The Catholic Reformation:Change and Religious Exploration                         Humanities II                         Dr...
History           Martin Luther’s 95 Theses           Catholicism vs. Protestantism           Religious Orders         ...
Luther’s 95 Theses He disagreed with salvation by good works and Church mediation—believed salvation was by faith alone: ...
Luther’s 95 Theses Originally written in Latin, it was translated into German and circulatedamong communities, drawing mu...
remainingdifferences betweenProtestantism& Catholicism        CATHOLICISM            PROTESTANTISM  • One universal church...
Catholic Religious Orders Ignatius Loyola (1491-1556)     initially a soldier for the Spanish King Charles I     became...
Catholic Religious Orders Capuchins (ca. 1520)     a development of the Franciscans     felt the original aim to imitat...
Council of Trent Met from 1545-1563Re-evaluated and made reforms regarding doctrine, ecclesiastics, and spiritualbeliefs...
International Missions & Political Ties Asian Missions    Jesuits, through language, converted Chinese and Japanese scho...
considerations      & avenues  How does Loyola’s rules in Spiritual Exercises compare with the differences in belief that...
Literature                           Themes                           Saint John of the Cross                          ...
Literary Themes & Influences Religious exploration continued on a more personal level Darker images were being used, ush...
Saint John of the CrossJuan de Yepes Alvarez (1542-1591)    Spanish monk    Trained as a Jesuit but entered a Carmelite...
Teresa of Avila 1515-1582 Began having visions of Jesus in her middle-age Visions captures her visions and puts her fee...
Ecstasy of Saint Teresa (detail)     Bernini; 1647-1652; marbleSanta Maria della Vittoria, Rome, Italy
Ecstasy of Saint Teresa     Bernini; 1647-1652; marbleSanta Maria della Vittoria, Rome, Italy
Richard Crashaw 1613-1649 He converted from Protestantism to Catholicism and drew on the religiouswritings of the late 1...
considerations      & avenues  What do the erotic undertones accomplish in the religious poetry of the late 16th and earl...
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Catholic Reformation

