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The Byzantine Catholic Tradition

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The Byzantine Catholic Tradition

  1. 1. Byzantine Catholic Tradition Mr. Pablo Cuadra Religion Class
  2. 2. Introduction <ul><li>This presentation is the follow up for the presentation titled “Eastern Christianity,” also found on slideshare . </li></ul><ul><li>This presentation will deal with the Byzantine Catholic Churches also known as Greek Catholic Churches , the largest and perhaps the best known group of Eastern Catholics Churches in the United States and North America. </li></ul><ul><li>Byzantine Churches are Catholic Churches in full communion with the bishop of Rome or Pope. Byzantine Catholics Churches profess the same Creed (beliefs) and have the same “Holy Mysteries” or “Sacraments” as any other Catholic Church. </li></ul><ul><li>Byzantine Churches are unique in the sense that they follow the spiritual patrimony, liturgical customs, and theological language, and nuances particular of the Christian East . Eastern Christianity is heavily influenced by the Patristic writings of the Greek Fathers. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Why are Byzantine Churches called Byzantine? <ul><li>The Byzantine Catholic Churches are called this way because they are the spiritual heirs of the See of Byzantium (Constantinople), founded by St. Andrew the Apostle. The term Byzantine is derived from Byzantium, the city that, in the year 325 A.D., became the political, cultural, and commercial center for the eastern, Greek speaking part of the Roman empire . </li></ul><ul><li>Emperor Constantine I , the first “Christian Roman emperor”, renamed Byzantium the “New Rome ” and thus transformed the city into his new imperial capital and residence. The city was later renamed Constantinople after Constantine’s death and is now modern Istanbul, Turkey. </li></ul><ul><li>The region known as Byzantium was evangelized by St. Andrew the apostle also known as the Protocletos or the “First called” ; St. Andrew was the brother of St. Peter and like Peter was crucified a martyr . According to tradition St. Andrew founded the see of Byzantium in the year 38 A.D; installing Stachys as the first bishop. This apostolic see will later become the Patriarchate of Constantinople . </li></ul><ul><li>After the Great Schism of 1054 that split Christendom into East and West, the patriarchate of Constantinople became the Spiritual See of Eastern Orthodox Christianity. </li></ul><ul><li>Byzantine Catholics are for the most part Eastern Orthodox Christians that broke away from the see of Constantinople and returned to full communion with the See of Rome and its bishop, the Pope, after the great Schism of 1054. The return to Rome took place gradually in subsequent reunions. </li></ul><ul><li>Two of the most notable reunions are the Union of Brest in 1595 and the Union of Uzhhorod in 1646. </li></ul>
  4. 4. What group of Churches make up the Byzantine Churches? <ul><li>The Byzantine Churches or Greek Catholic Churches are “Sui Juris” Churches (self-governing Churches), they are constituted by the following Churches: </li></ul><ul><li>A. The Melkite Catholic Church </li></ul><ul><li>B. The Ukrainian Catholic Church </li></ul><ul><li>C. The Ruthenian Catholic Church </li></ul><ul><li>D. The Romanian Catholic Church </li></ul><ul><li>E. The Greek Catholic Church </li></ul><ul><li>F. The Greek Catholic Church, Eparchy of Krizevci (former Yugoslavia) </li></ul><ul><li>G. The Bulgarian Catholic Church </li></ul><ul><li>H. The Slovak Catholic Church </li></ul><ul><li>I. The Hungarian Catholic Church </li></ul><ul><li>J. The Russian Byzantine Catholic Church </li></ul><ul><li>K. The Belarussian Greek Catholic Church </li></ul><ul><li>L . The Albanian Greek Catholic Church </li></ul><ul><li>M. The Macedonian Greek Catholic Church </li></ul><ul><li>Source (CNEWA) </li></ul>
  5. 5. Who is a Byzantine Catholic? <ul><li>A. A Byzantine Catholic or Greek Catholic is an Eastern Catholic and a member of the One, Holy, Catholic, and Apostolic Church by reason of his or her baptism , and Christmation (Confirmation), and his or her participation in the Holy Mysteries (sacraments) and the Divine Liturgy (Eucharist), the central aspect of worship . </li></ul><ul><li>The Catholic Church headed by the bishop of Rome or Pope is a communion of 23 Sister Churches all equal in dignity. One Western (Roman Catholic or Latin Church) and 22 Eastern Churches. </li></ul><ul><li>B. Byzantine Catholics are not Roman Catholics; however, like Roman Catholics are under the Spiritual and temporal Jurisdiction of the Bishop of Rome or Pope. </li></ul><ul><li>C. Byzantine Catholics together with Roman Catholics profess the same Creed (faith) and practice the same seven Holy Mysteries or Sacraments , each according to their own liturgical traditions, spirituality, and apostolic heritage. Hence, that Eastern Catholics and Roman Catholics, use different words, expressions, or formulas to speak about the same realities, beliefs, devotions, or practices of faith. </li></ul><ul><li>D. Byzantine Catholics are headed either by a Patriarch or by a Metropolitan bishop in charge of the local bishops. Eastern and Roman Catholics can fulfill their Sunday obligation in each other’s Church. </li></ul>Praying before the Holy Icons
  6. 6. How are Sui Juris, Byzantine Catholic Churches structured? <ul><li>Byzantine Catholic Churches are organized into: </li></ul><ul><li>A. Patriarchal Churches : these are Sui Juris Churches led by a high-ranking bishop known as Patriarch (father). The Patriarch is elected by a patriarchal synod , also known as a holy synod . He has authority over the metropolitan bishops and clergy of the patriarchal territory; this is known as supra-metropolitan authority. The Patriarch has the power to convoke a synod , the ability to ordain bishops, and spiritual authority over all the catholic faithful inside his territory. </li></ul><ul><li>B. Major Archiepiscopal Churches : These are Sui Juris Churches led by a major Archbishop who has the same dignity and authority as a Patriarch, except he does not enjoy the dignity of title. He is elected by a synod of bishops , who must notify the Holy See for the confirmation of the major Archbishop. Major Archbishops like Patriarchs enjoy supra-metropolitan authority over the clergy and the faithful in their territories. </li></ul><ul><li>C. Metropolitan Churches : These are Sui Juris Churches led by a Metropolitan Archbishop . Unlike Patriarchs and major archbishops, who are elected by a synod, the Metropolitan is not elected by the council of hierarchs (the equivalent of a synod of bishops, but enjoying less legislative authority). The council of hierarchs proposes three names to the Holy Father who eventually makes the final decision in the selection of the Metropolitan. A metropolitan does not enjoy his authority until he makes a formal request for his palliun (a sign of authority and communion with the Pope). Unlike Patriarchs and major Archbishops, the Metropolitan Archbishop only enjoys supra-episcopal authority over the clergy and faithful of his territory. </li></ul><ul><li>D. Other Churches : These are Churches Sui Juris that are neither Patriarchal, major archiepiscopal, or metropolitan. These churches are usually very small in number and lack proper hierarchical structures. These Churches are governed by an exarch (oridary bishop) who is directly dependant of the Holy See. </li></ul>
