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Church History Powerpoint



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Church History Powerpoint

  1. 1. Church History
  2. 2. Definition of Church History <ul><li>For purposes of this course, term used in broadest sense: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the scholarly discipline of recording and interpreting the experiences </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>of the worldwide body of people who claim to follow Jesus Christ, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>since the Pentecostal baptism of the Spirit (Acts 2) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>against the backdrop of man’s kingdom, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>and in the cradle of divine providence. </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Definition of Church History (cont) <ul><li>The term “Church” </li></ul><ul><li>The term “History” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Historical Process </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Historiography </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Relationship between “Church History” and “World History” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Avoiding a False Dichotomy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Secular and Sacred History </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Church History as the Hub </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Valuing Church History <ul><li>Forces Working Against an Appreciation of Church History </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Western Intellectual Milieu </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Postmodernism, Relativism, Multi-perspectivalism </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pragmatism </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Evolutionism </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>As Anti-Theology </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>As Social Philosophy </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Existentialism </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Narcissism </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cult of Youth </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Technological Revolution and Scientific Pragmatism </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Encouraging an Appreciation for Church History <ul><li>History and Divine Revelation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Time – medium God creates to reveal his glories to man </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Progressive Revelation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Gen 1:1 – “In the beginning” – unity of Bible </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Gen 3:15 – progressive unfolding of this war and redemption </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bible is incomprehensible apart from historical records </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>History and the Providence of God </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Divine sovereignty over all that comes to pass. Nothing left to chance. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Weak interest in history reflects a weak theology. </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>History and Sanctification </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Salvation history is directly linked to the believer’s sanctification. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Exod 12:24-27a; Josh 4:1-7; Ps 102:18 – second generation knows God through the first </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rom 6:20-21; 1 Cor 6:9-11; 10:6-12; 11:23-25 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>History provides negative and positive motivation (Heb 11-12) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>History provides practical insight for ministry </li></ul></ul><ul><li>History and the Love of God (Eph 2:11-22; Titus 2:14) </li></ul><ul><li>History and Theological Studies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Knowledge of God supported by those who have gone before </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Theology deteriorates or matures over time </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Navigational Destiny of Church History
  9. 9. The Apostolic Era 33-100 AD
  10. 10. Distinguishing the Apostolic Era <ul><li>Chronologically </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Covers the era of leadership in which the Church was led by individuals personally chosen and trained by Jesus Christ. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eusebius ( ca. 260 to ca. 340) claims that the apostle John lived to see the reign of Emperor Trajan (r. 98-117). </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Experientially </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Church experiences purest expression, most dramatic influence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Direct stamp of Jesus’ personal influence upon leadership </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Miraculous gifts of Holy Spirit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Touchstone of contemporary Church </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Authority of the Apostles <ul><li>Jesus Christ absolute authority over Church (Matt 16:18; Eph 1:18-23; Col 1:15-18) </li></ul><ul><li>Apostles commissioned by Jesus as his authoritative representatives (Matt 16:17-19; Acts 1:1-26; 2 Cor 10-11; Gal 1:11-2:9) </li></ul><ul><li>Apostles granted miracle working powers to authenticate their authority (Acts 2:43 with Heb 2:3-4; Acts 3:1-16; 5:12; 14:3; Rom 15:18-19; 2 Cor 12:11-12) </li></ul><ul><li>Apostles are foundation of the Church (Eph 2:19-22) </li></ul><ul><li>Apostles pass on derivative leadership responsibility to elders over local churches (Acts 1:2, 26; 2:37-43; 4:33ff; 5:12; 6:1ff; 8:1, 14; 9:27; 11:1, 27-30; 14:23; 15:2-6, 22, 33; 16:4 (last ref in Acts to apostles as a group); 20:17, 28-31; Phil 1:1; 1 Tim 3:1ff; 5:17; 1 Thess 5:12; 1 Pet 5:1-5 </li></ul>
  12. 12. Roman Witnesses to the Historicity of Jesus of Nazareth <ul><li>Tacitus (b. 56 or 57 A.D.), the renowned Roman historian and statesman, recounts the burning of Rome in A.D. 64. Tacitus implicates Nero as the primary arsonist and charges the emperor with concocting a ruse to divert public suspicions away from himself: </li></ul><ul><li>Tacitus writes: “Nero fabricated scapegoats—and punished with every refinement the notoriously depraved Christians (as they were popularly called). Their originator, Christ, had been executed in Tiberius’ reign by the governor of Judea, Pontius Pilatus. But in spite of this temporary setback the deadly superstition had broken out afresh, not only in Judea (where the mischief had started) but even in Rome. All degraded and shameful practices collect and flourish in the capital …” ( Annals , XV, 44). </li></ul>
  13. 13. Jewish Witnesses to the Historicity of Jesus of Nazareth <ul><li>Although some dispute either the authenticity or the precise meaning of the passage, Josephus records another important early reference to Christ. In the context of a discussion concerning the career of Pontus Pilate, Josephus adds this aside: </li></ul><ul><li>“ Now, there was about this time Jesus, a wise man, if it be lawful to call him a man, for he was a doer of wonderful works—a teacher … He was [the] Christ; and when Pilate, at the suggestion of the principal men among us, had condemned him to the cross, those that loved him at the first did not forsake him, for he appeared to them alive again the third day, as the divine prophets had foretold these and ten thousand other wonderful things concerning him; and the tribe of Christians, so named from him, are not extinct at this day” ( Antiquities , 18.3.3). </li></ul>
  14. 14. Birth of Church <ul><li>Jesus’ ascension prerequisite to the formation of the Church by means of Holy Spirit baptism (Luke 3:16; John 16:5-15; Acts 2:1-11, 33, 38; 11:1-18; Eph 3:1-12) </li></ul><ul><li>Church born on the Lord’s Day, May 24, 33 AD (Hoehner, Chronological Aspects , 143) </li></ul>