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Catholic Reformation

  1. 1. The Catholic Reformation:Change and Religious Exploration Humanities II Dr. Vandiver August 22, 2012
  2. 2. History  Martin Luther’s 95 Theses  Catholicism vs. Protestantism  Religious Orders  International Missions  The Council of Trent
  3. 3. Luther’s 95 Theses He disagreed with salvation by good works and Church mediation—believed salvation was by faith alone: ―the just shall live by faith‖ (Romans1:17) He dismissed many Catholic traditions as unnecessary: • justification by charity and good works  indulgences  veneration of relics  intercession of saints and Mary  clerical celibacy  the Pope’s infallibility  discouragement of Christians to interpret scripture individually He accused Catholic authority of living in a worldly manner rather thanimitating disciples’ lifestyles– ―86…why does not the Pope, whose richesare at this day more ample than those of the wealthiest of thewealthy, build the single Basilica of St. Peter with his own money ratherthan with that of poor believers?‖
  4. 4. Luther’s 95 Theses Originally written in Latin, it was translated into German and circulatedamong communities, drawing much more attention to the issues than Lutherhad likely intended. Luther was excommunicated by Pope Leo X, burned the edict denouncinghis Catholicism, and was accused of heresy, to which he refused to recant hisstatements. His 95 Theses is one of the most influential religious documents ever written.
  5. 5. remainingdifferences betweenProtestantism& Catholicism CATHOLICISM PROTESTANTISM • One universal church • Multiple denominations • Pope’s authority and • No single earthly infallibility representative • Only direct prayer to • Intercessory prayer Christ/God • Eucharist and • Communion/sacramental transubstantiation union/spiritual presence • “Purgatory” • Direct ascension to Heaven • Confession • Individual confession with • Baptism required God • Baptism encouraged
  6. 6. Catholic Religious Orders Ignatius Loyola (1491-1556)  initially a soldier for the Spanish King Charles I  became a traveling hermit who went to Jerusalem to convert Muslims to Christianity  founded the Society of Jesus—the Jesuits—in 1530  provided an iron will in traditional Catholic teachings and practice Jesuits  acted most commonly as teachers (tradition continues today)  aimed to convert foreign communities and overcome Protestantism  used language as their tool for conversion: India, China, Japan, Native American tribes, Mexico, Central America, and South America Spiritual Exercises (1548)  Jesuit training of mysticism and militancy—Christians should be obedient and faithful to the views of the Church, viewed as the holy Mother‖  Examples of Loyola’s call to return to Catholic tradition (p. 3) show his staunch stance on Catholic reform
  7. 7. Catholic Religious Orders Capuchins (ca. 1520)  a development of the Franciscans  felt the original aim to imitate the life of St. Francis had been lost and called for a return to a life of solitude and penance for members  cappuccino is derived in reference to their brown hoods Ursulines  initiated as a conference of nuns for the education of young women and care of the needy  the first Catholic nuns to visit North America, working in Canada, alongside Jesuits for education of indigenous people  The Ursuline Convent of Quebec City is the oldest educational institution for women in North America (1639)
  8. 8. Council of Trent Met from 1545-1563Re-evaluated and made reforms regarding doctrine, ecclesiastics, and spiritualbeliefs:  reconfirmed all seven sacraments and basic beliefs previously challenged  encouraged intellectual activities within monasteries (recall the expectations of laity)  approved religious orders  reconvened the court of the Inquisition to try heretics  established Index Expurgatorius (Latin, index ―n. list; v. to point out‖; expello ―v. to expel‖) Dante Alighieri Francis Bacon John Milton Descartes John Calvin Victor Hugo Galileo Galilei (lifted in 1718) Alexandre Dumas Niccolo Machiavelli  provided guidelines to minimize clerical abuses  emphasized preaching to uneducated laity
  9. 9. International Missions & Political Ties Asian Missions Jesuits, through language, converted Chinese and Japanese scholars. They faced issues with Franciscan monks and European commercial enterprises. Japanese Buddhists believed Christians were subversive to the social order—Christianity was outlawed in Japan in 1606 and Westerners were cast out of in 1624. Mexican Missions  Jesuits arrived after other religious orders, dominating cultural religious influence.  European Catholic and local traditions blended.  Miracle of the Virgin of Guadalupe in 1531  the Virgin appeared before a peasant and asked for a church honoring her  cult-like culture has been built around her and image was promoted by the Jesuits
  10. 10. considerations & avenues  How does Loyola’s rules in Spiritual Exercises compare with the differences in belief that Protestantism was spreading? How do you think those outside of Catholicism in other cultures reacted to the Jesuits’ militant strictness when approached by the missionaries?  How does the purpose of the Ursulines compare with that of the Jesuits or Capuchins? Is this telling of the time period or the belief system?  How did the Council of Trent affect the common Catholic? Did it affect the laity differently than the clergy? What do you think it says about the Catholic Church’s purpose of the Index Expurgatorius given that Charles Darwin was never put on later versions of the list?  Do you think there was a difference in the laity’s view of the Church with regard to European Catholics, Asian Catholics, and Mexican Catholics? Why or why not?
  11. 11. Literature  Themes  Saint John of the Cross  Teresa of Avila  Crashaw Teresa of Avila by Peter Paul Rubens
  12. 12. Literary Themes & Influences Religious exploration continued on a more personal level Darker images were being used, ushering in the Baroque period Stronger focus on the spiritual ecstasy of God with comparison tolovers—drawing on sometimes erotic language and a sense of bliss Mention of the mystical and visions believed to be brought on byGod or a fevrent passion for God
  13. 13. Saint John of the CrossJuan de Yepes Alvarez (1542-1591)  Spanish monk  Trained as a Jesuit but entered a Carmelite life  Studied theology, philosophy, and humanities at university and became a top theologian of his time  His translation of parts of the Bible into Spanish were controversial at the time. Dark Night of the Soul (1585; excerpt online)  focuses on the journey to enlightenment with God  encourages work through trials and tribulations to find rest with God  the prologue begins with a poem about leaving his house at rest to be with a lover, a metaphor for a relationship with God
  14. 14. Teresa of Avila 1515-1582 Began having visions of Jesus in her middle-age Visions captures her visions and puts her feelings into comparisons ofsexual bliss Symbols in Visions (excerpt pg. 5)  ―very beautiful, his face so aflame‖  ―In his hands I saw a long golden spear and a the end of the iron tip I seemed to see a point of fire.‖  ―…he seemed to pierce my heart several times so that it penetrated to my entrails‖  ―…he left me afire with a great love for God‖  ―The pain was so sharp that it made me utter several moans‖  ―…and so excessive was the sweetness caused me by this intense pain that one can never wish to lose it‖
  15. 15. Ecstasy of Saint Teresa (detail) Bernini; 1647-1652; marbleSanta Maria della Vittoria, Rome, Italy
  16. 16. Ecstasy of Saint Teresa Bernini; 1647-1652; marbleSanta Maria della Vittoria, Rome, Italy
  17. 17. Richard Crashaw 1613-1649 He converted from Protestantism to Catholicism and drew on the religiouswritings of the late 1500s He wrote several works dedicated to Teresa of Avila as a religious writerand as a topic of social presence for Catholic fever Symbols in The Flaming Heart (excerpt pg. 5)  ―undaunted daughter of desires‖  ―by thy thirsts of love more large than they‖  ―all they brim-filled bowls of fierce desire‖  ―By they last morning’s draught of liquid fire/By the full kingdom of that final kiss‖
  18. 18. considerations & avenues  What do the erotic undertones accomplish in the religious poetry of the late 16th and early 17th century? Do they convey more emotion than would have otherwise been conveyed?  How might the common reader have reacted to this form of religious description? (Remember that literacy was still not highly common among middle- and lower-classes.)  Does Teresa of Avila’s gender affect the impact of her work on the reader, i.e. what if a man had written it?  Why do you think the Catholic Church did not negatively respond to this sort of writing?  Despite being from different points of views and different degrees of sexuality, what do the writings of Saint John of the Cross, Teresa of Avila, and Richard Crashaw have in common regarding a relationship with God?

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