  7. 7. What are some common terms used to describe the ecclesiastical jurisdiction of the particular Byzantine Churches? <ul><li>Archeparchy : the Byzantine equivalent of an Archdiocese. It is led by a Metropolitan Archbishop also known as Archeparch . The Archbishop also oversees the suffragan eparchies under his jurisdiction. </li></ul><ul><li>Eparchy : the Byzantine equivalent of a diocese. It is led by a bishop also known as an eparch who oversees all the parishes and ministries in his eparchy. </li></ul><ul><li>Exarchy : the Byzantine equivalent of an apostolic vicariate . It is led by an Exarch (ordinary or bishop). An exarchy is a church jurisdiction, similar to a diocese, established for Eastern-rite Catholics living outside their native land. </li></ul><ul><li>Parishes : local churches led by a parish priest; sometimes with the assistance of a deacon or subdeacon. </li></ul>
  8. 8. How do Byzantine Catholics celebrate the Paschal Mystery? <ul><li>Byzantine Catholics celebrate the Paschal Mystery (the life, death and resurrection of our Lord) through five important cycles: </li></ul><ul><li>A. The great cycle of a Christian’s life. </li></ul><ul><li>B. The Daily cycle. </li></ul><ul><li>C. The Weekly cycle. </li></ul><ul><li>D. The Annual cycle of movable feasts. </li></ul><ul><li>E. The Annual cycle of fixed feasts. </li></ul>
  9. 9. The Five Cycles “The Cycle of a Christian’s Life” <ul><li>The Great cycle of a Christian’s life : from birth to death, the life of a Christian is infused with the grace of God through the Holy Mysteries (sacraments) and prayer. </li></ul><ul><li>In this cycle of life men and women journey towards union with God ( Theosis ) and his promise of eternal life. This journey towards God’s Kingdom begins at Baptism and Christmation and ends with death. </li></ul><ul><li>In the course of this journey men and women are strengthened by the Eucharistic meal , the body and blood of our Lord, received in holy communion at each Divine Liturgy , the central aspect of Byzantine Catholic worship. </li></ul><ul><li>Also in the course of this journey the Christian person receives many other sacramental blessings to help him or her fulfill his or her earthly human vocation and spread the love of God and the light of faith to all. </li></ul>
  10. 10. The Five Cycles “The Daily Cycle” <ul><li>The Daily cycle : also known as the “divine praises”, are the prayers offered by the Church all day long. Through the recitations of these prayers the Church sanctifies the day while at the same time directing our attention to God, at specific times during the day. These prayers are offered in monasteries and in parishes where the clergy and Christian faithful gather to pray. Technically, only Vespers and Orthros (matins) are celebrated in the parishes with the exception of the midnight office celebrated in the parish on Holy Saturday . In the Byzantine liturgical tradition the Church’s day begins at evening, following the Jewish customs of counting the days. The daily cycle or divine praises is compose of the following: </li></ul><ul><li>A. Vespers: is the solemn evening prayer of the Church which begins the liturgical day. We thank God for the blessing of creation, especially for the gift of light both corporal and spiritual, and ask for pardon for our sins and offenses, and protection throughout the night. </li></ul><ul><li>B. Compline: is a communal prayer before bedtime also known as Apodeipnon . </li></ul><ul><li>C. The Midnight Office: is a nocturnal vigil , in which we meditate upon the unexpected coming of Christ. It is also known as the Mesonyktikon. </li></ul><ul><li>D. Matins (Orthros): is the solemn morning prayer of the Church, an office of supplication, repentance and praise. </li></ul><ul><li>E. The First Hour , celebrated after Matins, is the first of the four daytime Hours ; it is followed by: </li></ul><ul><li>The Third Hour , celebrated at mid-morning. </li></ul><ul><li>The Sixth Hour , celebrated at noon. </li></ul><ul><li>The Ninth Hour , celebrated between mid-afternoon and Vespers of the new day. </li></ul><ul><li>Typika: is a service of psalms and prayers appointed for the Liturgy of the day, which is held when the Divine Liturgy is not celebrated . </li></ul><ul><li>(source: Metropolitan Cantor Institute) </li></ul>
  11. 11. The Five Cycles “The Weekly Cycle” <ul><li>Each day of the Weekly Cycle is devoted to specific individual memorials . Sunday is dedicated to Christ's Resurrection. Monday honors the Holy Bodiless Powers (Angels, Archangels, etc.). Tuesday is dedicated to the prophets and especially the greatest of the Prophets, St. John the Forerunner and Baptist of the Lord; Wednesday is consecrated to the Cross and recalls Judas' betrayal. </li></ul><ul><li>Thursday honors the Holy Apostles and Hierarchs , especially St. Nicholas, Bishop of Myra in Lycia. Friday is also consecrated to the Cross and recalls the day of the Crucifixion and Saturday is dedicated to All Saints, especially the Mother of God (Theotokos), and to the memory of all those who have departed this life in the hope of resurrection and eternal life. </li></ul><ul><li>Each week, of the Weekly Cycle, is centered around the Eight Tones ( the basis for Byzantine Church music), and each week has its appointed Tone . On Saturday Evening of Bright Week (the Eve of St. Thomas Sunday), the cycle of Tones begins with Tone One, and week by week, the sequence continues through the successive Tones, One to Eight, changing to a new Tone every Saturday Evening, throughout the year. </li></ul><ul><li>(source: St. Melany Byzantine Catholic Church) </li></ul>