  15. 15. Environment of the Apostolic Church <ul><li>Roman Empire </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Emergence of the Empire </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Octavius (Augustus—the revered and majestic one) rules alone from 27 BC to 14 AD – advances Hellenism </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Governors = Keep peace and keep taxes flowing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Army </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Maintain peace </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Maintain and advance boundaries </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Build and maintain roads </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Political Theory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tolerance </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Traditionalism (test of Nationalism) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Piety (utter devotion to the state) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Roman Empire <ul><li>Philosophical Moorings </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Antiquity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Philosophical Eclecticism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stoicism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Platonism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Eternality of matter </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fate (driven by pure rationalism) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Artificer (initiates motion on matter) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Forms (or Ideals or Models) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Social Salvation (citizenry contemplating the Forms) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Physical Salvation = deliverance from body n death </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Astronomy and Fatalism </li></ul>
  17. 17. Roman Empire <ul><li>Pagan Dualism </li></ul><ul><li>Emperor Cult </li></ul><ul><li>Mystery Religions and Societies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Challenge to Rome = divided loyalties and disrespect of empire </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Challenge to Christianity = not to be lumped in with “superstitio” – persecution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Benefit to Christianity = created space </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Palestine <ul><li>Roman Rule – Pompey subjects Palestine as a Roman protectorate in 63 BC and Palestine remains under Roman rule for centuries </li></ul><ul><li>Herodian Dynasty </li></ul><ul><ul><li>40 BC to 4 BC = uneasy peace for 37 yrs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Kingdom divided to three sons of Herod </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Archelaus rules Judea and Samaria </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Philip rules Gentile regions E of upper Jordan, N of Lake Huleh </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Herod Antipas rules Galilee, Perea and Transjordan for 42 yrs (Herod the tetrarch, the “Fox” who beheaded John the Baptist) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>All three territories consolidate under the rule of Agrippa I, grandson of Herod The Great (Agrippa imprisoned Peter, executed James the brother of Jesus; the Herod of Acts 12) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>50 AD, Agrippa II, son of Agrippa I made king and rules until ca AD 93 (the King Agrippa before whom Paul stood trial in Acts 25) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Jewish Roman War (66-74 AD) </li></ul>
  19. 19. Significance of Fall of Jerusalem <ul><li>National identity obliterated (until 1948) </li></ul><ul><li>Jewish worship decentralized in synagogues </li></ul><ul><li>Gentile mission unfettered by Jerusalem church’s role and reputation </li></ul>
  20. 20. Jewish Religious Sects <ul><li>Sadducees </li></ul><ul><li>Pharisees </li></ul><ul><li>Essenes </li></ul><ul><li>Zealots </li></ul><ul><li>Samaritans </li></ul>
  21. 21. Growth of Apostolic Church <ul><li>Response to a Global Mission (Matt 28:18-20; Acts 1:8) </li></ul><ul><li>Gospel Spreads through Jerusalem to Jews (Acts 2-6) </li></ul><ul><li>Stephen’s Persecution Scatters Witnesses (Acts 7) </li></ul><ul><li>Ministry of Peter (Acts 2-6, 10-11, 15) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ministry after Jerusalem Council unknown and Acts transitions away from him </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tradition of death in Rome </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ministry of Philip (Acts 8) – Samaritans, Ethiopian Eunuch, up Mediterranean coast to Caesarea </li></ul><ul><li>Ministry of Paul (Acts 9, 13-28) </li></ul>
  22. 22. Ministry of Paul <ul><li>Hellenistic Jew from Tarsus, studied under Rabbi Gamaliel in Jerusalem (Acts 22:3; Gal 1:14) </li></ul><ul><li>Persecuted church (Acts 8:1; 9:1-2; 22:4-5; Phil 3:6) </li></ul><ul><li>Converted on way to Damascus in Arabia (Acts 9:1-22) </li></ul><ul><li>Schooled in “Arabia” (southern Jordan?) for nearly 3 years (Gal 1:17-18) </li></ul><ul><li>Returns to minister at Damascus – escapes murderous plot </li></ul><ul><li>Journeys to Jerusalem, 15 day stay with Peter, meets James (Acts 9:26-28; Gal 1:15-20), escapes murderous plot </li></ul><ul><li>Approx 10 years in Tarsus – silent years </li></ul>
  23. 23. Ministry of Paul (cont) <ul><li>Joins Barnabas as teacher in Antioch </li></ul><ul><li>Missionary Journeys </li></ul><ul><ul><li>First = 46-47 AD (Acts 13:4-14:28) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Jerusalem Council = 48 AD (Acts 15) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Second = 48-51 AD (Acts 15:36-18:22)  1-2 Thess </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Third = 54-58 AD (Acts 18:23-21:26)  1-2 Cor; Gal; Rom </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Journey of Imprisonment = 58-67 AD (Acts 21:17-28:31)  Col; Eph; Phlm; Phil; 1-2 Tim, Titus </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Greatest theologian and greatest missionary of the apostolic church </li></ul>
  24. 24. Early Christian Communities
  25. 25. Key Distinguishing Features of the Apostolic Church <ul><li>The Experience of Miraculous Works </li></ul><ul><li>Uniting of Jew and Gentile in the Saving Purposes of God </li></ul><ul><li>One Universal Church in Local Settings </li></ul><ul><li>Simplistic, Informally Structured Worship </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Location of Worship (Jas 2:2; 70 AD) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Elements of Worship </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lord’s Supper and Agape Meal </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reading of Scriptures (1 Tim 3:15; 4:13) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The Exhortation (1 Tim 4:13) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The Teaching (1 Tim 4:13) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Singing (Eph 5:19-20; Col 3:16) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The Prayers (Acts 2:42; 1 Tim 2:1-2, 8; 3:14-15) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Key Distinguishing Features of the Apostolic Church (cont) <ul><li>“ Family Model” of Church Government </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Overseers/Elders (1 Cor 4:14-15; 2 Cor 11:2, 28; Phil 1:1; 1 Thess 2:7-12; 1 Tim 3:1-7; Titus 1:5-9) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Deacons (Phil 1:1; 1 Tim 3:8-12) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Family Love </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Evangelistic Zeal </li></ul><ul><li>Persecution </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Waves of imperial persecution – Nero (r. 54-68), Domitian (r. 81-96) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tradition claims 10 of original 12 disciples were martyred (2 Tim 3:12) </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. The Ante-Nicene Era 100-325 AD
  28. 28. Distinguishing the Ante-Nicean Era <ul><li>Chronology of the Nicean Divide </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Edict of Milan (313 AD) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Council of Nicea (325 AD) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Characteristics of the Ante-Nicean Church </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Widespread, intermittent persecution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increasing influence upon the empire </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increasingly formal, intellectual criticism from pagans met with increasingly academic responses from Christians </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Defense of the faith against false doctrine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Practical pastoral ministry and application of Scripture </li></ul></ul>
  29. 29. Apostolic Fathers (100-150 AD) <ul><li>Clement of Rome ( ca. 30-100) </li></ul><ul><li>Ignatius of Antioch ( ca. 35-107) </li></ul><ul><li>Polycarp of Smyrna ( ca. 69-155) </li></ul><ul><li>Hermas of Rome </li></ul><ul><li>Papias ( ca. 60-130) </li></ul><ul><li>Anonymous Literary Works </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Epistle of Barnabas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Second Epistle of Clement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Didache </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Epistle to Diognetus </li></ul></ul>
  30. 30. Characteristics of Apostolic Fathers <ul><li>Men of simple and sincere faith – high morality </li></ul><ul><li>Informal, practical letters and sermons </li></ul><ul><li>Monotheistic, belief in creation </li></ul><ul><li>Promoted humanity and deity of Christ </li></ul><ul><li>Promoted the authority of Scripture while struggling with poor hermeneutics (i.e. allegorical interpretation) </li></ul><ul><li>Preferred baptism by immersion, some baptismal regeneration </li></ul><ul><li>Held to immanency of Christ’s return – Papias and Barnabas were premillennial; no one clearly pre-trib; no one post-trib </li></ul><ul><li>NT canon not formally fixed nor universally appreciated </li></ul><ul><li>Loss of a homogeneous faith </li></ul>
