones that maintain seed dormancy until conditions are right for germination </li></ul></ul><ul><li>2-Hilum </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Point where the seed attaches to the ovary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Scar left on the seed coat </li></ul></ul>
  43. 73. Structure of Seeds Monocots - Corn <ul><li>3-Micropyle </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Where the sperm entered the ovule </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tiny hole is visible on the seed coat </li></ul></ul><ul><li>4- 1 cotyledon </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Absorbs nutrients from the endosperm </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Passes nutrients to the embryo until plant is ready to photosynthesize </li></ul></ul>
  44. 74. Structure of Seeds Monocots - Corn <ul><li>5- Embryo - “Baby plant” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Radicle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Embryonic root </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Plumule (along with epicotyl) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Embryonic leaves </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hypocotyl </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Embryonic stem </li></ul></ul></ul>
  45. 77. Exercise
  46. 78. Types of Fruit Definition Ovary is called the fruit
  47. 79. 1-Simple Fruit <ul><li>Developed from ONE ovary with a single pistil </li></ul><ul><li>Examples of simple fruit </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fleshy – peach, plum, apple </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dry - nuts </li></ul></ul>
  48. 80. 2-Aggregrate Fruit <ul><li>Derived from ONE flower with several to many pistils </li></ul><ul><li>Individual pistils mature as a clustered unit on a single receptacle </li></ul><ul><li>Examples </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Raspberries, Strawberries </li></ul></ul>
  49. 81. 3-Multiple Fruit <ul><li>Derived from a cluster of flowers growing together </li></ul><ul><li>Develops from ovaries of several flowers borne/fused on the same stalk </li></ul><ul><li>Examples </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pineapples, figs, pine </li></ul></ul>
  50. 82. Dispersal of fruits & seeds <ul><li>Animals physically carry seeds or swallow fruits, then excrete the seeds elsewhere </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Example </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Burrs on fur, birds eating seeds </li></ul></ul></ul>
  51. 83. Dispersal of fruits & seeds <ul><li>Wind carries wing-like seeds </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Example </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Helicopter winged seeds </li></ul></ul></ul>
  52. 84. Dispersal of fruits & seeds <ul><li>3. Water carries seeds with air chambers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Example - Coconut </li></ul></ul>Plants such as Pond Iris grow in or near freshwater. The seed pods break open when they ripen. Those which fall into the water float away. The seeds may be dispersed long distances in this way. They can either germinate in the water or when they become stranded on mud.
  53. 86. Germination of seeds <ul><li>Process where growth emerges from a period of dormancy </li></ul><ul><li>A seed needs to go through a dormancy period in order to avoid prolonged droughts or intense cold </li></ul>
  54. 87. Conditions for Germination <ul><li>1-Water - Softens seed coat & activates enzymes </li></ul><ul><li>2-Oxygen - Required for cellular respiration </li></ul><ul><li>3-Warmth </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Temperature of at least 50F to prevent freezing of tissue </li></ul></ul><ul><li>4-Light – influences growth </li></ul>
  55. 88. Process of Germination <ul><li>1-Emergence of radicle , which ruptures the seed coat </li></ul><ul><li>2-The shoot begins to grow </li></ul><ul><li>3- Embyronic leaves begin to photosynthesize </li></ul><ul><li>4- Seedling continues to grow from meristematic regions and matures in to a plant </li></ul>
  56. 89. Monocot Germination <ul><li>Cotyledon remain underground </li></ul><ul><li>Epicotyl emerges first </li></ul>
  57. 91. Dicot Germination <ul><li>Cotyledons emerge </li></ul><ul><li>Hypocotyl emerges first </li></ul>
  58. 94. Asexual Reproduction Vegetative Propagation <ul><li>Formation of new individuals from the cell(s) of a single parent. </li></ul><ul><li>Very common in plants; less so in animals </li></ul><ul><li>All plant organs have been used, but stems are the most common </li></ul>
  59. 95. 1. Runners <ul><li>Stolons </li></ul><ul><li>Horizontal above-ground stems </li></ul><ul><li>Strawberries </li></ul><ul><li>Clones itself during springtime by producing stolons around the mother plant </li></ul>
  60. 96. 2. Rhizomes <ul><li>Produce underground stems </li></ul><ul><li>Raspberry </li></ul><ul><li>Periodically produce adventitious roots and a new above ground shoot.  </li></ul>
  61. 97. 3. Tuber <ul><li>M odified rhizomes </li></ul><ul><li>Potato </li></ul><ul><li>Swollen ends of rhizomes </li></ul><ul><li>Develop when specialized stem branches grow down into the ground and swell up with starch containing cells </li></ul><ul><li>Buds on the tubers will grow into new plants. </li></ul>
  62. 98. 4. Bulbs <ul><li>Underground stem </li></ul><ul><li>Tulip, onions, chives, lilies </li></ul><ul><li>Multiple naturally </li></ul><ul><li>Each bulb has a very short stem which is surrounded by fleshy leaves </li></ul>
  63. 99. 5. Plant Propagation <ul><li>A. Cuttings </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Houseplants </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Process </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cut stem </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Put in water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wait until roots grow </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Then…plant in soil </li></ul></ul>
  64. 100. Plant Propagation <ul><li>B. Grafting </li></ul><ul><li>Apple tree </li></ul><ul><li>Two types of apples on the same tree </li></ul><ul><li>Vascular cambium must connect/match </li></ul><ul><li>Related species </li></ul>
  65. 101. Plant Propagation <ul><li>C. Tissue culture </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Houseplants </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Process </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Grown in a petri dish </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Then planted in soil </li></ul></ul>