  12. 12. The Five Cycles “The Annual Cycle of Movable Feasts” <ul><li>The annual cycle or liturgical year brings to our attention the principal events in the life of Our Lord Jesus, and his Mother, the Holy Theotokos , the accomplishments of the Saints, and the theological doctrines of the Faith through special feasts , fasts and commemorations . </li></ul><ul><li>The annual cycle is divided into movable and fixed feasts . The movable feasts are also known as the Paschal cycle because the date of their celebration is dependant on the central feast of the liturgical cycle which is Pascha (Easter). The liturgical year or annual cycle begins in the Byzantine Catholic tradition on September 1 (indiction). </li></ul><ul><li>The feasts associated with the annual cycle of movable feasts are: Palm Sunday , Holy Ascension (the fortieth day after Pascha) and Holy Pentecost (the Descent of the Holy Spirit the fiftieth day after Pascha). </li></ul>
  13. 13. The Five Cycles The Annual cycle of Fixed Feast <ul><li>The fixed annual cycle is composed of memorials celebrated each year on the same date . </li></ul><ul><li>Each day of the year is dedicated to the memory of particular Christian events or Saints, their particular feast or memorial is celebrated always on the same Calendar date each year. </li></ul><ul><li>Thus, in honor of each event or Saint(s), special hymns have been composed which are added to the usual hymns and prayers of the day. </li></ul><ul><li>May 13, for instance, is the feast of St. Cyril and Methodious , apostles to the Slavs. </li></ul><ul><li>(source: St. Tikhon’s seminary press) </li></ul>
  14. 14. The Great Feasts of the Church <ul><li>Pascha (Easter) is the “Feast of feasts” having a central and unique place in the Byzantine liturgical year. Next in importance come the “Twelve Great Feasts” of the Church. These feasts can be divided into two groups. Feasts of the Lord and Feasts of the Mother of God (Theotokos). </li></ul><ul><li>These feasts are: </li></ul><ul><li>Great Feasts of the Lord </li></ul><ul><li>1. The Universal Exaltation (or Elevation) of the Life-creating Cross (Sept. 14) </li></ul><ul><li>2. The Nativity of Our Lord God and Savior Jesus Christ (Christmas Dec. 25) </li></ul><ul><li>3. The Theophany (or Epiphany) of Our Lord God and Savior Jesus Christ (Jan. 6) </li></ul><ul><li>4. The Entrance of Our Lord Jesus Christ into Jerusalem (Palm Sunday before Pascha) </li></ul><ul><li>5. The Ascension of Our Lord and Savior Jesus Christ (40 days after Pascha) </li></ul><ul><li>6. The Descent of the Holy Spirit (Holy Pentecost 50 days after Pascha) </li></ul><ul><li>7. The Transfiguration of Our Lord God and Savior Jesus Christ (Aug. 6) </li></ul><ul><li>Great Feasts of the Mother of God: </li></ul><ul><li>8. The Nativity of the Most-Holy Theotokos (Sept. 8) </li></ul><ul><li>9. The Entrance (or Presentation) of the Theotokos into the Temple (Nov. 21) </li></ul><ul><li>10. The Meeting of Our Lord Jesus Christ in the Temple (Feb. 2) </li></ul><ul><li>11. The Annunciation to the Most-Holy Theotokos (Mar. 25) </li></ul><ul><li>12. The Falling-Asleep (or Dormition) of the Most-Holy Theotokos (Aug. 15) </li></ul><ul><li>All of the Feasts listed above, with the exception of Palm Sunday and Holy Pentecost are preceded by a period of preparation known as the Forefeast or pre-feast. In addition, The Nativity of Christ and the Dormition are preceded by a special fasting period (the Nativity Fast or the Philip fast begins on November 15 and the Dormition Fast begins on August 1). </li></ul><ul><li>(source: Tikhon’s seminary press) </li></ul>
  15. 15. Did you know? <ul><li>Synaxis is a gathering of the Christian faithful for liturgical purposes, generally through the celebration of Vespers, Matins, Little Hours, or the Divine Liturgy. </li></ul><ul><li>In the Byzantine tradition major feasts are followed by a Synaxis, the next day, in honor of a saint that participated in the event celebrated by the major feast. For instance, The Nativity of Christ is followed, on December 26, by the Synaxis of the Most-Holy Theotokos; the Theophany is followed, on January 7, by the Synaxis of St. John the Baptist; and the Annunciation is followed, on March 26, by the Synaxis of the Archangel Gabriel. </li></ul><ul><li>Major feasts can also be preceded by a forefeast. A forefeast or prefeast is a liturgical period prior to a major feast that anticipates and foreshadows the major feast in the services of the divine liturgy. Most major feasts that have a forefeast also have an afterfeast or postfeast and a l eavetaking also known as apodosis. </li></ul><ul><li>An afterfeast is an extension of the major feast that starts the day after the major feast, for instance Pascha is celebrated for 39 days in the Byzantine liturgy. </li></ul><ul><li>A leavetaking or Apodosis is the final day of a major feast. The last day of Pascha is the Wednesday (39 th day) before Ascension Thursday . </li></ul>
  16. 16. The Penitential Seasons of the Byzantine Liturgical year <ul><li>Fasting is an important discipline in the Christian East. Major portions of the Liturgical cycle are taken up by periods of fasting. In the Byzantine tradition observed by Greek Catholics or Byzantine Catholics (and Orthodox Christians) there are four major penitential seasons , these are: </li></ul><ul><li>A. Great Lent also known as the Great Fast (40 days) </li></ul><ul><li>B. The Apostles Fast also known as the Peter and Paul fast. (Length varies from jurisdiction to jurisdiction) </li></ul><ul><li>C. The Nativity Fast also known as The Philip Fast (40 days). </li></ul><ul><li>D. The Dormition Fast ( Two weeks) </li></ul><ul><li>In addition to these periods of fasting Greek Catholics or Byzantine Catholics are to observe simple fasting on all Fridays throughout the year and strict fasting on the first day of the Great Fast and on Great Friday (Good Friday). The particular law of each jurisdiction is to be observed by the faithful regarding Fasting. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Did you Know? <ul><li>The Byzantine Liturgical year is very different from the Latin Church’s Liturgical year used by Roman Catholics. The Roman Catholic Liturgical year begins on the First Sunday of Advent, the Byzantine Liturgical year, on the other hand, begins on September 1 . </li></ul><ul><li>The Byzantine Liturgical year does not use the Roman Catholic structure and terminology for certain seasons, for instance, Greek Catholics do not have Advent or Ordinary time. In the Byzantine tradition the season prior to Christmas, known in the Latin Church as Advent, is call the Nativity Fast . There is no ordinary time in the Byzantine tradition, all Sundays are numbered after Pentecost . </li></ul><ul><li>Greek Catholics or Byzantine Catholics like Roman Catholics consider Pascha (Easter), the most important season of the Church Year. Like Roman Catholics, Byzantines have a Lenten season known as the Great Fast or Great Lent. Byzantine Catholics like Roman Catholics also celebrate the season of Christmas, known as the Nativity . </li></ul>