  31. 31. Apologetical and Polemical Fathers 125-250 AD Apologetical Fathers Polemical Fathers Generally = new converts from paganism Generally = more extensive background in Christianity Tended to address pagans and rulers focusing more on a reasoned response to pagan objections to Christianity in the hope of gaining tolerance Addressed more to heretics with a focus on condemning heretical “Christian” teachings by deviant groups More concerned with persecution Less and less concerned with persecution as time passed; more concerned with heresy Emphasized OT Increasing appeal made to authority of NT
  32. 32. In Defense of the Faith Ante-Nicean Church Fathers
  33. 33. Key Apologetical and Polemical Fathers <ul><li>Aristides </li></ul><ul><li>Justin Martyr ( ca. 100-165) </li></ul><ul><li>Irenaeus ( ca. 130-200) </li></ul><ul><li>Tertullian ( ca. 155-221) </li></ul><ul><li>Clement of Alexandria ( ca. 150-215) </li></ul><ul><li>Origen (185-254) </li></ul><ul><li>Cyprian (200-258) </li></ul>
  34. 34. Leading Intellectual Pagan Critics of Christianity <ul><li>Fronto </li></ul><ul><li>Lucian of Samosata ( ca 115- ca 200) </li></ul><ul><li>Galen ( b. ca 129 AD) </li></ul><ul><li>Celsus (2 nd C) </li></ul><ul><li>Plotinus ( ca 205- ca 270) </li></ul><ul><li>Porphyry ( ca 232-303) </li></ul>
  35. 35. Porphyry’s Critique of Christianity <ul><li>Criticized Origen for integration of Greek philosophy and Christian doctrine and using an allegorical hermeneutic to avoid problems in OT interpretation </li></ul><ul><li>Attacked authenticity of Daniel’s prophecy, claiming the book was written in the 2 nd C </li></ul><ul><li>Posited a doctrinal impasse between Peter and Paul </li></ul><ul><li>Labored to prove discrepancies and errors in the Bible (esp gospels) </li></ul><ul><li>Claimed Jesus was a good man (vis-à-vis Celsus) who was accepted by the gods but who was falsely deified by his followers </li></ul><ul><li>Questioned how Christ could be the only way of salvation when an “innumerable multitude of souls” had lived and died before Christ </li></ul>
  36. 36. Primary Intellectual Pagan Objections to Christianity <ul><li>Anti-intellectualism and Irrational Faith in Revelation </li></ul><ul><li>Impiety and Disloyalty to State </li></ul><ul><li>Failure to Meet Standards of Antiquity and Nationalism </li></ul><ul><li>Immorality (cannibalism, sexual perversions) </li></ul>
  37. 37. Roman Imperial Persecutions <ul><li>Nero (r. 54-68) </li></ul><ul><li>Domitian (r. 81-96) </li></ul><ul><li>Trajan (r. 98-117) </li></ul><ul><li>Marcus Aurelius (r. 161-180) </li></ul><ul><li>Decius Trajan (r. 249-251) </li></ul><ul><li>Valerian (r. 253-260) </li></ul><ul><li>Diocletian (r. 284-305) </li></ul>
  38. 38. Battle Against Heretical and Reforming Christian Sects <ul><li>Ebionism </li></ul><ul><li>Gnosticism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Marcionism (Marcion died ca 160) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Valentinianism (Valentinus, 2 nd C) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Manichaeanism (Manes or Manichaeus, early 3 rd C) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Monarchianism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dynamic Monarchianism (Adoptionism) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Modalistic Monarchianism (Sabellianism or Patripassionism) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Extreme Gnostic Sects </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Reforming Sects </li></ul>
  39. 39. Essential Features of Gnosticism <ul><li>Christian Identity </li></ul><ul><li>Neo-Platonic (secret gnosis or revelation) </li></ul><ul><li>Reason over Revelation </li></ul><ul><li>Dualistic (affects ethics, anthropology, Christology) </li></ul><ul><li>Existential Initiatory Rites and Symbol-Laden Ceremonies </li></ul>
  40. 40. Prominent Proponents of Gnosticism <ul><li>Marcionism </li></ul><ul><li>Valentinianism </li></ul><ul><li>Manichaeanism </li></ul><ul><li>Monarchiansim </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dynamic Monarchianism (Adoptionism) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Modalistic Monarchianism (Patripassionism) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Extreme Gnostic Sects </li></ul>
  41. 41. Reforming Groups <ul><li>Montanism </li></ul><ul><li>Novatianism </li></ul><ul><li>Donatism </li></ul>
  42. 43. Travails of the Roman Empire <ul><li>Life of a Parasite </li></ul><ul><li>Invasions </li></ul><ul><li>Captive to Army </li></ul><ul><li>Famine and Plague </li></ul>
  43. 44. Attempts at Restoration <ul><li>Diocletian (285-305) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Empire divided into four sections ruled by two Augusti and two Caesars (generals) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Christianity attacked (10-20% of population) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Constantine (311-337) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Victory over Maxentius at Milvian Bridge – Hoc Signo Vinces </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rules eastern empire from Constantinople </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A Christian? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A Pragmatist and Opportunist </li></ul></ul>
  44. 45. Edict of Milan (313) <ul><li>“ Perceiving long ago that religious liberty ought not to be denied, but that it ought to be granted to the judgment and desire of each individual to perform his religious duties according to his own choice, we had given orders that every man, Christians as well as others, should preserve the faith of his own sect and religion … We resolved … to grant both to the Christians and to all men freedom to follow the religion which they choose, that whatever heavenly divinity exists may be propitious to us and to all that live under our government. We have, therefore, determined, with sound and upright purpose that liberty is to be denied to no one to choose and follow the religious observances of the Christians, but that to each one freedom is to be given to devote his mind to that religion which he may think adapted to himself, in order that the deity may exhibit to us in all things his accustomed care and favor … [Freedom] shall be restored to the said Christians, without demanding money or any other equivalent, with no delay or hesitation … For by this means … the divine favor toward us which we have already experienced in many matters will continue sure through all time” (in Eusebius, CH , X.V.). </li></ul>
  45. 46. Council of Nicea (325) <ul><li>Constantine’s Project </li></ul><ul><li>Constantine’s Concern </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Arian Controversy—”Is Jesus of the same essence or substance as the Father”—threatens to embroil the church in irremediable controversy </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Constantine’s Call of the First Ecumenical Council </li></ul><ul><ul><li>July 4, 325 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>250 bishops and perhaps 50 deacons, mostly of eastern half of Empire </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Division in the church is worse than war” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Significance </li></ul></ul>
  46. 47. Position Chief Proponent Distinguishing Belief Arian Arius Jesus of a different ( heteros ) substance ( ousios ) than Father Semi-Arian Eusebius of Caesarea Jesus of a similar substance ( homoiousios ) as the Father Orthodox Athanasius Jesus of same substance ( homoousios ) as the Father
  47. 48. Nicean Creed <ul><li>“ We believe in one God the Father all-sovereign, maker of all things visible and invisible; and in one Lord Jesus Christ, the son of God, begotten of the Father, only-begotten, that is, of the substance of the Father, God of God, light of light, true God of true God, begotten not made, of one substance with the Father , through whom all things were made … And those that say ‘there was when he was not,’ and , ‘before he was begotten he was not,’ and that, ‘he came into being from what-is-not, or those that allege, that the Son of God is ‘of another substance or essence’ or ‘created,’ or ‘changeable’ or ‘alterable,’ these the catholic and apostolic church anathematizes.” </li></ul>
  48. 49. Characteristics of the Ante-Nicean Era <ul><li>An Era of Intense Battle and Apologetic Formation </li></ul><ul><li>Rationalism Taints Apologetics </li></ul><ul><li>Ecclesiology Degenerates </li></ul><ul><li>Rise of Monasticism </li></ul><ul><li>Canonization Crystallizes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Recognition versus determination </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tests: Apostolic authority and doctrinal authenticity </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Creeds Formalize Belief </li></ul><ul><li>Numerical Growth and Expanding Influence </li></ul><ul><li>The State Influences the Church </li></ul>
