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Unit 23 Plant Reproduction

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Unit 23 Plant Reproduction

  1. 1. KEY CONCEPTAll plants alternate between two phases in their life cycles.<br />
  2. 2. SPOROPHYTE<br /> PHASE<br />fertilization<br />meiosis<br />GAMETOPHYTE<br /> PHASE<br />Plant life cycles alternate between producing spores and gametes.<br />A two-phase life cycle is called alternation of generations. <br />haploid phase <br />diploid phase <br />alternates betweenthe two <br />
  3. 3. The spore-producing plant is the mature sporophyte.<br />sporophyte phase is diploid <br />begins with fertilized egg <br />spores produced through meiosis <br />The gamete-producing plant is the mature gametophyte.<br /><ul><li> gametophyte phase is haploid
  4. 4. begins with spore
  5. 5. gametes produced through mitosis</li></li></ul><li>sporophyte (2n)<br />capsule<br />spores (1n)<br />gametophyte (1n)<br />Life cycle phases look different among various plant groups.<br />Nonvascular plants have a dominant gametophyte phase. <br />moss gametophytes look like green carpet <br />moss sporophytes shoot up as stalklike structures <br />
  6. 6. sporophyte (2n)<br />sori<br />The sporophyte is the dominant phase for seedless vascular plants. <br /><ul><li>Fern spores form in sacs, sori, on underside of mature sporophytes (fronds).</li></li></ul><li>A fern gametophyte, or prothallus, produces sperm and eggs.<br />gametophyte (1n))<br />rhizoid<br /><ul><li>A zygote forms on the prothallus, growing into the sporophyte. </li></li></ul><li>The sporophyte is the dominant phase for seed plants. <br />pine trees are typical seed plant sporophytes<br />female spores produced in female cones <br />male spores produced in male cones <br />male spores develop into pollen grains, the male gametophytes <br />female spores develop into female gametophytes that produce eggs <br />sperm from pollen travel down pollen tube toward egg <br />fertilized egg develops into embryo <br />ovule develops into protective pine seed <br />
  7. 7. The sporophyte is the dominant phase for seed plants. <br />
  8. 8. KEY CONCEPTReproduction of flowering plants takes place within flowers. <br />
  9. 9. sepal<br />Flowers contain reproductive organs protected by specialized leaves.<br />Sepals and petals are modified leaves.<br />Sepals are outermostlayer that protectsdeveloping flower <br />
  10. 10. petal<br />Petals can help to attract animal pollinators <br />
  11. 11. stamen<br />filament<br />anther<br />A stamen is the male structure of the flower.<br /><ul><li>anther produces pollen grains
  12. 12. filament supports the anther </li></li></ul><li>stigma<br />style<br />carpel<br />ovary<br />The innermost layer of a flower is the female carpel. <br /><ul><li>stigma is sticky tip
  13. 13. style is tube leading from stigma to ovary
  14. 14. ovary produces female gametophyte </li></li></ul><li>Flowering plants can be pollinated by wind or animals.<br />Flowering plants pollinated when pollen grains land on stigma.<br />Wind pollinated flowers have small flowers and large amounts of pollen.<br />
  15. 15. Animal pollinated flowers have larger flowers and less pollen. <br />many flowering plants pollinated by animal pollinators<br />pollen grains<br /><ul><li>pollination occurs as animal feeds from flower to flower
  16. 16. animal pollination more efficient than wind pollination</li></li></ul><li>Fertilization takes place within the flower.<br />Male gametophytes, or pollen grains, are produced in the anthers. <br /><ul><li>male spores produced inanthers by meiosis
  17. 17. each spore divides bymitosis to form twohaploid cells
  18. 18. two cells form asingle pollen grain</li></ul>pollen grain<br />
  19. 19. One female gametophyte can form in each ovule of a flower’s ovary.<br />four female spores produced in ovule by meiosis <br />one spore develops into female gametophyte <br />female gametophyte contains seven cells <br />one cell has two nuclei, or polar nuclei <br />one cell will develop into an egg <br />
  20. 20. pollen tube<br />sperm<br />stigma<br />Pollination occurs when a pollen grain lands on a stigma. <br /><ul><li>one cell from pollen grain forms pollen tube
  21. 21. other cell forms two sperm that travel down tube </li></li></ul><li>female<br />gametophyte<br />egg<br />sperm<br />polar nuclei<br />ovule<br />Flowering plants go through the process of double fertilization.<br />
  22. 22. endosperm<br />seed coat<br />embryo<br />Flowering plants go through the process of double fertilization.<br /><ul><li>one sperm fertilizes the egg
  23. 23. other sperm unites with polar nuclei, forming endosperm
  24. 24. endosperm provides food supply for embryo</li></li></ul><li>Each ovule becomes a seed.<br />The surrounding ovary grows into a fruit. <br />
  25. 25. KEY CONCEPTSeeds disperse and begin to grow when conditions are favorable. <br />
  26. 26. Animals, wind, and water can spread seeds.<br />Seeds dispersed by animals can have nutritious fruits or fruits that cling.<br />
  27. 27. Cypselae<br />Double samaras<br />Seeds dispersed by wind can have wing- or parachute-like fruits.<br />
  28. 28. Seeds begin to grow when environmental conditions are favorable.<br />Seed dormancy is a state in which the embryo has stopped growing. <br /><ul><li>Dormancy may end when conditions are favorable.
  29. 29. While dormant, embryo can withstand extreme conditions.</li></li></ul><li>Germination begins the growth of an embryo into a seedling. <br /><ul><li>water causes seed to swell and crack coat
  30. 30. embryonic root, radicle, is first to emerge
  31. 31. water activates enzymes that help send sugars to embryo</li></li></ul><li>Germination begins the growth of an embryo into a seedling. <br />water causes seed to swell and crack coat<br />embryonic root, radicle, is first to emerge <br />water activates enzymes that help send sugars to embryo<br /><ul><li>embryonic shoot, plumule, emerges next </li></li></ul><li>Germination begins the growth of an embryo into a seedling. <br />water causes seed to swell and crack coat<br />embryonic root, radicle, is first to emerge <br />water activates enzymes that help send sugars to embryo<br />embryonic shoot, plumule, emerges next <br /><ul><li>leaves emerge last </li></li></ul><li>Once photosynthesis begins, the plant is called a seedling. <br />
  32. 32. KEY CONCEPTPlants can produce genetic clones of themselves through asexual reproduction.<br />
  33. 33. Plants can reproduce asexually with stems, leaves, or roots.<br />Asexual reproduction allows a plant to make copies of itself.<br />Regeneration is one type of asexual reproduction.<br />plants grow a new individual from fragment of parent <br />occurs when piece of a stem, leaf, or root falls off parent plant<br />
  34. 34. Vegetative reproduction is another type of asexual reproduction.<br />stems, leaves, or roots attached to parent plant produce new individuals<br />specific adaptations include stolons, rhizomes, and tubers <br />
  35. 35. Humans can produce plants with desirable traits using vegetative structures.<br />Vegetative propagation takes advantage of plants’ ability to reproduce asexually. <br />Humans use one plant with desirable traits to produce many individuals.<br /><ul><li>cutting of leavesor stems may grow new roots
  36. 36. grafting joins the parts of two plants together to form a hybrid plant</li>

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