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Teaching methods


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Teaching methods

  1. 1. Course: Teaching MethodologyCourse: Teaching Methodology Book: Techniques and Principles inBook: Techniques and Principles in Language TeachingLanguage Teaching Author: Diana Larsen-FreemanAuthor: Diana Larsen-Freeman Second Edition, 12 chaptersSecond Edition, 12 chapters Slide production: Dr. H. IravaniSlide production: Dr. H. Iravani Shahriar CenterShahriar Center Number of slides: 345Number of slides: 345
  2. 2. Language TeachingLanguage Teaching Ten factors in each chapterTen factors in each chapter 1.1. Teacher’s goalsTeacher’s goals 2.2. Teacher’s role vs. students’Teacher’s role vs. students’ rolerole 3.3. Features of teaching &Features of teaching & learninglearning 4.4. The nature of interactionThe nature of interaction
  3. 3. Language TeachingLanguage Teaching 5.5. Dealing with students’Dealing with students’ feelingsfeelings 6.6. Language vs. cultureLanguage vs. culture 7.7. Language areas and skills toLanguage areas and skills to emphasizeemphasize 8.8. The role of the nativeThe role of the native languagelanguage
  4. 4. Language TeachingLanguage Teaching 9.9. Dealing with evaluationDealing with evaluation 10.10.Dealing with students’ errorsDealing with students’ errors  Two types of exercises:Two types of exercises: checking your understandingchecking your understanding and applying what you studiedand applying what you studied
  5. 5. LanguageLanguage Teaching:GTTeaching:GT Grammar TranslationGrammar Translation (GT) is the(GT) is the first method we discuss.first method we discuss. GTGT appeared in the first half ofappeared in the first half of the 19the 19thth century and was one ofcentury and was one of thethe nonscientificnonscientific methods.methods.
  6. 6. LanguageLanguage Teaching:GTTeaching:GT Why is GT a classical method?Why is GT a classical method? GT was to help studentsGT was to help students appreciate L2 literature.appreciate L2 literature. L2 grammar helps them learn LlL2 grammar helps them learn Ll grammar & grow mentally.grammar & grow mentally.
  7. 7. LanguageLanguage Teaching:GTTeaching:GT Thinking about the experienceThinking about the experience GTGT- a teacher proof method- in- a teacher proof method- in Iran. It is the output of GermanIran. It is the output of German scholarship.scholarship.
  8. 8. LanguageLanguage Teaching:GTTeaching:GT PrinciplesPrinciples 1.1. Learning to read L2 literatureLearning to read L2 literature – written language is superior– written language is superior to spoken language. L2to spoken language. L2 culture was literature and fineculture was literature and fine arts.arts.
  9. 9. LanguageLanguage Teaching:GTTeaching:GT 2. Translation from L2 to L1 and2. Translation from L2 to L1 and vise versa: a central goalvise versa: a central goal 3. Communication:not3. Communication:not emphasizedemphasized 4. Reading and writing: superior4. Reading and writing: superior 5. Authority and fussy5. Authority and fussy correctionscorrections
  10. 10. LanguageLanguage Teaching:GTTeaching:GT 6. L1 equivalents for L2 words6. L1 equivalents for L2 words 7. L1/ L2 similarities: emphasized7. L1/ L2 similarities: emphasized 8. Form superior to content8. Form superior to content 9. Deduction over Induction9. Deduction over Induction 10. L2 learning: a mental10. L2 learning: a mental exerciseexercise
  11. 11. LanguageLanguage Teaching:GTTeaching:GT 11. Explicit and conscious11. Explicit and conscious knowledge of L2 Grammarknowledge of L2 Grammar 12. Memorization of grammatical12. Memorization of grammatical paradigmsparadigms
  12. 12. LanguageLanguage Teaching:GTTeaching:GT SummarySummary Reviewing the principlesReviewing the principles Reviewing the techniquesReviewing the techniques
  13. 13. LanguageLanguage Teaching:GTTeaching:GT Activity:Activity: Explain the differences betweenExplain the differences between learning about L2 and learninglearning about L2 and learning to use use L2.