  49. 50. Characteristics of the Ante-Nicean Era (cont) <ul><li>The State Influences the Church </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Christianity’s influence upon the Roman Empire is extensive and at every level, however … </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Political Power in the Church </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ceremonialism and Ritualism in Worship </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Popularity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spiritual Decay </li></ul></ul>
  50. 52. The Post-Nicene Era 325-590 AD
  51. 53. Roman Empire Embraces Christianity <ul><li>Arianism and Orthodoxy </li></ul><ul><li>Constantine </li></ul><ul><ul><li>New Capital </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mediator </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Evangelist </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sacral State </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Constantine’s Sons </li></ul><ul><li>Julian “The Apostate” (360-363) </li></ul><ul><li>Theodosius I, The Great (378-395) </li></ul>
  52. 54. Theodosius I, The Great (378-395) <ul><li>First genuinely orthodox emperor, established Christianity as state religion </li></ul><ul><li>Presses Roman Senate to affirm Christ </li></ul><ul><li>Outlaws: attendance at pagan temples, pagan sacrifices, idol worship, etc </li></ul><ul><li>Encourages destruction of pagan temples – gives property to churches </li></ul><ul><li>Large numbers of pagans convert to Christianity </li></ul>
  53. 55. Division of the Roman Empire
  54. 56. Overview of Developments in Post-Nicean Era <ul><li>Make Up of Church Radically Altered </li></ul><ul><ul><li>By end of Theodosius’ reign, Christianity and the Roman state are inseparable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Constantine’s reign – 10-20% of population Christian </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>One century later – as much as 90% identify as Christian </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Church inundated with rapid flood of mass “converts” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Churches unable, unprepared, unwilling to exercise discipline </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Three Responses to Spiritual Degeneration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Separation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Universalism </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Secularization </li></ul></ul></ul>
  55. 57. Overview of Developments (cont) <ul><li>Canonization Solidifies </li></ul><ul><li>Formal Christian Education Develops </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Catechetical classes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cathedral Schools (or Episcopal Schools) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ritualism Increases – festivals, holy days and places, fetishism, relics, vestments </li></ul><ul><li>Holy Living Declines </li></ul><ul><li>Christian Architecture and Art Develop – artisans supported by state, icons developed in Eastern church, church buildings </li></ul><ul><li>Clerical Celibacy in West </li></ul><ul><li>Creeds and Councils Formalize Belief </li></ul>
  56. 58. Church Evangelizes Barbarians <ul><li>Gregory the Illuminator – Armenia </li></ul><ul><li>Frumentius ( ca. 300-380) – Ethiopia (Coptic Christianity) </li></ul><ul><li>British Isles </li></ul><ul><li>Ulfilas ( ca. 335- ca. 400) – Goths and Visigoths </li></ul><ul><li>Martin of Tours ( ca. 335 – ca. 400) to south Gaul </li></ul><ul><li>Gregory of Tours – Franks of Gaul </li></ul><ul><li>Patrick ( ca. 389-461) – Ireland </li></ul>
  57. 59. When Giants Walked the Land Jerome Augustine ● Hippo Rome ● ● Milan Ambrose John Chrysostom Basil of Caesarea Gregory of Nyssa Athanasius ● Alexandria Gregory of Nazianzus Martin of Tours
  58. 60. Post-Nicene Greek Fathers <ul><li>Eusebius ( ca. 260- ca. 339) </li></ul><ul><li>Athanasius (296-373) </li></ul><ul><li>Cappadocian Fathers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Successors of Athanasius </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Basil of Caesarea (Basil the Great; 330-379) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gregory of Nyssa ( ca. 335-395) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gregory of Nazianzus ( ca. 329-390) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>John of Antioch (Chrysostom) (347-407) </li></ul>
  59. 61. Athanasius <ul><li>“ Martin Luther of the 4 th C” </li></ul><ul><li>Influence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Champion of the deity and humanity of Christ and deity of Holy Spirit against Arianism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Apologetics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Life of St Anthony </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Pastoral Ministry </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Service over Politics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Theological Orientation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Self-Discipline and Austerity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Perseverance and Courage </li></ul></ul>
  60. 62. John Chrysostom
  61. 63. Chrysostom 347-407 AD
  62. 64. John of Antioch (Chrysostom) <ul><li>Upbringing and Education </li></ul><ul><li>Antioch </li></ul><ul><li>Constantinople </li></ul><ul><li>Quintessential Preacher </li></ul><ul><li>Defender of Nicene Orthodoxy </li></ul><ul><li>Prophet of Morality in Word and Deed </li></ul><ul><li>Martyrdom </li></ul>
  63. 65. When Giants Walked the Land Jerome Augustine ● Hippo Rome ● ● Milan Ambrose John Chrysostom Basil of Caesarea Gregory of Nyssa Athanasius ● Alexandria Gregory of Nazianzus Martin of Tours
  64. 66. Post-Nicene Latin Fathers <ul><li>Ambrose ( ca. 339-397) </li></ul><ul><li>Jerome (347-420) </li></ul><ul><li>Augustine (354-430) </li></ul>
  65. 67. Ambrose <ul><li>Highly educated and gifted </li></ul><ul><li>Entrance into Ministry </li></ul><ul><li>Strong Defender of Nicene Orthodoxy </li></ul><ul><li>Gifted Leader and Administrator of Church Affairs </li></ul><ul><li>Church over State </li></ul><ul><li>Hymnody </li></ul><ul><li>Ministry to Augustine </li></ul>
  66. 68. Jerome
  67. 69. Jerome <ul><li>Education in Italy </li></ul><ul><li>Hermit in Syria </li></ul><ul><li>Establishes Monastery in Bethlehem </li></ul><ul><li>Prolific Linguist and Author </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Masters Greek and Hebrew </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Biographer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Exegetical Commentator </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Influences every theological battle of his day including Arianism </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Translates Latin Vulgate </li></ul><ul><li>Theological Weaknesses </li></ul>
  68. 70. Augustine
  69. 71. Augustine <ul><li>Highly Influential in Church and Western History </li></ul><ul><li>Upbringing </li></ul><ul><li>Devotee to Manichaeism </li></ul><ul><li>Sojourn in Milan and Conversion to Christianity </li></ul><ul><li>Bishop of Hippo Regius (North Africa) </li></ul><ul><li>Labored Against Manichees, Donatists, Pagans, Pelagius </li></ul><ul><li>Prolific Author on Christian Doctrine </li></ul><ul><li>Theological Legacy </li></ul>
  70. 72. Key Developments in Later Post-Nicene Era <ul><li>Council of Ephesus (431) </li></ul><ul><li>Council of Chalcedon (451) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Against Arius, Jesus was fully divine: “truly God … perfect in Godhead … begotten of the Father before the ages” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Against Apollinarius, Jesus was fully human: “truly man … perfect in manhood” and born of the Virgin Mary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Against Nestorius, Jesus was one person, not two. The deity and humanity are: “not parted or divided into two persons” but Christ is “one person and one being” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Against Eutyches, Jesus’ humanity was not blurred with his deity, but both natures of Christ remained distinct </li></ul></ul>
  71. 73. Council of Chalcedon <ul><li>Concerning Jesus deity and humanity: “The difference of the natures is in no wise taken away by reason of the union, but rather the properties of each are preserved … [Christ is] made known in two natures without confusion, without change, without division, without separation.” </li></ul>
  72. 74. Key Developments in Later Post-Nicene Era <ul><li>Council of Ephesus (431) </li></ul><ul><li>Council of Chalcedon (451) </li></ul><ul><li>Fall of Roman Empire (476) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Irremediable Societal Decay </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Convulsive Internal Political Upheaval </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Military Meltdown </li></ul></ul>
  73. 75. The “Dark” Medieval Era 500-1000 AD
  74. 76. Barbarian Invasions