  18. 18. Great Lent or The Great Fast <ul><li>In the Byzantine Catholic Tradition or Greek Catholic tradition, Great Lent or the Great Fast begins seven weeks prior to Pascha (Easter) on Clean Monday also known as Pure Monday . Lent is preceded by the services of the Triodion . Byzantines Catholics or Greek Catholics unlike Roman Catholics do not observe Ash Wednesday . The Great Fast or Great Lent lasts 40 days, unlike the Roman Catholic season of Lent, the Byzantine Great fast includes Sundays . </li></ul><ul><li>The Great Fast comes to an end on Friday of the sixth week, before Lazarus Saturday , which is the Saturday before Palm Sunday . On Palm Sunday the Great entrance of our Lord into Jerusalem is celebrated, this is one of the major feasts of the Byzantine liturgical year. Palm Sunday is followed by the first three days of Holy week known in the Greek Catholic tradition as “the end”. </li></ul><ul><li>These days are Holy Monday, Holy Tuesday, and Holy Wednesday, during these days the Bridegroom services are celebrated . Holy Monday begins with the Orthros (matins) on Palm Sunday evening (the beginning of the liturgical day) and the celebration of bride groom services. These services portray Jesus as the bridegroom who give his life for his bride , the last bridegroom service culminate on Holy Wednesday evening. During holy week the services are reversed, the orthros (matins) is celebrated in the evening and Vespers are celebrated in the morning. </li></ul><ul><li>Each day during Holy Week has a theme. The theme for Monday is Joseph’s virtue, and the withering of the fig tree ; Tuesday is the Ten Virgins ; Wednesday is the anointing of Jesus at Bethany, Thursday is the Mystical Supper , Great Friday is the Passion , and Holy Saturday also known as the Great Sabbath is the burial of our Lord. On Holy Wednesday the sacrament of anointing (Holy Unction) takes place, healing is intimately connected with repentance in Byzantine spirituality. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Did you Know? <ul><li>The Triodion is a three week period prior to the beginning of Great Lent named after the liturgical book used for this pre-Lenten period, Great Lent and Holy Week. </li></ul><ul><li>The Sunday of the Publican and the Pharisee is the first Sunday of this three week period. It marks the beginning of a time of preparation for the spiritual journey of Lent. In the Byzantine Tradition this period is marked by worship, prayer, fasting, and acts of charity. The Sundays of the Triodion are: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Sunday of the Publican and Pharisee (Luke 18:9-14), </li></ul><ul><li>2. Sunday of the Prodigal Son (Luke 15:11-32) </li></ul><ul><li>3. Sunday of the Last Judgment (also called Meatfare Sunday; Matt 25:31-46). </li></ul><ul><li>4. Sunday of Forgiveness (also called Cheesefare Sunday). </li></ul>
  20. 20. Holy Thursday <ul><li>On this Holy day, the Byzantine Catholic Tradition commemorates four important events in the life of Jesus and his disciples leading up to his passion. These events are: </li></ul><ul><li>A. The washing of the Feet </li></ul><ul><li>B. The institution of the Eucharist </li></ul><ul><li>C. The agony at Gethsemane </li></ul><ul><li>D. The betrayal by Judas </li></ul><ul><li>On Holy Thursday, the Liturgy of St. Basil the Great is celebrated. The Holy Chrism also known as Holy Myron is consecrated for the use in the administration of the Holy Mysteries, especially: Baptism, Christmation, Holy Orders and Holy Unction . In some Byzantine traditions a foot-washing rite follows the divine liturgy. </li></ul>
  21. 21. Great and Holy Friday <ul><li>Byzantine tradition calls Good Friday, Holy and Great Friday , or just simply Great Friday. On this day the service of the four Royal hours, is celebrated in the morning. This service consist of Hymns, psalms and readings from the Scriptures related to Christ’s passion. There is no Divine Liturgy (Eucharist) celebrated on this day. </li></ul><ul><li>In the afternoon, around three o’clock, the great Vespers are celebrated, the accounts from the Gospels regarding the the crucifixion and death of Jesus is read, special attention is given to role of Joseph of Arimatea in securing the body of Jesus for burial. During the readings of the passion at the moment when Jesus body is taken from the cross, the priest removes the icon of Jesus body (soma) from the cross, this liturgical action is called Apokathelosis which means “taking down from the cross” and carries the icon of Jesus body to the sanctuary wrapped in a white cloth and places it on the holy table . </li></ul><ul><li>After the reading of the Passion the priest accompanied by the deacon and acolytes brings out the epitaphios an carries it around the church and places the epitaphios in the sepulche r (tomb) decorated with flowers also known as (the kouvouklion). The epitaphios is an embroidered cloth with the icon of Jesus body, after being taken down from the cross, depicting the body of Christ ready for burial. </li></ul><ul><li>On Friday evening the orthros (matins) of Holy Saturday are celebrated. This service consist of the Lamentations (hymns of praise intercalated with psalm118 used during funerals) sung by the congregation. During this service the Epitaphios icon is carried in procession around the church. In some parishes the entire flower-bedecked Sepulcher, symbolizing the Tomb, is carried in the procession. </li></ul><ul><li>Source: Greek Archdiocese of America </li></ul>
  22. 22. Holy Saturday or Great Sabbath <ul><li>In the Byzantine tradition Holy Saturday begins with the Orthros (Matins) on the evening of Great Friday. This is the day between the crucifixion and the resurrection. On this day Byzantine spirituality reflects on Jesus descent into Hades , the dwelling of the dead. </li></ul><ul><li>The Liturgy of St. Basil, celebrated on this day, reminds us that Jesus descended into Hades to loose the bond of death. Death has no power, it has been defeated from within, by the power of Christ. This is the longest liturgy of the liturgical year. </li></ul><ul><li>In the Byzantine Catholic tradition Holy Saturday is a day of vigilant anticipation . On this day the liturgy focuses on Jesus’ rest on the tomb. Jesus observes the Great Sabbath , but his rest is not inert, mourning is radically being transformed into joy. Jesus’ tomb is not an ordinary grave. It is not a place of corruption, decay and defeat. It is life-giving, a source of power, victory and liberation. </li></ul><ul><li>Later, just before midnight, Pascha is celebrated beginning with the Midnight office , the first part of the paschal vigil in the Byzantine tradition. </li></ul>