  14. 14. LanguageLanguage Teaching:GTTeaching:GT GT was challenged by:GT was challenged by: 1.1. Natural methodologistsNatural methodologists 2.2. Linguists interested inLinguists interested in phoneticsphonetics 3.3. The reform movementThe reform movement
  15. 15. LanguageLanguage Teaching:GTTeaching:GT Natural method gave rise to theNatural method gave rise to the Direct method – the nextDirect method – the next chapter. However, GT still haschapter. However, GT still has its own proponents and is usedits own proponents and is used in some parts of the some parts of the world. Why?Why?
  16. 16. LanguageLanguage Teaching:DMTeaching:DM The Direct Method (DM) rose toThe Direct Method (DM) rose to prominence at the beginning ofprominence at the beginning of the 20the 20thth century and it is one ofcentury and it is one of the nonscientific methods,the nonscientific methods, similar to Grammar Translation.similar to Grammar Translation.
  17. 17. LanguageLanguage Teaching:DMTeaching:DM DM is a movement toward aDM is a movement toward a scientific method. Gouinscientific method. Gouin started a method based onstarted a method based on child language acquisition.child language acquisition.
  18. 18. LanguageLanguage Teaching:DMTeaching:DM Franke wrote on the directFranke wrote on the direct association between form andassociation between form and meaning.meaning. Saussure made a distinctionSaussure made a distinction between language andbetween language and substance.substance.
  19. 19. LanguageLanguage Teaching:DMTeaching:DM To Saussure language is formTo Saussure language is form not substance.not substance. In addition, Sauveur bannedIn addition, Sauveur banned translation and use of mothertranslation and use of mother tongue in the classroom.tongue in the classroom.
  20. 20. LanguageLanguage Teaching:DMTeaching:DM The weaknesses of GT made DMThe weaknesses of GT made DM very popular.very popular. Basic principle:The use of L1 isBasic principle:The use of L1 is sin and the connection betweensin and the connection between L2 and meaning should beL2 and meaning should be
  21. 21. LanguageLanguage Teaching:DMTeaching:DM PrinciplesPrinciples 1. Language is mainly speech.1. Language is mainly speech. Culture includes more thanCulture includes more than fine arts. Reading is taughtfine arts. Reading is taught from the beginning.from the beginning.
  22. 22. LanguageLanguage Teaching:DMTeaching:DM 2. Concrete objects are used to2. Concrete objects are used to make the direct link betweenmake the direct link between form (language) and meaning.form (language) and meaning. 3. Mother tongue has almost no3. Mother tongue has almost no role.role.
  23. 23. LanguageLanguage Teaching:DMTeaching:DM 4. Demonstration is preferred to4. Demonstration is preferred to explanation and translation.explanation and translation. 5. Vocabulary in use is5. Vocabulary in use is emphasized to boost thinkingemphasized to boost thinking in English. (Real use in realin English. (Real use in real sentences)sentences)
  24. 24. LanguageLanguage Teaching:DMTeaching:DM 6. Oral communication is the6. Oral communication is the goal.goal. 7. Pronunciation receives7. Pronunciation receives primary attention - focus onprimary attention - focus on form.form. 8. Self correction is preferred to8. Self correction is preferred to teacher’s correction.teacher’s correction.
  25. 25. LanguageLanguage Teaching:DMTeaching:DM 9. Lessons should provide the9. Lessons should provide the chances for real lifechances for real life conversation.conversation. 10. Grammar is taught10. Grammar is taught inductively or implicitly.inductively or implicitly.
  26. 26. LanguageLanguage Teaching:DMTeaching:DM 11. Like reading,writing is11. Like reading,writing is practiced frompracticed from beginning.Four languagebeginning.Four language skills are together.skills are together. 12. Lessons are topic based and12. Lessons are topic based and not structurally designed.not structurally designed.
  27. 27. LanguageLanguage Teaching:DMTeaching:DM 13. Language and culture are13. Language and culture are interwoven.interwoven. Notes on Direct Method:Notes on Direct Method: Fluency over accuracyFluency over accuracy (unlike GT)(unlike GT)
  28. 28. LanguageLanguage Teaching:DMTeaching:DM Immediate correctionImmediate correction by selfby self correction or teacher’s indirectcorrection or teacher’s indirect correction. An error is like acorrection. An error is like a sin.sin. Students’ knowledgeStudents’ knowledge aboutabout L2L2 is not evaluated (as it was inis not evaluated (as it was in GT).GT).