  75. 77. Overview of “Dark” Medieval Era (500-1,000 AD) <ul><li>Fall of Roman Empire Precipitates Widespread Political and Cultural Upheaval and Instability </li></ul><ul><li>Quest for Survival </li></ul><ul><ul><li>East= policy of isolated self-preservation prevails </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>West= policy of assimilation evolves </li></ul></ul>
  76. 78. Church in the Byzantine Empire <ul><li>Church and Emperors </li></ul><ul><li>Byzantine Empire grows increasingly inept </li></ul><ul><li>Empire maintains cultural significance </li></ul><ul><li>Homogenous blending of Christianity, Roman government, and Greco-Oriental culture </li></ul>
  77. 79. Hagia Sophia
  78. 80. Hagia Sophia (interior)
  79. 81. Key Ecclesiastical Controversies <ul><li>Nestorian Church </li></ul><ul><li>Monophysite Controversy </li></ul><ul><li>Iconoclastic Controversy </li></ul>
  80. 82. The Life of Muhammad (570-632) and Origins of Islam <ul><li>610- First Revelation </li></ul><ul><li>622- Elders drive Muhammad away from Mecca </li></ul><ul><li>630- leads 65 raids on caravans headed to Mecca </li></ul><ul><li>Multiple wives and concubines </li></ul><ul><li>632- by the time of his death the Arabian tribes had embraced Islam as their unifying cause- with Arabic language and militaristic zeal, Arab world coalesces rapidly into formidable force </li></ul>
  81. 83. Muhammad’s Teaching <ul><li>“ Islam”= Arabic for ‘submission’ </li></ul><ul><li>Muhammad believed himself to be the sixth, and greatest, in a line of major prophets sent by Allah </li></ul><ul><li>Sought to incorporate Jews, Jews oppose him, and he turns against them </li></ul><ul><li>Focused on Abraham as neither Jew nor Christian </li></ul><ul><li>Rejected the Christian Trinity </li></ul><ul><li>Jesus= true prophet of Allah, not divine </li></ul>
  82. 84. Basic Features of the Islamic Religion <ul><li>Allah- oneness emphasized, beneficent, not particularly loving </li></ul><ul><li>The Five Pillars </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ There is no god but Allah, and Muhammad is his prophet.” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Five set times of prayer per day </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fasting during the daylight hours of Ramadan (9 th month of lunar calendar) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Almsgiving </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>At least one pilgrimage to Mecca in a lifetime if possible </li></ul></ul>
  83. 85. The Three Sacred Books <ul><li>The Qur’an (“Recitation”) </li></ul><ul><li>The Hadith </li></ul><ul><li>The Ijma </li></ul>
  84. 86. Jihad <ul><li>The Qur’an promotes a two-fold division of the earth </li></ul><ul><li>Jihad , meaning “holy struggle,” is an official call to the faithful to engage in a holy war in behalf of Allah </li></ul><ul><li>Pre-modern era- jihad oriented toward conquest; today- promotion of defensive jihad </li></ul><ul><li>Terrorism today= radical sects who view Qur’an’s two-fold division of the earth in a literalist manner, seeing all non-Muslim nations as the enemies of Allah </li></ul>
  85. 87. Sacral State <ul><li>Muhammad’s system melded religion and state </li></ul><ul><li>The caliphs are seen as guardians of Islam </li></ul><ul><li>Islam today comprised of various sects which divide over interpretation of the holy books </li></ul>
  86. 88. Conquests of Islam <ul><li>Islam benefits from war between Persian and Byzantine Empires </li></ul><ul><li>Islam holds sway over Mesopotamia, Palestine, Syria and much of N. Africa in two decades </li></ul><ul><li>711 Moors cross strait of Gibraltar and conquer Visigothic Spain </li></ul><ul><li>Islam advance checked at Constantinople </li></ul>
  87. 89. The Islamic Empire
  88. 90. Islamic Culture <ul><li>Cultural Homogeneity </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural Assimilation </li></ul>
  89. 91. Byzantine Empire’s Missionary Expansion to the North
  90. 92. Byzantine Empire’s Lasting Contribution <ul><li>A Wall for Western Christendom against Islam </li></ul><ul><li>A Guardian of Greco-Roman Culture and Hellenistic Learning for the West </li></ul>
  91. 93. Church in the Western Empire <ul><li>Ordeal of Barbarian Invasions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A Tidal Wave of Barbarian Invasions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Constant Political and Social Upheaval </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cultural Overview </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Less homogenous and populous than East, more land </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Classical culture and Christianity purposefully melded in the East with Christianity, in the West forcibly melded with Germanic barbarism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Leads to a distinctively European culture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Western Church emerges as the vanguard and guardian of intellectual life and cultural development in West </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Evangelism of Barbarians </li></ul>
  92. 94. Evangelism of Barbarians
  93. 95. Evolution of Papacy <ul><li>Political Milieu Contributes to Papacy </li></ul><ul><li>Ecclesiastical Tradition Promotes Papacy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Evolution of belief in the supremacy of Peter and the See at Rome  Matt 16:18 – Refutation = Eph 2:19-22; role of James in Acts 15; 2 Cor 11:5; Gal 2:9-14) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Evolution of belief in papacy  Rom 15:20; Gal 2:8-11; 1 Pet 1:1 </li></ul></ul>
  94. 96. Gregory I (“The Great”) Formalizes Papacy <ul><li>Acute crisis of barbarian invasions cuts off from East </li></ul><ul><li>Assumed emperor-like authority and rules central Italy with skill and devotion </li></ul><ul><li>John the Faster, bishop of Constantinople, claims highest authority in church as universal bishop- Gregory is acknowledged as the supreme authority </li></ul><ul><li>Promotes evangelism and pastoral care- Pastoral Care </li></ul>
  95. 97. Gregory I (“The Great”) Formalizes Papacy (cont) <ul><li>Theology </li></ul><ul><li>Highly influential, prototypical pope </li></ul><ul><li>Father of new era of Medieval Church history </li></ul>
  96. 98. Growth of Monasticism <ul><li>Response to tumultuous times </li></ul><ul><li>St. Benedict of Nursia – monastic order </li></ul><ul><li>Monks becomes guardians of Latin learning, evangelists, managers of large tracts of land, advisors to kings, military recruiters – synthesizers of classical-Christian-Germanic influences </li></ul>
  97. 99. Influence of Islam in West <ul><li>To East- Islam checked in East </li></ul><ul><li>To South- Muslims cross Straits of Gibraltar in 711 and crush weak Visigothic kingdom in southern Spain </li></ul><ul><li>Islam spreads toward South Asia </li></ul>
  98. 100. Europe (600 A.D.)
  99. 101. Rise of England’s Influence in Western Church <ul><li>Mission of St. Augustine to Kent (d. 604-609) </li></ul><ul><li>Merger of Irish-Celtic and Benedictine-Roman Christianity </li></ul><ul><li>St. Bede, the Venerable (ca. 673-735) </li></ul>
  100. 102. Bede
  101. 103. Rise of England’s Influence in Western Church <ul><li>Mission of St. Augustine to Kent (d. 604-609) </li></ul><ul><li>Merger of Irish-Celtic and Benedictine-Roman Christianity </li></ul><ul><li>St. Bede, the Venerable (ca. 673-735) </li></ul><ul><li>Northumbria in decline by time of Bede’s death </li></ul><ul><li>By 700’s epicenter of Christian culture shifts from England to Frankish empire </li></ul>
  102. 104. Carolingians and the Papacy of Rome <ul><li>Charles Martel (“Hammer”) (ca. 690-741) </li></ul><ul><li>Pepin III (714-768) </li></ul><ul><li>Charlemagne or Charles the Great (768-814) </li></ul>
  103. 105. Charlemagne (768-814)
  104. 106. Charlemagne (Charles the Great) <ul><li>His rule epitomized the synthesis of classical culture, orthodox Christianity, and Germanic barbarism </li></ul><ul><li>Roman Empire – marketplaces and cities; Western Roman Empire – agrarian culture, monasteries, and cathedral churches </li></ul><ul><li>Conquering Warrior </li></ul><ul><li>800 Pope Leo III (795-816) crowns Charlemagne “Emperor of the Romans” </li></ul><ul><li>Carolingian Renaissance </li></ul><ul><li>Louis the Pious </li></ul>
  105. 107. The Carolingian Empire
  106. 108. New Invasions <ul><li>England – relies on kings </li></ul><ul><li>France – relies on Feudalism </li></ul><ul><li>Germany – relies on dukes </li></ul><ul><li>Italy – relies on walled city-states </li></ul>
  107. 109. Analysis of Church and Society at Dawn of High Medieval Era <ul><li>The Village </li></ul><ul><li>The Manor </li></ul><ul><li>Little demarcation between Church and State </li></ul><ul><li>Church’s Relationship to People </li></ul><ul><li>Evangelism of barbarian tribes approximates a cultural counter-invasion </li></ul>
  108. 110. The “High” Medieval Era 1000-1300 AD
  109. 111. The High Medieval Era <ul><li>Designation – “High” Middle Ages </li></ul><ul><li>West Emerges as Primary Theater of Christendom </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Asian Christianity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Byzantine Church </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Western Church </li></ul></ul>