  23. 23. Did you know? <ul><li>In the Byzantine tradition, the liturgy which corresponds structurally to the Easter Vigil of the Latin Church is the Vesperal Liturgy of Holy Saturday, celebrated on Saturday afternoon. </li></ul><ul><li>This is the service which includes the lengthy series of Old Testament readings and the rites of Baptism and Chrismation, as in the Western practice. </li></ul>
  24. 24. The Byzantine Celebration of Pascha <ul><li>A. Pascha is the most important feast in the Byzantine liturgical year . It celebrates the resurrection of our Lord and his victory over the power of death. </li></ul><ul><li>B. In Byzantine Catholic spirituality Pascha reveals the day without evening also known as the eight day or the day of a new and everlasting creation. </li></ul><ul><li>C.The celebration of Pascha begins just prior to midnight with the celebration of the midnight office. This service is sometimes called “Before the Tomb” in the slavic tradition . </li></ul><ul><li>D. During the service, The odes of the Lamentations from the previous night are repeated. During the ninth ode of the canon, the epitaphios is transferred from the tomb in the middle of the Church to the Holy table , where it will remain until the leavetaking of Pascha. </li></ul>
  25. 25. The Byzantine Celebration of Pascha (continued) <ul><li>E. After the transfer of the epitaphios to the holy table, all the lights of the church are extinguished and the orthrox (matins) of the resurrection (anastasis) begins in darkness. The priest light his candle from the vigil light and exits through the Royal doors and pass on the light to the faithful, who are holding candles. </li></ul><ul><li>F. The priest sings, “Come, receive light from the unfading light, and glorify Christ, who arose from the dead.” Then, the priest reads the resurrection story from the Gospel of Mark (16:1-8). </li></ul><ul><li>G. After the Gospel reading, the celebrant leads the people in singing the Resurrection hymn. At the end of the orthros the Divine Liturgy of St. John Chrysostom is celebrated as usual. </li></ul>
  26. 26. Agape Vespers <ul><li>On Sunday afternoon the festivity of Pascha continues, as the faithful gathers for Vespers. This particular Vesper service is known as Agape Vespers . The faithful sing “Christ is Risen” with their candles lit. The paschal greeting is exchanged, “ Christ is Risen, Truly He is Risen.” The after feast of Pascha begins. </li></ul>
  27. 27. Did you know? <ul><li>In the Byzantine tradition the first week following the celebration of Pascha is called bright week . Bright Week begins on the Sunday of Pascha and ends on the second Sunday of Pascha called Thomas Sunday . This entire week is considered a continuous day of celebration and joy for the Resurrection of our Lord . </li></ul><ul><li>Thomas Sunday commemorates the appearances of Christ following the resurrection. Specially the appearance to Thomas, the doubting disciple. </li></ul><ul><li>This Sunday (Thomas Sunday) is also called Antipascha (meaning “in the stead of Pascha,” not “in opposition to Pascha”) because with this day, the first Sunday after Pascha, the Church consecrates every Sunday of the year to the commemoration of Pascha, that is, the Resurrection. </li></ul><ul><li>Source: Greek Archdiocese of America </li></ul>
  28. 28. What is the Divine Liturgy? <ul><li>In the Byzantine Catholic Tradition, Divine Liturgy is the name used to refer to the celebration of the Eucharist , the central aspect of Catholic Byzantine worship. The Byzantine Tradition has several liturgies for the celebration of the Divine Liturgy. The most common are: </li></ul><ul><li>A. The Divine Liturgy of St. John Chrysostom (5th Century A.D.), used on most days of the year. </li></ul><ul><li>B. The Divine Liturgy of St. Basil the Great (4th Century A.D.), used on the 5 Sundays of Great Lent, and on Saint Basil's feast day (January 1). On the eves of the Nativity and Theophany, and on Holy Thursday and Holy Saturday, it is celebrated as a vesperal liturgy in most cases. All together, St. Basil's liturgy is celebrated 10 or 11 days out of the liturgical year. </li></ul><ul><li>C. The Liturgy of the Presanctified Gifts (6th Century A.D.), served on Wednesdays and Fridays during Great Lent and on the first three days of Holy Week. It is essentially the office of vespers with a communion service added, the Holy Gifts having been consecrated and reserved the previous Sunday. It is traditionally attributed to St. Gregory the Dialogist . </li></ul>
  29. 29. Parts of the Byzantine Liturgy <ul><li>The Divine Liturgy is composed of three main parts: </li></ul><ul><li>A. The Prothesis (or proskomedia), the service of preparing the holy gifts. </li></ul><ul><li>B. The Liturgy of the Catechumens or Liturgy of the word. </li></ul><ul><li>C. The Liturgy of the faithful or Liturgy of the Eucharist. </li></ul>The “Prothesis” (preparation of the gifts)
  30. 30. Did you know? <ul><li>In the Byzantine Catholic tradition, the antidoron is the blessed bread distributed by the priest at the end of the Divine Liturgy. It comes from the prosphora , the loaf of bread that is used for Holy Communion. </li></ul><ul><li>On top of the prosphora the Christogram is written: IC XC NI KA (Jesus Christ Conquers). During the prothesis , the prosphora is cut, but only the center of the prosphora is used for the Eucharist; this part of the prosphora is called the Lamb . </li></ul><ul><li>The remaining part of the prosphora that is not use for consecration becomes the antidoron . The antidoron is cut into pieces and kept in a bowl or salver. It is important to remember that the antidoron is blessed bread, it is not sacramental (it is not consecrated into the body of Christ). </li></ul><ul><li>The antidoron may also be taken home for use during the week. It is a pious custom for Byzantine Christians to begin the day, after their morning prayers and before eating, by consuming a particle of antidoron and drinking agiasmos, or blessed water. </li></ul>
  31. 31. The Holy Mysteries (continued) <ul><li>In Byzantine Catholic terminology, the word “Holy Mysteries” is used to refer to the seven sacraments that communicates the very life of God (grace) to those who receive them. These Holy Mysteries are: </li></ul><ul><li>A. Baptism : The sacrament of baptism is administered in the Byzantine Catholic tradition by a threefold immersion in the name of the Father, Son and Holy Spirit. </li></ul><ul><li>Baptism takes place in the Kolymbethra a basin containing the baptismal water . After the immersion the Godparents bring the baptismal garments to dress the infant. The garments are considered sacred. </li></ul><ul><li>B. Chrismation : In the Byzantine Catholic Tradition Chrimation (confirmation) is not delayed to the age of reason . It follows Immediately after baptism, the infant is Chrismated with Holy Chrism also known as Holy Myron . The Holy Chrism is blessed during the liturgy of Holy Thursday. In the Byzantine tradition, unlike the Latin tradition, the priest can confer Christmation (confirmation). </li></ul>Baptism by immersion
