“Perfect” meaning repenting b/c one has done wrong not b/c they fear HellImperfect sorrow meaning repenting b/c one fears Hell
“saint" refers to any believer who is "holy" and in whom Christ dwells, whether in heaven or in earth.
Gospel is an account often written, that describes the life of Jesus of Nazareth
Group project ppt
Four Central Roman Catholic Beliefs
Roman Catholicism• Largest branch of Western Christianity• Separated from Protestant Christianity during Reformation of the 16th century• Beliefs that separate Catholics from their reformed brethern:1. Role of tradition in addition to Scripture2. Belief in 7 Sacraments3. Existence of Purgatory4. Communion of Saints
Tradition• Scripture does not stand alone must be interpreted only by the Church• Anointing the Sick is the most important interpretation
Sacraments• acraments are outward signs or symbols instituted by Jesus• Provide grace for believers at critical stages of life:-birth (baptism)-coming into adulthood (Eucharist and Reconciliation)-coming of age (Confirmation)-mature vocation in life (marriage or Holy Orders)-End of life (Anointing the Sick)
Sacraments Cont’d• Can also be defined as ritualized meeting between God and humans• Powerful symbols that bring about the spiritual reality which they symbolize
Purgatory• Purification to achieve the necessary holiness to enter heaven i.e. repenting for sins• Catholics believe in levels of sin-Venial sin: weakens but does not destroy one’s relationship with God. Ex: using foul language-Mortal sin: does break one’s relationship to God. ex: murdering one’s neighbor
Forgiveness of sins• Mortal Sin forgiven through Sacrament of Reconciliation (confessionals) or perfect sorrow and repentance for sin• Venial sins forgiven through same two means and by imperfect sorrow
Purgatory Cont’d• Purgatory also provides a place for ordinary person who may not have the faith of a great saint, but who does not deserve Hell• State of Purgatory =Heaven• Catholic prayers for the dead helps the deceased through Purgatory and into Heaven
Communion of Saints• The spiritual union of the members of the Christian Church, living and the dead, those on earth, in heaven, and for those who are in that state of purification• Members help each other get to Heaven• Includes the Church Triumphant (Saints in Heaven)• Church Suffering (souls in Purgatory)• Church Militant (Church here on Earth)
The Earliest Traditions• Passion narratives were earliest part of the Gospels, they stress the reality and redemptive value of the suffering and death of Jesus• Suffering and death have a value in Christian view of the world• Living life in imitation of Jesus and Baptism to join themselves to the suffering, death, and resurrection of Jesus
Earliest Traditions Cont’dEarly church preferred that a new believer bebaptized by:going down 3 steps (symbolizing Jesus’ 3 days in the tomb)into a pool of blessed water (symbolizing chaos, death and need for a new creation)being immersed 3 times then ascending 3 steps (symbolizing Father, Son, Holy Spirit)
Cont’d• Person to be baptized wore white garments to symbolize a sign of new life• One could be baptized by pouring water on forehead when immersion is life threatening or impractical• Anointing the sick with holy oil so that the prayers will help them spiritually and bodily• Priests anoints the sick person to join his suffering to that of Jesus
Death in Dark& Middle Ages• Death was an omnipresent fact of existence• A great deal of emphasis was placed on the fear one should have at the Last Judgment.• This fear is illustrated by the Medieval hymn Dies Irae (Day of Wrath) which stresses need & impossibility of being prepared as possible for the judgment
Comfort withdealing with death• Relics (bones, prayer books, or clothing of the saint) were venerated (glorified)• Relics were associated with saints, holy people who assumed to be in Heaven praying for the people on Earth• Veneration of relics shows comfort w/ presence and care of deceased.• For sick or dying, there has been a sacrament presently known as the “Sacrament of Anointing the Sick”
Sacrament of Anointing the Sick• At diverse times in Church history, went under various names (holy oil, unction (sacred anointing) of the sick, blessing of consecrated oil, unction of God, office (in the sacrament) of the unction.• Purpose is to help dying person join their death to that of Jesus• Renamed “Extreme Unction” during late 1100s for one of two reasons: • It would be the extreme or final anointing of a person’s earthly life • It was the last in a series of anointings for a person (Baptism, Confirmation, Hol y Orders, etc)
SaintsMultiple Saints werevenerated as patron saint ofdeath and dying during Dark& Middle Ages: • Mary: Mother of Jesus • Saint Anne: Grandmother of Jesus • Stephen: First martyr • Joseph • Martha: sister of Lazarus • Archangel Michael • Magi from Mathews Gospel
Communion of SaintsThere was always aconsciousness not only ofdeath, but of a saint to help.This is an indicator of whatwas called the “Communionof Saints”.