  110. 112. Development of Towns and Commerce <ul><li>Towns Proliferate </li></ul><ul><li>A New Urban Class Emerges </li></ul><ul><li>International Commerce Grows </li></ul><ul><li>Technology Advances </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural and Religious Resurgence </li></ul>
  111. 113. Developments in Monasticism <ul><li>Franciscan Friars </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Founder: Francis of Assisi (1182-1226) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Franciscan friars evangelize, preach, sing, and beg throughout Western Europe- famed as missionaries- characterized by emotionalism, asceticism, and disciplined piety </li></ul></ul>
  112. 114. Developments in Monasticism (con’t) <ul><li>Dominican Friars </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Founder: Dominic de Guzman (1170-1221) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Dominican Ministry- Where Francis was suspicious of learning and denied his friars access to Scripture, Dominicans noted for high level of scholarship- recruits given quality education then dispersed to preach- Universities of Paris and Oxford </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thomas Aquinas, Albertus Magnus </li></ul></ul>
  113. 115. Schism of Eastern & Western Christendom <ul><li>The Date of 1054 </li></ul><ul><li>A Later, More Nebulous Date </li></ul><ul><li>The Division </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Self-understanding of Two Churches Distinct </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Attempts to Reconcile </li></ul></ul>
  114. 116. Crusades <ul><li>Initial Crisis </li></ul><ul><li>Primary Motivation </li></ul><ul><li>The First Crusade </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Knight Orders </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Different Agendas </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Second Crusade </li></ul><ul><li>The Third Crusade </li></ul><ul><li>The Fourth Crusade </li></ul><ul><li>Other Crusades </li></ul>
  115. 117. Crusader’s Fortress
  116. 118. The Crusader States
  117. 119. Art and Architecture <ul><li>Architectural Styles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Romanesque (earlier period) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gothic period starts mid-12 th C steadily replacing Romanesque </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Artwork </li></ul>
  118. 120. Romanesque Architecture
  119. 122. Gothic Architecture
  120. 125. Intellectual Life <ul><li>Characteristics of the Age </li></ul><ul><li>Cathedral Schools and Universities </li></ul>
  121. 126. Scholasticism <ul><li>Scholastic Method </li></ul><ul><li>Goal </li></ul><ul><li>Impetus </li></ul><ul><li>Aristotle </li></ul><ul><li>Scholastics </li></ul>
  122. 127. Leading Scholastics <ul><li>Anselm of Canterbury (1033-1109) </li></ul><ul><li>Peter Abelard (1079-1142) </li></ul><ul><li>Peter Lombard (1100-1169) </li></ul><ul><li>John of Salisbury (1115-1180) </li></ul><ul><li>Albertus Magnus (the Great) (1193-1280) </li></ul><ul><li>Thomas Aquinas ( ca. 1224-1274) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Summa Contra Gentiles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Summa Theologica </li></ul></ul>
  123. 128. Thomas Aquinas ( ca. 1224-1274)
  124. 129. Scholasticism’s Shortcomings <ul><li>Irreconcilable differences between Augustinian theology and Aristotelian philosophy </li></ul><ul><li>Endless, rationalistic, dogmatic hair-splitting sap energies from biblical exegesis and scientific progress </li></ul><ul><li>Creates division between those calling for removal of Augustine and church dogma and others calling for removal of Aristotle </li></ul>
  125. 130. The “Late” Medieval Era (1300-1500)
  126. 131. Overview of Late Medieval Era <ul><li>Societal Upheaval </li></ul><ul><li>Decline of the Church’s Power </li></ul><ul><li>Passion for Knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Western Papal Schism (1378) </li></ul><ul><li>Rise of Nationalism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Continental Wars </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>National Pride </li></ul></ul>
  127. 132. The Late Medieval Papacy Boniface VIII (1294-1303) Benedict XI (1303-4) Beginning of the Avignon Papacy Clement V (1305-14) John XXII (1316-34) Benedict XII (1334-42) Clement VI (1342-52) Innocent VI (1352-62) Urban V (1362-70) Gregory XI (1370-78) The Papal Schism Roman Popes Pisan Popes Avignon Popes Urban VI (1378-89) Clement VII (1378-94) Boniface IX (1389-1404) Innocent VII (1404-6) Alexander V (1409-10) Gregory XII (1406-15) John XXIII (1410-15) Benedict XIII (1394-1423) COUNCIL OF CONSTANCE REUNITES PAPACY (1415-1417) The Renaissance Papacy Martin V (1417-31) through Leo X (1513-21)
  128. 133. The Renaissance <ul><li>Meaning of term = French for “re-birth” or “born again” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Humanism” – from Latin humanitas – emphasizes influence of the humanities on culture (literature, philosophy, fine arts) </li></ul><ul><li>Impetus – Classical learning languishing in chains of Roman dogma – interest in humanities and sciences grows in towns – restless enthusiasm to break loose from dogma and embrace new freedom to pursue humanistic learning </li></ul>
  129. 134. Renaissance Spirit <ul><li>Spirit of the age: “As knowledge grew, fear decreased; men thought less of worshiping the unknown, and more of overcoming it. Every vital spirit was lifted up with a new confidence; barriers were broken down; there was no bound now to what man might do” (Durant, Philosophy , 105) </li></ul>
  130. 135. Key Contributors to Renaissance <ul><li>Leaders remain loyal to RCC </li></ul><ul><li>Dante Alighieri (1265-1321) </li></ul><ul><li>Tetrarch (1304-74) </li></ul><ul><li>Manuel Chrysoloras of Constantinople </li></ul>
  131. 136. Spread of Renaissance Humanism <ul><li>In Italy </li></ul><ul><li>In the Roman Church </li></ul><ul><li>In France </li></ul><ul><li>In England </li></ul><ul><li>In Germany </li></ul><ul><li>In Holland </li></ul>
  132. 137. Renaissance Humanists and Evangelicals <ul><li>Join in opposition to Scholasticism and deficiencies of papacy – heading for “Y” in the road </li></ul><ul><li>Humanists revive study of biblical languages, emphasize and develop literal interpretation </li></ul><ul><li>Nicholas of Lyra (1265-1349) </li></ul><ul><li>Renaissance Humanists: promote textual criticism – love for scientific investigation – individualism </li></ul>
  133. 138. Spread of the Written Word <ul><li>Invention of printing press in 1446 by Johann Gutenberg of Mainz, Germany (1400-1468) </li></ul><ul><li>Crusades open trade routes allowing paper to arrive from Egypt </li></ul><ul><li>Luther: “Printing is God’s latest and best work to spread the true religion throughout the world” </li></ul>
  134. 139. Printing Press
  135. 140. Reforming Evangelicals <ul><li>Peter de Bruys (d. ca . 1140) – Petrobusians </li></ul><ul><li>Peter Waldo – Waldenses </li></ul><ul><li>John Wyclif (d. 1384) – Lollards </li></ul><ul><li>John Huss (1369-1415) </li></ul>
  136. 141. John Wyclif (d. 1384)
  137. 142. Wyclif Sends Out Preachers
  138. 143. Reforming Evangelicals <ul><li>Petrobusians- Peter de Bruys (d. ca . 1140) </li></ul><ul><li>Waldenses- Peter Waldo </li></ul><ul><li>John Wyclif (d. 1384) - Lollards </li></ul><ul><li>John Huss (1369-1415) </li></ul>
  139. 144. John Hus (1369-1415)
  140. 145. Late Medieval Mysticism <ul><li>Mystic Movement </li></ul><ul><li>Dominican John Eckhard (1260-1327) </li></ul><ul><li>John Ruysbroeck (1293-1381) </li></ul><ul><li>Gerard Groote (1340-84) </li></ul><ul><li>Thomas a Kempis (1380-1471) </li></ul><ul><li>John of Wessel </li></ul><ul><li>Girolamo Savonarola </li></ul>
  141. 146. Girolamo Savonarola (1452-1498)
  142. 147. State of Roman Catholicism at Close of Medieval Era <ul><li>Persecuting Church </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ Compared with the persecution of heresy [by the RCC] . . . the persecution of Christians by [pagan] Romans . . . was a mild and humane procedure” (Will Durant) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Corrupt Leadership </li></ul><ul><li>Materialistic Greed </li></ul><ul><li>Sensuality </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of Spiritual Leadership </li></ul><ul><li>Degenerating Theology </li></ul>
  143. 148. <ul><ul><li>“ Compared with the persecution of heresy [by the RCC] . . . the persecution of Christians by [pagan] Romans . . . was a mild and humane procedure.” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- Will Durant </li></ul></ul>
  144. 149. Veneration of Mary <ul><li>“ Mother of God” – official title bestowed 431 at Council of Ephesus </li></ul><ul><li>Mary increasingly viewed as mediator interceding with the Son for mercy on sinners </li></ul><ul><li>“ Queen of Heaven” – 13 th C designation </li></ul><ul><li>“ Immaculate Conception” – Mary born free of original sin (declared by Pope Pius IX, 1854) </li></ul>