  29. 29. LanguageLanguage Teaching:DMTeaching:DM The weaknesses of DirectThe weaknesses of Direct MethodMethod Overemphasized naturalOveremphasized natural language acquisition usage forlanguage acquisition usage for classroom learning situation.classroom learning situation.
  30. 30. LanguageLanguage Teaching:DMTeaching:DM Lacking a firm basis in AppliedLacking a firm basis in Applied Linguistics and psychology ofLinguistics and psychology of learning.learning. Placing so much emphasis onPlacing so much emphasis on the teacher rather thanthe teacher rather than textbook.textbook.
  31. 31. LanguageLanguage Teaching:DMTeaching:DM By 1920s, Direct Method (BerlitzBy 1920s, Direct Method (Berlitz Method in the U. S.) started toMethod in the U. S.) started to decline. DM led to Audio-lingualdecline. DM led to Audio-lingual Method (ALM) in the UnitedMethod (ALM) in the United States.States.
  32. 32. LanguageLanguage Teaching:DMTeaching:DM At the same time SituationalAt the same time Situational Language Teaching (OralLanguage Teaching (Oral Approach) was popular inApproach) was popular in Europe and ContrastiveEurope and Contrastive Analysis gained importance.Analysis gained importance.
  33. 33. LanguageLanguage Teaching:DMTeaching:DM About the same time EclecticismAbout the same time Eclecticism – the idea that language– the idea that language teaching should undergoteaching should undergo ongoing reform – was alsoongoing reform – was also proposed and supported.proposed and supported.
  34. 34. LanguageLanguage Teaching:ALMTeaching:ALM GT and Direct Method wereGT and Direct Method were popular until World War II. Thepopular until World War II. The Audio-lingual Method (ALM)Audio-lingual Method (ALM) was developed in the U. S.was developed in the U. S. during World War II. Why?during World War II. Why?
  35. 35. LanguageLanguage Teaching:ALMTeaching:ALM Audio-Lingual Method (ALM) isAudio-Lingual Method (ALM) is thethe first scientific methodfirst scientific method sincesince it has roots in both psychologyit has roots in both psychology and linguistics.and linguistics.
  36. 36. Language Teaching:ALMLanguage Teaching:ALM Psychology:Psychology: SkinnerSkinner (1930s-50s)(1930s-50s) BehaviorismBehaviorism Linguistics:Linguistics: BloomfieldBloomfield (1930s-50s)(1930s-50s) StructuralismStructuralism
  37. 37. LanguageLanguage Teaching:ALMTeaching:ALM Principle:Principle: 1.1. Form appears inside theForm appears inside the context, not in isolation. Forcontext, not in isolation. For example, a dialogue is used toexample, a dialogue is used to introduce a new structure.introduce a new structure.
  38. 38. LanguageLanguage Teaching:ALMTeaching:ALM 2.2. L1 and L2 have two systemsL1 and L2 have two systems and they are treated differentlyand they are treated differently to avoid interferenceto avoid interference.. 3.3. The teacher is the model. HisThe teacher is the model. His native-like accent does matter.native-like accent does matter.
  39. 39. LanguageLanguage Teaching:ALMTeaching:ALM 4.4. Language learning is habitLanguage learning is habit formation and habits shouldformation and habits should be repeated to get fixed inbe repeated to get fixed in mind.mind. 5.5. Errors are barriers for habitErrors are barriers for habit formation (inhibition).formation (inhibition).
  40. 40. LanguageLanguage Teaching:ALMTeaching:ALM 6.6. Communication is the priorCommunication is the prior goal.goal. 7.7. A sentence includes severalA sentence includes several slots and each slot needs aslots and each slot needs a special part of speech.special part of speech.