After Death…• One would have Mass celebrated for them and then would be buried in sacred ground.• Sacred ground could be denied to those found to have died in open and flagrant sin
Reformation• In the 1500s, Western Christendom was fractured into many denominations. One of them was the “Roman Catholic branch of Christianity”• The actual spark for the Reformation was the “sale” of indulgences.
Indulgences• Prayers and other good works, done as part of the Communion of Saints to help the deceased, were often described as indulgences.• By the late 1400s, the good works in question were too often gifts of cash often to expand the art collections of various less then ideal Popes• This emphasis on cash would enrage Martin Luther and many other scholars and reformers
Martin Luth• Martin Luther sought to reform the doctrine of Purgatory, making it more reliant on a change of heart and less reliant on monetary gifts.• In many cases, the idea of a state of cleansing was retained, but the ability of the living to pray for and assist the deceased was rejected.• By 1530, the idea of Purgatory was practically eliminated in the Reformed traditions.
POPE JOHN XXIII CONVENED VATICAN IIUpdate the catholic church • Extreme Unction • Anointing the sick • Commendation of the dying
CHANGES MADE FOR CARE OF THE SICK AND DYINGHaving two separate rituals. One for the sick and one for the dyingBoth aspects of the sacrament could be celebrated privately or communalThe sacraments for old ageDeacons as primary ministers of the sacrament
CHANGES MADE FOR CARE OF THE SICK AND DYING Spouse of a roman catholic allowed to be buried in a catholic cemetery The burden of denying suicide victims in consecrated ground
PREPARATIONS FOR ANOINTING OF THE SICKOnce one is aware of sickness they ask priest for anointing of the sick.Priest arrives bringing • Holy oil • Eucharist • A StolePriest gives Confessions and grant absolution before the anointing of the sick
ANOINTING OF THE SICKAnointing of the sick takes place in large public room that consist of • Temporary altar with a white cloth upon it and a crucifix • Beeswax candles • The holy oils • A bible • The ritual book for anointing the sick
ANOINTING OF THE SICK Begins with prayers and bible readings Priest will then bless the oils and anoint the ill patient on the forehead and the palm of her hands Priest will give the sick patient the Eucharist
IF PATIENT SICKNESS CONTINUES Priest will bring Eucharist once a month and provide opportunity for confession and spiritual direction May receive anointing of the sick regularly from the priest
THE PATIENCE DEATH SEEMS IMMINENTThe priest will perform the Commendation of the Dying • Sub-ritual to the anointing of the sick • Performed if death is forthcoming
COMMENDATION OF THE DYINGGive absolution without the need for private confessionSacraments are only for the living • If Unsure if patients alive church will celebrate a conditional sacramentDying Patient will be anointed on the forehead and palms of the hand
COMMENDATION OF THE DYING If patient is still alive she will receive communion called Holy Viaticum Records kept in a special book—the Sacramental Registry,
THE DEATH OF THE PATIENT Once the patient dies the priest consoles the family Then make arrangements for the funeral Local pastor determined of the dead was a practical catholic and can be buried by the catholic church
BURIAL There is a Vigil (wake service) celebrated the evening before the dead will be buried • It has an official text yet It’s a sacramental • Call to prayer and bible readings • A reflection of the Christian meaning of death • Should be very clear that people are praying for the decease not to the decease
BURIAL Next morning family and friends visit the funeral home Body transported to the church for Funeral Mass • Marked by celebration that the deceased is with God • Church stress that loss is temporary • Use white vestments as a sign of rejoicing in new life
FUNERAL MASS Priest sprinkles holy water on the casket and covers it with a white cloth to recall the deceased baptism • On the day of her baptism the deceased was clothed with Christ. At the time of the resurrection may she join him in eternal life At the end of the mass Priest say special prayer for the deceased
CEMETERY There will be a consecration of the grave, asking God’s grace of eternal rest Everyone returns to the designated family member home • Priest moderates a discussion of the deceased for any unfinished business The deceased will have an immediate personal judgment after death.