  145. 150. Veneration of Mary <ul><li>“ Perpetual Virgin” (Jesus’ “brothers” = cousins) </li></ul><ul><li>“ Assumption” – taken bodily into heaven (Pope Pius XII in 1950) </li></ul><ul><li>Pope John Paul II referred to Mary as “Co-Redemptrix” and as “Co-Operator in the Redemption” (not yet official) </li></ul>
  146. 151. Sacramental System of Salvation <ul><li>Sacrament – Latin sacramentum meaning “sign” or “symbol” – sign of grace conveyed to sinner </li></ul><ul><li>Concept- “full of grace” (“Treasury of Merits”) </li></ul><ul><li>Mortal Sins </li></ul><ul><li>Venial sins </li></ul>
  147. 152. Seven Sacraments <ul><li>Baptism </li></ul><ul><li>Confirmation </li></ul><ul><li>Eucharist </li></ul><ul><li>Penance (punishment) </li></ul><ul><li>Holy Matrimony </li></ul><ul><li>Holy Orders </li></ul><ul><li>Extreme Unction </li></ul>
  148. 153. Purgatory <ul><li>Concept – Purgatory a temporal place or state between heaven and hell where punishment is suffered by those who die in the grace of God, but who lack sufficient grace to enter his presence </li></ul><ul><li>Indulgences – length of punishment can be reduced by receiving indulgences from the pope </li></ul><ul><li>Defense – 2 Maccabees 12:39-45; Matt 12:3lff; 1 Cor 3: 11-15 </li></ul><ul><li>Abuses Widespread – significant source of income for Church </li></ul><ul><li>Denial of Priesthood of Believer </li></ul>
  149. 154. Corrupt Ecclesiastical Politics <ul><li>Nepotism </li></ul><ul><li>Simony </li></ul><ul><li>Pluralism </li></ul><ul><li>Absenteeism </li></ul><ul><li>Granting special exemptions from Church Law </li></ul><ul><li>Indulgences </li></ul>
  150. 155. Indulgences <ul><li>From sinner’s perspective = the receipt (usually purchase) from the Church of absolution (in varying degrees) from the temporal suffering necessitated by sin </li></ul><ul><li>Sin absolved by priest must receive temporal penalty and that penalty can be diminished by application of grace from the Treasury of Merits </li></ul><ul><li>Works may include: visit to holy place, repetition of assigned prayers, performance of good works, a monetary gift to the Church – in some way a good deed is substituted for a sinful deed or attitude </li></ul><ul><li>At Dawn of Reformation – Pope Leo X (1513-1521) revived the Jubilee indulgence purporting to use all revenues to fight Turks in East and help sinners in West – his actual program was to finish construction on Basilica of St Peter in Rome </li></ul>
  151. 156. Vatican City
  152. 157. Letter of Indulgence
  153. 158. The Reformation Era 1517-1600
  154. 159. Europe, 1500
  155. 160. The Renaissance Spirit of the Times <ul><li>Ulrich von Hutten: “the studies flourish, the spirits are awake; it is a luxury to live” (Schaff:7:2) </li></ul><ul><li>Luther: “If you read all the annals of the past, you will find no century like this since the birth of Christ. Such building and planting, such good living and dressing, such enterprise in commerce, such a stir in all the arts, has not been since Christ came into the world. And how numerous are the sharp and intelligent people who leave nothing hidden and unturned: even a boy of twenty years knows more nowadays than was known formerly by twenty doctors of divinity” (Schaff: 7:2) </li></ul>
  156. 161. Characteristics of the German Spirit <ul><li>A Passion for Thought and Inward Speculation </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ Providence … gave to France the dominion of the land, to England the dominion of the sea, and to Germany the dominion of the air” (i.e., realm of ideas) (Schaff: 7:97) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>A Passion for Independence and Personal Freedom </li></ul>
  157. 162. Martin Luther (1483-1546)
  158. 163. Martin Luther <ul><li>Early Life </li></ul><ul><li>Monastic Life at Erfurt </li></ul><ul><li>University of Wittenberg </li></ul><ul><li>1510 Visit to Rome </li></ul><ul><li>Conversion </li></ul>
  159. 164. 95 Theses <ul><li>Context – Germany in upheaval over Pope Leo’s scheme with Tetzel to tax Germans by sale of indulgences </li></ul><ul><li>Oct 31, 1517, posts debate notice for All Saints Day on door of Castle Church at Wittenberg </li></ul><ul><li>Emphasis = proper use of Indulgences </li></ul><ul><li>Pope Leo X + Archbishop Albrecht of Mainz + Frederick the Wise, Elector of Saxony + HRE Maximilian + Charles, king of Spain and Francis, king of France + Cajetan + Charles von Miltitz </li></ul>
  160. 165. Castle Church, Wittenburg
  161. 167. <ul><li>Door of Castle Church </li></ul>
  162. 168. <ul><li>Door of Castle Church, Wittenburg </li></ul>
  163. 170. Pope Leo X
  164. 171. St. Peter’s Basilica
  165. 172. Leipzig Debate (June 27-July 16, 1519) <ul><li>Germany upheaval over Luther’s views </li></ul><ul><li>John Eck (1486-1543) </li></ul><ul><li>Papal Bull of Condemnation issued against Luther on June 15, 1520 </li></ul><ul><li>Luther answers by writing a number of short works in defense of evangelical theology and against papal authority </li></ul><ul><li>Dec 10, 1520, Luther burns papal bull </li></ul>
  166. 173. Diet of Worms (April 17-May 25, 1521) <ul><li>Charles V (new HRE) summons Luther </li></ul><ul><li>Charles asks if books are Luther’s and if he recants </li></ul><ul><li>Advisors coach Luther to ask for time </li></ul><ul><li>Luther visited that night by friends and nobles who support him on the eve of certain death </li></ul>
  167. 174. Luther’s Confession at Worms, April 18 <ul><li>“ Unless I am convinced by Scripture and plain reason, I do not accept the authority of popes and councils for they have contradicted each other. My conscience is captive to the Word of God. I cannot and I will not recant anything for to go against conscience is neither right nor safe. Here I stand, I cannot do otherwise. God help me, Amen.” </li></ul>
  168. 175. Diet of Worms (April 17-May 25, 1521) <ul><li>In defiance of the Pope’s wishes, Diet continues to confront Luther over several days, but to no avail </li></ul><ul><li>On April 26, Luther slips away through a gate in the city wall (“Luther gate”) </li></ul><ul><li>On return trip to Wittenberg, stops to visit friends and family along way </li></ul>
  169. 176. Wartburg <ul><li>May 4 – traveling through heart of Mohra forest, Luther kidnapped by 5 masked men </li></ul><ul><li>Taken to Wartburg castle where he lives in disguise as “Knight George” </li></ul><ul><li>Luther appeals to German people through his writings from the Wartburg </li></ul><ul><ul><li>On Monastic Vows </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>September Testament </li></ul></ul>
  170. 177. Katherine von Bora <ul><li>Reads Luther – escape convent </li></ul><ul><li>Luther marries her to please his father, spite his enemies, and give expression to his faith </li></ul><ul><li>Couple models healthy marriage to Germany </li></ul><ul><li>Table Talk </li></ul>
  171. 178. “ Table Talk”
  172. 179. Luther’s Musical Contributions <ul><li>Capable musician </li></ul><ul><li>Popularized Augustine’s philosophical arguments </li></ul><ul><li>Laity begin to sing German songs in church, ending monopoly of professional church singers performing in Latin </li></ul>
  173. 180. <ul><li>Luther’s Music </li></ul>
  174. 181. Travails with the Lutheran People <ul><li>More radical Reformers seek to control Wittenberg </li></ul><ul><li>German Peasants and Muntzer Rebellion (1525) </li></ul>
  175. 182. Philip Melanchthon (1497-1560)
  176. 183. Diet of Speyer (1526 and 1529) <ul><li>HRE Charles V seeks to establish RC as state religion (“ cuis region, eius religio ” – “religion of prince is religion of state”) – condemns Luther </li></ul><ul><li>Lutheran princes form Schmalkaldic League in opposition to Charles and as a defensive alliance in case of Roman reprisal </li></ul><ul><li>Charles distracted by Turks – clash with Schmalkaldic princes delayed for 15 years during which time Lutheran princes solidify hold </li></ul>
  177. 184. Luther’s Legacy <ul><li>Last days overshadowed by Lutheran disunity – Luther grows increasingly bitter and harsh </li></ul><ul><li>Capable intellect, but not a renowned scholar, unparalleled communicator </li></ul><ul><li>Courageous and Capable Leader </li></ul><ul><li>Failed to divest himself of enough of Roman heresy </li></ul>
  178. 185. Luther’s Grave
  179. 186. Martin Luther (sometime after abandoning asceticism for Katie’s cooking)
  180. 187. Ulrich Zwingli (1484-1531)
  181. 188. Ulrich (or Huldrich) Zwingli (1484-1531) <ul><li>Life Setting </li></ul><ul><li>Theological Emphasis </li></ul><ul><li>Through series of disputations, Zurich city council permits Zwingli to orient church along evangelical lines </li></ul><ul><li>Opposed Anabaptists in Third Disputation </li></ul><ul><li>Colloquy of Marburg, 1529 </li></ul><ul><li>Successors are: Heinrich Bullinger, Martin Bucer, and Johannes Oecolampadius </li></ul>
  182. 189. Jean Calvin (1509-1564)
  183. 190. Institutes of the Christian Religion <ul><li>Occasion </li></ul><ul><li>Structure based on Apostle’s Creed: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Section 1 = Knowledge of God </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Section 2 = Person and Work of Christ </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Section 3 = Holy Spirit </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Section 4 = the Church </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Significance </li></ul>