  32. 32. The Holy Mysteries <ul><li>C. Eucharist : In the Byzantine Catholic tradition Holy Communion , the reception of the body and blood of Christ, is not delayed to the age of reason. Infants received Holy Communion after Baptism. The precious blood is given to the infant through a liturgical spoon . </li></ul><ul><li>D. Confession : In the Byzantine catholic tradition confession does not take place in the confessional, but in front of the Icon of Christ. After the confession the priest covers the head of the penitent with the Epitrachelion (priest’s stole) and says the prayer of absolution. </li></ul><ul><li>E. Holy Unction : According to Byzantine practice, this service is to be celebrated in the presence of seven priest. However, pastoral circumstances sometimes do not allow for the full expression of this rite. Anyone that is ill can receive this sacrament. On Holy Wednesday evening there is a special celebration of anointing in Byzantine Churches. </li></ul>Byzantine Confession
  33. 33. The Holy Mysteries (continued) <ul><li>F. Marriage: In the Byzantine tradition the sacrament of marriage is referred to as the Crowning. Marriage is considered in Byzantine spirituality an icon of the relationship between Jesus and His Church. According to Byzantine practice the wedding is to take place on Sunday. </li></ul><ul><li>The first part of the wedding is the service of solemn betrothal, followed by prayers, and the granting and blessing of the rings. Then the ceremony continues with the crowning the main ritual of the wedding, and the liturgy of the word. After the readings the couple share the common cup containing blessed wine . </li></ul><ul><li>After the couples share the cup, a litany is recited followed by a procession around the marriage table . After the procession the crowns are removed and a final blessing is given. </li></ul><ul><li>G. Ordination: Ordination or Holy Orders is known in the Byzantine Catholic tradition as cheirotonia. In the Byzantine tradition there are minor orders and major orders . The minor orders (cheirothesia) are: subdeacon, reader, acolyte or candle bearer and cantor. The major orders (cheirotonia) are diaconate, presbyter (priest) and bishop. </li></ul>The Crowning
  34. 34. Did you Know? <ul><li>In the Byzantine Catholic tradition priests can be from the celibate or from the married states. Byzantine Catholics monastics (monks and nuns) belong to the celibate state . In the Byzantine Catholic Tradition, bishops are selected from the monastic ranks. </li></ul><ul><li>Until recently, in the United States, Byzantine married men were not allowed to be ordained priests, like they do in Eastern Europe . A priest that has been ordained cannot marry. However, a married man who wants to become a Byzantine priest in the United States now can do so. </li></ul><ul><li>The old restriction (banning married clergy) imposed by the Latin Hierarchy in the USA has changed, the Holy See has granted permission, to the local metropolias in the U.S., to ordain married men to the priesthood, on case by case basis. This new development is in accord with the Eastern Code of Law and the decree of Vatican II regarding the Eastern Churches and their practices . </li></ul>Christmation of Infant after baptism
  35. 35. The Clergy <ul><li>In the Byzantine tradition priests, deacons and monks are greeted as fathers . A monk who is also a deacon is called Hierodeacon, and a monk who is a priest is called heiromonk. The chancellor of an eparchy (diocese) is usually called protsyngellos. </li></ul><ul><li>Titles of distinction, for clergy in the Byzantine tradition, carrying a certain degree of dignity are: </li></ul><ul><li>A. Archpriest : an honorific titled given to a priest. His symbols are the mitre (liturgical hat) and the epigonation . Archpriests are also known as protopresbyters . </li></ul><ul><li>B. Archimandrite : is a celibate priest, and head and father (abbot) of a monastic community (he is the equivalent of an Archpriest), his symbols are the crozier (pastoral staff) and the mitre. </li></ul><ul><li>C. Hegoumenoi: is a priest- monk just below the rank of Archimandrite. His symbol is the epigonation. </li></ul>Archimandrite
  36. 36. Liturgical Vestments Epitrachelion (Priest’s stole) Sticharion (Alb) Phelonion (Chasuble) Epitrachelion Sticharion Orarion (deacon’s stole) Omophorion Bishop’s Vestment Omophorion Sticharion Epimanikia (Cuffs)
  37. 37. Liturgical Colors <ul><li>In the Byzantine Catholic tradition the following liturgical colors are used: </li></ul><ul><li>A. White: is the symbol of God’s uncreated light. White vestments are worn on the great feasts of Easter, Christmas, Epiphany, Ascension and Transfiguration. </li></ul><ul><li>B. Red: is used on the Sundays of Great Lent, during Christmas Fast, on the feast day of the Elevation of the Lord’s Cross, and sometimes on the feast days of great martyrs. </li></ul><ul><li>C. Gold: is the color of glory, greatness and virtue. It is assigned to Sundays, as the days of the Lord — the King of Glory; in addition, the Church in golden vestments notes the days of His special anointed ones — the prophets, apostles and hierarchal saints. </li></ul><ul><li>D. Green : is the color of plants and a symbol of new life — it is used on Palm Sunday and throughout the feast of the Holy Trinity (until its end). </li></ul><ul><li>E. Light blue or blue — is the color of the feast days of the Most Holy Mother of God. It is the color of the sky, and it conforms to the teaching about the Mother of God, who held the Resident of the Heavens in Her Most Pure Body. </li></ul><ul><li>F. Black : is nearest in spirit to the weekdays of Great Lent. It is the symbol of renunciation from worldly strife, It is the color of repentance and strictness to oneself. </li></ul>
  38. 38. Bishop’s Insignias Miter Omophorion Bizantine Cross Engolpion or Panagia Crozier or Paterissa Bishop’s staff