  41. 41. LanguageLanguage Teaching:ALMTeaching:ALM A. John is satisfied with the ------.A. John is satisfied with the ------. (a noun is needed after(a noun is needed after preposition)preposition) B. John is satisfied with the ------B. John is satisfied with the ------ concert. ( a noun or anconcert. ( a noun or an adjective)adjective)
  42. 42. LanguageLanguage Teaching:ALMTeaching:ALM 8. Positive reinforcement is8. Positive reinforcement is preferred to no/negativepreferred to no/negative reinforcement.reinforcement. Note: Behaviorism: stimulus,Note: Behaviorism: stimulus, response and reinforcement.response and reinforcement.
  43. 43. LanguageLanguage Teaching:ALMTeaching:ALM Stimulus → Organism →Stimulus → Organism → Response Behavior →Response Behavior → 1. Positive Reinforcement, or1. Positive Reinforcement, or 2. No / Negative Reinforcement2. No / Negative Reinforcement
  44. 44. LanguageLanguage Teaching:ALMTeaching:ALM Stimulus = a dialogue, a passage, …Stimulus = a dialogue, a passage, … Organism = L2 learnerOrganism = L2 learner Response BehaviorResponse Behavior== verbal behaviorverbal behavior Positive Reinforcement = 1.approvalPositive Reinforcement = 1.approval by teacher/peers, 2.selfby teacher/peers, 2.self satisfactionsatisfaction
  45. 45. LanguageLanguage Teaching:ALMTeaching:ALM 9. Stimuli can be9. Stimuli can be verbal/nonverbalverbal/nonverbal Note: Behaviorism, like linguisticNote: Behaviorism, like linguistic Structuralism, is anStructuralism, is an anti-anti- mentalistmentalist,, empirically basedempirically based approach.approach.
  46. 46. LanguageLanguage Teaching:ALMTeaching:ALM 10. Language is a set of patterns10. Language is a set of patterns or structures. Pattern practiceor structures. Pattern practice leads to the over-learning of aleads to the over-learning of a desired verbal behavior (habitdesired verbal behavior (habit formation).formation).
  47. 47. LanguageLanguage Teaching:ALMTeaching:ALM Linguistic StructuralismLinguistic Structuralism :: A. Language is a system ofA. Language is a system of forms, from smaller units suchforms, from smaller units such as sounds to bigger units suchas sounds to bigger units such as sentences.
  48. 48. LanguageLanguage Teaching:ALMTeaching:ALM B. Structuralism studies theB. Structuralism studies the distribution of units within thedistribution of units within the system (e.g., phoneme vs.system (e.g., phoneme vs. allophone).allophone).
  49. 49. LanguageLanguage Teaching:ALMTeaching:ALM C. Structuralism is a reaction toC. Structuralism is a reaction to mentalist and traditionalmentalist and traditional approach to grammar.approach to grammar. D. In Structuralism all languagesD. In Structuralism all languages are equally developed.are equally developed.
  50. 50. LanguageLanguage Teaching:ALMTeaching:ALM E. Language is equal to speech.E. Language is equal to speech. F. Language can be learned byF. Language can be learned by mastering the building blocksmastering the building blocks (elements) of the Form system.(elements) of the Form system.
  51. 51. LanguageLanguage Teaching:ALMTeaching:ALM G. Rule-ordered processesG. Rule-ordered processes involveinvolve additionaddition,, deletiondeletion, and, and transpositiontransposition of grammaticalof grammatical elements.elements.
  52. 52. LanguageLanguage Teaching:ALMTeaching:ALM 11. Automatic repetition is the11. Automatic repetition is the result of overlearning - Drillingresult of overlearning - Drilling and mechanical repetition.and mechanical repetition. 12.The teacher is an orchestra12.The teacher is an orchestra leader.leader.
  53. 53. LanguageLanguage Teaching:ALMTeaching:ALM From the three language learningFrom the three language learning activities – 1. Mechanical drills,activities – 1. Mechanical drills, 2. meaningful exercises, and 3.2. meaningful exercises, and 3. communicative activities – thecommunicative activities – the first one is practiced.first one is practiced.
  54. 54. LanguageLanguage Teaching:ALMTeaching:ALM 13. Learning the structural13. Learning the structural patterns comes beforepatterns comes before vocabulary. Studentsvocabulary. Students sometimes repeat unknown orsometimes repeat unknown or meaningless words (Form ismeaningless words (Form is more important).more important).