  184. 191. Father of Reformed Theology <ul><li>Theology Proper – supreme majesty and absolute sovereignty of God is central pillar of theology- God’s glory pervades all </li></ul><ul><li>Bibliology – Bible is sole authority- Holy Spirit’s internal persuasion of the believer that the Bible is God’s word is essential </li></ul><ul><li>Anthropology, Hamartiology, Soteriology – reasserts strong Augustinian position on human depravity, glory of God </li></ul><ul><li>Full orbed biblical morality </li></ul><ul><li>Church and State – state must submit to Church- persecuted Anabaptists </li></ul>
  185. 192. Life-Contributions <ul><li>Translates Bible into French </li></ul><ul><li>Many letters of counsel and encouragement </li></ul><ul><li>Leader and Pastor at Geneva </li></ul><ul><li>Leader of Reformed Protestantism in Europe and beyond </li></ul><ul><li>Second Helvetic Confession of 1556 </li></ul><ul><li>University of Geneva (1559) (“Send me wood and I will send you back arrows”) </li></ul>
  186. 193. Leader and Pastor at Geneva <ul><li>William Farel – Calvin lives out his ministry in Geneva as preacher at St. Peter’s church </li></ul><ul><li>Hiatus in Strasbourg (1538-1541) </li></ul><ul><li>Return to Geneva – Articles Concerning the Government of the Church (1537) </li></ul><ul><li>Faithful, expository preacher </li></ul><ul><li>Leader of Reformed Protestantism in Europe and beyond </li></ul>
  187. 194. Guillaume Farel
  188. 195. St. Peter’s Cathedral, Geneva
  189. 198. TOPIC LUTHER CALVIN Lord’s Supper Consubstantiation – actual bodily presence of Christ in the elements Spiritual Presence – elements serve as a sign of the presence of Christ Baptism Infant baptism practiced – immersion preferred but seldom practiced Infant baptism practiced – immersion preferred but seldom practiced Worship Retained RC forms unless the Bible strictly forbid them. Promoted congregational hymn singing. Preaching was central. Worship forms permitted only if they were found in the Bible. Congregational singing had to be Psalms. Preaching was central. Church & State State has extensive powers over Church. Head of state is head of Church. State must submit to the Church which has extensive powers over everyone. Occupation Professor who was a popular preacher Preacher who became a popular professor Theology Augustinian, stressing justification of sinners by faith alone in Christ alone. Predestination to salvation and damnation. Augustinian, emphasizing the sovereignty and glory of God. Predestination to salvation and damnation. Bible Translator Bible translated for the sake of the common man into German Bible translated for the sake of the common man into French
  190. 199. Reformation Spreads <ul><li>France – “Huguenots” – Synod of Paris (May 1559) adopts Gallic Confession – persecution </li></ul><ul><li>Netherlands – 1561 Belgic Confession adopted as official position of Protestant Church in Netherlands (Dutch Reformed Church) </li></ul><ul><li>Scandinavia </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Denmark </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Norway </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sweden </li></ul></ul>
  191. 200. William Tyndale
  192. 201. Martyrdom of Tyndale
  193. 202. King Henry VIII
  194. 203. King Henry VIII <ul><li>Ardent supporter of Rome </li></ul><ul><li>Conflict with Rome </li></ul><ul><li>“ Reformation Parliament” </li></ul><ul><li>Book of Common Prayer” establishes new liturgy </li></ul><ul><li>“ Ten Articles Act” of 1536 bends away from RC doctrine </li></ul><ul><li>“ Act of Disillusion” of 1539 strips Rome of her English monasteries and lands; expels Roman monks who operated those properties </li></ul><ul><li>“ Six Articles Act” of 1539 reasserts some RC doctrine </li></ul>
  195. 204. Henry’s Successors <ul><li>Edward VI (with Edward Seymour) – Parliament repeals “Six Articles Act,” replaces Latin liturgy with Cranmer’s more evangelical, “Book of Common Prayer” in English + passes “Forty-Two Articles” defining Church of England along Protestant lines </li></ul><ul><li>“ Bloody Mary” – reasserts Romanism </li></ul><ul><li>Elizabeth I (1558-160 ) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reestablishes moderate Protestantism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Act of Supremacy (1558) reasserts England’s independence from pope </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Thirty-Nine Articles” (1563) revises Edward’s Forty-Two Articles – establishes Anglican Church along Protestant lines – many articles nebulous so as to appease Catholics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1580 – Separatist church forms under Robert Browne </li></ul></ul>
  196. 205. Reformation in Scotland <ul><li>A Backward Nation </li></ul><ul><li>Preparatory Blood of Martyrs </li></ul><ul><li>John Knox </li></ul><ul><li>Scottish Civil Wars </li></ul><ul><li>Church of Scotland </li></ul>
  197. 206. John Knox ( ca. 1513-1572)
  198. 207. John Knox <ul><li>Life Setting </li></ul><ul><li>Martyrdom of George Wishart </li></ul><ul><li>Flees Scotland for Geneva to avoid Marian persecution </li></ul><ul><li>Scottish Civil War </li></ul><ul><li>Formation of Church of Scotland through Treaty of Edinburgh 1560 (ended war and gave Knox opening to establish Protestantism as state religion – Church of Scotland becomes a Presbyterian state church based on Calvin’s teaching) </li></ul>
  199. 208. Anabaptists <ul><li>Designation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Anabaptist” = Greek term meaning “to baptize again” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Identity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A third distinct player in the Reformation with roots in earlier times – persecuted by both sides </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sought return to NT practice </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Diversity </li></ul>
  200. 209. Deviant Examples of Anabaptists <ul><li>The Anti-trinitarian Anabaptists – Michael Servetus </li></ul><ul><li>Pantheistic Anabaptists – led by David Joris </li></ul><ul><li>Mystical Anabaptists – Hans Denck </li></ul><ul><li>Chiliastic Anabaptists – ILL: Munster Kingdom – Melchior Hoffman (1500-1543) </li></ul>
  201. 210. Evangelical Anabaptists <ul><li>The Swiss Anabaptists (Conrad Grebel, father of Swiss Anabaptist movement); George Blaurock, and Felix Mantz </li></ul><ul><li>German Anabaptists (Balthasar Hubmaier) </li></ul><ul><li>Dutch Anabaptists (Menno Simons) </li></ul><ul><li>Moravian Anabaptists (Jacob Hutter) </li></ul>
  202. 211. Anabaptist Doctrinal Distinctives <ul><li>Exclusively regenerate Church membership </li></ul><ul><li>Believer’s baptism </li></ul><ul><li>Lord’s Supper a memorial meal for baptized members only </li></ul><ul><li>Stress authority of NT as well as soul liberty in the exercise of free conscience against blind submission Catholic Church </li></ul><ul><li>Separation from the world, the RCC, and other abominations </li></ul><ul><li>Civil government is ordained by God but operates outside the Church and is to be left largely to unbelievers </li></ul><ul><li>Stressed simple church polity, authority of local church, and careful observance of qualifications for ministers </li></ul><ul><li>Most rejected oath taking </li></ul><ul><li>Many were pacifists and rejected capital punishment (due to the pervasive abuse of authority in this realm). </li></ul>
  203. 212. Historical Roots of Anabaptists <ul><li>Historical information limited </li></ul><ul><li>No prominent leader indicates roots in “Medieval Underground” </li></ul>
  204. 213. <ul><li>“ The rapid appearance of Anabaptist over a wide area lends confirmation to what reliable historians have asserted: small communities of pious Christians, rarely appearing in historical records but endeavoring to reproduce the NT in simple, anticlerical, nonsacramental purity, were interspersed throughout the length and breadth of Europe in the centuries before the Reformation. It would have been impossible for them to leap full-grown into the focus of history had this not been true” (Baker and Estep in Paige Patterson, Why I Am a Baptist , 66-67) </li></ul>
  205. 214. Anabaptists Split from Reformers <ul><li>Early Cooperation </li></ul><ul><li>Two Points of Sharp Disagreement Arise </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Regenerate Church </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Anti-Sacralism </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Anabaptists Persecuted by Catholics, Lutherans and Reformed </li></ul>
  206. 215. The Roman Catholic Counter-Reformation
  207. 216. Humanists: The Silent Players
  208. 217. <ul><li>“ As knowledge grew, fear decreased; men thought less of worshiping the unknown, and more of overcoming it. Every vital spirit was lifted up with a new confidence; barriers were broken down; there was no bound now to what man might do” (p. 105) - Will Durant </li></ul>
  209. 218. Reformation Monument
  210. 219. Barbarian Invasions