  39. 39. Holy Theotokos <ul><li>A. In the Byzantine Catholic Tradition, the Virgin Mary has an exalted place of honor as the Theotokos (God’s bearer), the Mother of God. St. Theodoret an early Christian theologian wrote that calling Mary Theotokos is an Apostolic tradition . </li></ul><ul><li>B. The council of Ephesus in 431 defended the practice of calling Mary the Theotokos, stating that she was the mother of Jesus who was both human and divine. </li></ul><ul><li>C. In the Byzantine tradition one of the many titles Mary is given is that of Panagia – All Holy. The liturgical calendar of the Byzantine tradition celebrates five major feasts dedicated to Mary. The feast of the Nativity of the Theotokos is celebrated on September 8th. </li></ul><ul><li>D. The feast of the Dormition (falling asleep): is a major feast in the Byzantine Tradition that commemorates the falling asleep ( natural death) of our Holy and blessed Mother. </li></ul><ul><li>E. This feast is preceded by a two week fast called the dormition’s fast. According to tradition her body was resurrected on the third day and taken up to heaven. </li></ul><ul><li>Many Byzantine Churches honor the Holy Theotokos , mother of God, by naming Churches after her name. </li></ul>Icon of the Dormition of the Holy Theotokos
  40. 40. The Three Holy Hierarchs <ul><li>In Byzantine Catholic Tradition the Feast of the Holy Hierarchs , St Basil the Great, St Gregory the Theologian; and St. John Chrysostom is celebrated on Janurary 30th. </li></ul><ul><li>The Byzantine tradition venerates these three staunch pillars and defenders of our Church Doctrine against the heresies that sought to deny the divinity of Jesus Christ. St Basil was born in Cappodocia in Asia Minor in 330A.D, He was the Archbishop of Caesarea. </li></ul><ul><li>St. Gregory of Nazianzus , who is called the Theologian, was born in Nazianzus in Cappodocia in 325 A D. He was the Archbishop of Constantinople. </li></ul><ul><li>St. John Chrysostom was born at Antioch in the year 347 A.D. He was renowned for his eloquence, and was thus termed “Chrysostom ”, which means “Golden Mouthed” in Greek, He was the Archbishop of Constantinople, and he revised the Divine Liturgy which we still use today. </li></ul><ul><li>St. John Chrysostom is recorded in historical annals as the most eloquent preachers of the Byzantine Church his homilies are classics even to this day. These three Holy Hierarchs are considered doctors of the Church in the West. St. Basil, and St. Gregory are known as the Capadoccian fathers. </li></ul>
  41. 41. Byzantine Architecture <ul><li>A. The Church building is divided into three main parts: the narthex (vestibule), the nave (the temple proper) and the sanctuary (also called the altar or holy place). The altar (sanctuary) is situated in the eastern part of the church, behind the iconostasis or Templon , regardless of its shape. </li></ul><ul><li>B. A bell tower is attached to (or built separately by the western part of the church. The church building has many symbolic meanings; perhaps the oldest and most prominent is the concept that the Church is the Ark of Salvation (as in Noah's Ark) in which the world is saved from the flood of temptations. </li></ul><ul><li>C. The cupola instead of a flat ceiling symbolizes the sky. In Russian churches, cupolas are often topped by an onion-shaped domes, where crosses are mounted. </li></ul>
  42. 42. The Byzantine Sanctuary <ul><li>The Sanctuary is the Holiest place in a Byzantine Catholic Church . It is located behind the altar screen called iconostasis or templon . It contains the following: </li></ul><ul><li>A. Altar table : It is located in the center, just behind the Holy doors or Beautiful gate . On top of the altar is the tabernacle , the book of the Gospel and the antimension are placed. Behind the altar a candelabra containing seven candles is found. (See graphic # 1 –next slide) </li></ul><ul><li>B. Tabernacle or artophorion : is the sacred vessel used to reserve the Eucharist used to bring communion for the sick; it is usually shaped in the form of a Church . The presence of the Christ in the tabernacle is signaled by a vigil lamp. (See graphic # 8 –next slide) </li></ul><ul><li>C. Table of Preparation or Prothesis : This table is also known as the table of oblation ; it is found in the sanctuary left to the altar. This is the table used for the service of preparing the the prosphora (bread) and wine; this service is known as proskomedia or office of oblation . On top of the prothesis rest the chalice (cup) the diskos (paten = round plate), the spear (liturgical knife), a liturgical spoon (for the distribution of holy communion), the asterisk or star ( a metal stand that holds the cover for the Eucharistic bread or prosphora). (See graphic #2- next slide) </li></ul><ul><li>D. Antimension : a rectangular piece of silk or linen decorated with the image of Christ’s entombment and the image of the four Evangelists . A small relic of a martyr is sewn into it. During the Divine Liturgy (Eucharist), the antimension is placed on the center of the altar. The antimension serves as an altar in case of pastoral necessity and the Eucharist cannot be celebrated without it. Only the priest, deacon or bishop can touch the antimension when fully vested. </li></ul>
  43. 43. Inside a Byzantine Catholic Church
  44. 44. The Iconostasis <ul><li>A. In the Byzantine Catholic Tradition, the Iconostasis (Greek for icon stand) or Templon, is a screen (wall), consisting of one or more rows of icons, separating the nave from the sanctuary. </li></ul><ul><li>B. In Byzantine spirituality the iconostasis is a boundary between two worlds, the divine and the human. In some small Byzantine churches the iconostasis may be completely absent and may be replaced by small icons. The Iconostasis has three sets of doors. </li></ul><ul><li>C. The central doors are call Holy doors or beautiful gate and contain an icon of the annunciation. The doors to the left and to the right of the Holy doors are called the north and south doors, also known as the deacon or angel doors. </li></ul><ul><li>D The Icons of the Savior, the Theotokos, The Archangels and the Saints, featured on the iconostasis, represent the reconciliation taking place between the human and the divine . </li></ul>Iconostasis or Templon
  45. 45. Byzantine Symbols Byzantine Cross Icons – “Christ Pantocrator ” Christogram – “Jesus Christ Conquers” Holy Candles