  55. 55. LanguageLanguage Teaching:ALMTeaching:ALM 14. L2 learning is equal to L114. L2 learning is equal to L1 acquisition. Rules are inducedacquisition. Rules are induced (implicit) from examples.(implicit) from examples. 15. Contrastive analysis of L115. Contrastive analysis of L1 and L2 shows the areas ofand L2 shows the areas of difficulty.difficulty.
  56. 56. LanguageLanguage Teaching:ALMTeaching:ALM 16. The “Natural Order” is to be16. The “Natural Order” is to be adopted for L2 acquisition.adopted for L2 acquisition. Note: In ALM acquisition isNote: In ALM acquisition is preferred to learning. Thepreferred to learning. The former is implicit.former is implicit.
  57. 57. Language Teaching:ALMLanguage Teaching:ALM 17. Culture is discussed within17. Culture is discussed within the context of language.the context of language.
  58. 58. Language Teaching:ALMLanguage Teaching:ALM Techniques:Techniques: Dialogue memorizationDialogue memorization Backward build up drillsBackward build up drills Repetition drillsRepetition drills Chain drillsChain drills
  59. 59. Language Teaching:ALMLanguage Teaching:ALM Single-slot substitution drillsSingle-slot substitution drills Multiple slot substitution drillsMultiple slot substitution drills Transformation drillsTransformation drills Question and answer drillsQuestion and answer drills Use of minimal pairsUse of minimal pairs
  60. 60. Language Teaching:ALMLanguage Teaching:ALM Completing the dialogueCompleting the dialogue Grammar gameGrammar game
  61. 61. LanguageLanguage Teaching:SWTeaching:SW The Silent Way: AlthoughThe Silent Way: Although Audiolingualism is widely usedAudiolingualism is widely used all over the world, it wasall over the world, it was heavily criticized in the earlyheavily criticized in the early 1960s.1960s.
  62. 62. LanguageLanguage Teaching:SWTeaching:SW Both Behaviorism (psychologicalBoth Behaviorism (psychological foundation) and Structuralismfoundation) and Structuralism (linguistic foundation) were(linguistic foundation) were attacked by linguists andattacked by linguists and psychologists.psychologists.
  63. 63. LanguageLanguage Teaching:SWTeaching:SW Behaviorism was followed byBehaviorism was followed by Cognitive PsychologyCognitive Psychology.. Structuralism was followed byStructuralism was followed by Transformational-generativeTransformational-generative linguisticslinguistics..
  64. 64. LanguageLanguage Teaching:SWTeaching:SW Basic concepts:Basic concepts: 1. Human is creative, so mimicry,1. Human is creative, so mimicry, memorization, repetition andmemorization, repetition and parrot learning (Behaviorism)parrot learning (Behaviorism) do not lead to real learningdo not lead to real learning..
  65. 65. LanguageLanguage Teaching:SWTeaching:SW 2. Language is not confined to a2. Language is not confined to a limited number of structureslimited number of structures (as opposed to Structuralism).(as opposed to Structuralism). Best evidence: new sentencesBest evidence: new sentences that children make in early life.that children make in early life.
  66. 66. LanguageLanguage Teaching:SWTeaching:SW 3. Language learning is not the3. Language learning is not the outcome of habit formationoutcome of habit formation (Behaviorism). It is the process(Behaviorism). It is the process of creative rule formationof creative rule formation (Cognitive Psychology).(Cognitive Psychology).
  67. 67. LanguageLanguage Teaching:SWTeaching:SW 4.4. Cognitive psychologyCognitive psychology putsputs more emphasis on thoughtful,more emphasis on thoughtful, mentalist and creativementalist and creative processes. Learners formprocesses. Learners form hypothesis to discover thehypothesis to discover the rules of L2rules of L2
  68. 68. LanguageLanguage Teaching:SWTeaching:SW 5. Language learning is not the5. Language learning is not the passive process of stimulus →passive process of stimulus → response → behavior. Learnersresponse → behavior. Learners are actively involved inare actively involved in discovering L2 rules.discovering L2 rules.
  69. 69. LanguageLanguage Teaching:SWTeaching:SW Note: In general, CognitiveNote: In general, Cognitive science deals with thescience deals with the scientific study of thinking,scientific study of thinking, reasoning and the intellectualreasoning and the intellectual processes of the mind.processes of the mind.
  70. 70. LanguageLanguage Teaching:SWTeaching:SW 6.a. Generative Transformational6.a. Generative Transformational theory (proposed by Chomskytheory (proposed by Chomsky in 1957) is a model for thein 1957) is a model for the description of all languages.description of all languages.
  71. 71. LanguageLanguage Teaching:SWTeaching:SW 6.b. GT theory, with a system of6.b. GT theory, with a system of rules, shows the knowledgerules, shows the knowledge that a native speaker uses inthat a native speaker uses in forming grammaticalforming grammatical sentences.sentences.
  72. 72. LanguageLanguage Teaching:SWTeaching:SW 6.c. In GT theory internalized6.c. In GT theory internalized grammar of a language –grammar of a language – Competence – enables one toCompetence – enables one to create and understand totallycreate and understand totally new sentences.
  73. 73. LanguageLanguage Teaching:SWTeaching:SW 6.d. Competence enables us to6.d. Competence enables us to tell what are and what are nottell what are and what are not possible sentences in apossible sentences in a language (implicit knowledge).language (implicit knowledge).
  74. 74. LanguageLanguage Teaching:SWTeaching:SW 6.e.6.e. CompetenceCompetence is different fromis different from PerformancePerformance which is thewhich is the actual use of the language byactual use of the language by individuals.individuals.
  75. 75. LanguageLanguage Teaching:SWTeaching:SW 7. Errors are inevitable, natural7. Errors are inevitable, natural signs of learning/acquisition.signs of learning/acquisition. They show the learner isThey show the learner is testing his hypotheses.Thetesting his hypotheses.The progress is gradual and step byprogress is gradual and step by step.step.
  76. 76. LanguageLanguage Teaching:SWTeaching:SW 8. All four skills are worked on8. All four skills are worked on from the beginning. In addition.from the beginning. In addition. Form and meaning are bothForm and meaning are both important.important.
  77. 77. LanguageLanguage Teaching:SWTeaching:SW Gattegno’s “Silent Way”Gattegno’s “Silent Way” was notwas not the outcome of Cognitivethe outcome of Cognitive Psychology, but in line with thePsychology, but in line with the theory. That is, both assign antheory. That is, both assign an active role to the role to the learner.
  78. 78. LanguageLanguage Teaching:SWTeaching:SW In both Silent way and CognitiveIn both Silent way and Cognitive Psychology,Psychology, teaching isteaching is subordinate to learning: Bothsubordinate to learning: Both of them are learning andof them are learning and learner centeredlearner centered, not teaching, not teaching centered.centered.
  79. 79. LanguageLanguage Teaching:SWTeaching:SW Principles:Principles: 1. The teacher goes1. The teacher goes from familiarfrom familiar to unfamiliarto unfamiliar. For example, he. For example, he starts with L2 sounds whichstarts with L2 sounds which are similar to L1 sounds.are similar to L1 sounds.
  80. 80. LanguageLanguage Teaching:SWTeaching:SW 2. The teacher speaks very little,2. The teacher speaks very little, only when needed. His silenceonly when needed. His silence motivates the learners tomotivates the learners to participate more and be active.participate more and be active.
  81. 81. LanguageLanguage Teaching:SWTeaching:SW 3. The teacher is not the model.3. The teacher is not the model. His gestures work.Student’sHis gestures work.Student’s “self criteria” for correctness“self criteria” for correctness are emphasized. The studentare emphasized. The student takes the responsibility oftakes the responsibility of learning.learning.
  82. 82. LanguageLanguage Teaching:SWTeaching:SW 4. Students’ actions show if they4. Students’ actions show if they have learned.have learned. 5. Students help each other.5. Students help each other. 6. The teacher uses gestures and6. The teacher uses gestures and L1 to help them learn.L1 to help them learn.
  83. 83. LanguageLanguage Teaching:SWTeaching:SW 7. & 8. Students’ familiar7. & 8. Students’ familiar knowledge (old context) helpsknowledge (old context) helps them learn the unfamiliar (newthem learn the unfamiliar (new context). The teacher’scontext). The teacher’s interference is very little.interference is very little.