  46. 46. Holy Icons <ul><li>In the Byzantine tradition Icons (holy images) are considered windows to heaven . Icons are never painted they are written by iconographers. Icons have been used in the devotion of the Christian East from the very beginning. </li></ul><ul><li>St. John Damascene wrote, “anyone who seeks to destroy the Icons of Christ or His Mother, the Blessed Theotokos, or any of the Saints, is the enemy of Christ, the Holy Mother of God, and the Saints, and is the defender of the Devil and his demons. </li></ul><ul><li>An icon coud be an image of Christ, the Holy Theotokos, The Saints, Angels, or important aspects in the life of Jesus or the Church. Byzantine Catholics pray in the presence of Icon (not to the icon itself). Byzantine Catholics venerate the Holy Icons to show respect for the sacred. In the Byzantine tradition Icons are venerated the the following way: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Approach the icon and make two metania (bows) </li></ul><ul><li>2. Kiss the icon on feet or hands (never the face) </li></ul><ul><li>3. A candle may placed before the icon at this time </li></ul><ul><li>4. Make an additional metania and then depart </li></ul><ul><li>During Lent, a complete prostration to the ground is made instead of the metania bow. Before entering the pew, the custom is normally to bow to the altar and make the Sign of the Cross . </li></ul>
  47. 47. Byzantine Liturgical Postures and Gestures <ul><li>In the Byzantine Catholic Tradition there are several liturgical postures and gestures, the most common are: </li></ul><ul><li>A. Standing : It is the official posture of the Church. In the Byzantine Catholic Tradition, standing is a symbol of the resurrection . Byzantine Catholics stand for most of the service (Europe), in America, however, seating is permitted as a cultural adaptation. </li></ul><ul><li>B. Prostration: There are two basic kinds of prostrations, known as Great Metania, and Small Metania. Both are preceded by the sign of the Cross . </li></ul><ul><li>Great Metania : the worshipper prostrates the whole body, throwing the weight forwards onto the hands and touching the ground with the forehead. </li></ul><ul><li>Small Metania : The worshipper bows from the waist, touching the ground with the fingers of the right hand. </li></ul><ul><li>D. Bows (reverance): At certain times the worshipper merely bows the head; sometimes this is accompanied by the Sign of the Cross. </li></ul>
  48. 48. The Byzantine Sign of the Cross <ul><li>A. In the Byzantine Catholic Tradition, the Sign of the Cross is made with the thumb and the first two fingers of the right hand joined at the tips (the third and fourth fingers being closed on the palm). </li></ul><ul><li>B. By joining the thumb and the first two fingers, we express our belief in the Most-Holy Trinity. </li></ul><ul><li>C. The two fingers closed on the palm represent the two natures of Christ divine and human. </li></ul><ul><li>D. With the thumb and first two fingers joined, we touch first the brow, then the breast, the right shoulder and then the left, making on ourselves the Sign of the Cross and signifying by the four points that the Holy Trinity has sanctified our thoughts (mind), feelings (heart), desires (soul) and acts (strength) to service of God. </li></ul><ul><li>C. By making the Sign of the Cross on ourselves we also signify that Christ has saved us by His sufferings on the Cross. </li></ul><ul><li>D. The Byzantine way of making the sign of the cross pre-dates the Latin style used by Roman Catholics. </li></ul>
  49. 49. The Prayer Rope <ul><li>A prayer rope is a devotional instrument of prayer, in the form of a loop made up of complex knots, usually out of wool or silk, that is used by Byzantine Catholics to count the number of times they have prayed the Jesus’ Prayer : &quot;Lord Jesus Christ, son of God, have mercy on me, a sinner.” This prayer is the most mystical prayer in Eastern Christianity according to some of the Fathers of the Church. </li></ul><ul><li>To learn more about the prayer rope click on the title below: </li></ul><ul><li>Prayer Rope or go to the following link: </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  50. 50. St. Cyril and Methodius <ul><li>Saints Cyril and Methodius were Byzantine Greek brothers born in Thessaloniki in the 9th century, who became missionaries of Christianity among the Slavic peoples of Great Moravia and Pannonia. </li></ul><ul><li>Through their work they influenced the cultural development of all Slavs, for which they received the title &quot;Apostles to the Slavs&quot;. They are credited with devising the Cyrillic alphabet , the first alphabet used to transcribe the Old Church Slavonic language. </li></ul><ul><li>After their deaths, their pupils continued their missionary work among other Slavs. Both brothers are venerated in the Byzantine Catholic and Eastern Orthodox Churches as saints with the title of &quot;Equals to the Apostles&quot;. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1880, Pope Leo XIII introduced their feast into the calendar of the Roman Catholic Church. In 1980, Pope John Paul II declared them co-patrons of Europe , together with Saint Benedict of Nursia . The feast of St. Cyril and Methodius is celebrated on May 11th . </li></ul>Icon of St. Cyril and Methodius
  51. 51. Vatican II Decree Orientalium Ecclesiarum <ul><li>“ All members of the Eastern Rite should know and be convinced that they can and should always preserve their legitimate liturgical rite and their established way of life, and that these may not be altered except to obtain for themselves an organic improvement. All these, then, must be observed by the members of the Eastern rites themselves. Besides, they should attain to on ever greater knowledge and a more exact use of them, and, if in their regard they have fallen short owing to contingencies of times and persons, they should take steps to return to their ancestral traditions.” </li></ul>
  52. 52. The Nicene Creed- Our Faith <ul><li>I believe in one God, the Father Almighty, creator of heaven and earth, of all things visible and invisible. And in one Lord Jesus Christ, Son of God, the only-begotten, born of the Father before all ages. Light of light, true God of true God, begotten, not made, of one substance with the Father, through Whom all things were made. Who for us men, and for our salvation, came down from heaven, and was incarnate from the Holy Spirit and Mary the virgin, and became man. He was also crucified for us under Pontius Pilate, and suffered, and was buried. And He rose again on the third day, according to the Scriptures. And He ascended into heaven, and sits at the right hand of the Father. And He will come again with glory, to judge the living and the dead, and of His kingdom there will be no end. And in the Holy Spirit, the Lord, and Giver of life, Who proceeds from the Father, Who together with the Father and the Son is worshipped and glorified, Who spoke through the prophets. In one holy catholic, and apostolic Church. I profess one Baptism for the remission of sins. I expect the resurrection of the dead; and the life of the world to come. Amen. </li></ul>
  53. 53. The End For more presentations please click on the following link: ICXC NIKA GO WITH GOD!