  84. 84. LanguageLanguage Teaching:SWTeaching:SW 9. Reading is worked on from the9. Reading is worked on from the beginning but after speaking.beginning but after speaking. 10. The teacher's silence leads to10. The teacher's silence leads to the student's autonomy: learnerthe student's autonomy: learner centeredness.centeredness.
  85. 85. LanguageLanguage Teaching:SWTeaching:SW 11. Meaning is achieved through11. Meaning is achieved through perceptions (senses), notperceptions (senses), not translation.translation. 12.Group cooperation is the12.Group cooperation is the norm.norm. 13. Little praise and punishment.13. Little praise and punishment.
  86. 86. LanguageLanguage Teaching:SWTeaching:SW 14. Errors are important. They14. Errors are important. They are the road signs.are the road signs. 15. Self correction over teacher’s15. Self correction over teacher’s correction.correction. 16. Students listen to each other.16. Students listen to each other.
  87. 87. LanguageLanguage Teaching:SWTeaching:SW 17. Learning rates are different.17. Learning rates are different. Perfection is not the target.Perfection is not the target. 18. The teacher frees his time by18. The teacher frees his time by his silence.his silence. 19. Students are attentive.19. Students are attentive.
  88. 88. LanguageLanguage Teaching:SWTeaching:SW 20. Meaningful practice is20. Meaningful practice is preferred to repetition.preferred to repetition. 21. Logical presentation of21. Logical presentation of language elements fromlanguage elements from familiar to unfamiliar.familiar to unfamiliar.
  89. 89. LanguageLanguage Teaching:SWTeaching:SW 22. & 23. Autonomy is gained by22. & 23. Autonomy is gained by exploring and making choices.exploring and making choices. 24. Feedback from students24. Feedback from students informs the teacher.informs the teacher. 25.No homework:sleeping25.No homework:sleeping practicepractice
  90. 90. LanguageLanguage Teaching:SWTeaching:SW 26. Syllabus is structure based.26. Syllabus is structure based. 27. Structures are not presented27. Structures are not presented in a linear a linear way. 28. Skills (speaking, reading and28. Skills (speaking, reading and writing) reinforce one another.writing) reinforce one another.
  91. 91. LanguageLanguage Teaching:SUGTeaching:SUG Suggestopedia (Superlearning):Suggestopedia (Superlearning): psychological barriers are thepsychological barriers are the main causes of failure inmain causes of failure in language learning. Theselanguage learning. These barriers should be removed.barriers should be removed.
  92. 92. LanguageLanguage Teaching:SUGTeaching:SUG These barriers are fear of badThese barriers are fear of bad performance, limited ability toperformance, limited ability to learn, and failure, so our fulllearn, and failure, so our full mental powers are notmental powers are not revealed.revealed.
  93. 93. LanguageLanguage Teaching:SUGTeaching:SUG Suggestology: how to harnessSuggestology: how to harness and redirect mental capacityand redirect mental capacity foe maximum learning. It isfoe maximum learning. It is based on Desuggestion andbased on Desuggestion and SuggestionSuggestion
  94. 94. LanguageLanguage Teaching:SUGTeaching:SUG Desuggestion: unloading mentalDesuggestion: unloading mental reserves of unwantedreserves of unwanted memories.memories. Suggestion: loading the reservesSuggestion: loading the reserves with facilitating memories.with facilitating memories.
  95. 95. LanguageLanguage Teaching:SUGTeaching:SUG Basics of Suggestology:Basics of Suggestology: 1. Authority: the teacher’s C. V.,1. Authority: the teacher’s C. V., his belief in the method and hishis belief in the method and his manner are valued (the placebomanner are valued (the placebo effect).effect).
  96. 96. LanguageLanguage Teaching:SUGTeaching:SUG 2. Infantalization: students take2. Infantalization: students take the role of a child (games,the role of a child (games, songs, gymnastic exercises,songs, gymnastic exercises, … ).… ).
  97. 97. LanguageLanguage Teaching:SUGTeaching:SUG Principles:Principles: 1.1. Learning is facilitated inLearning is facilitated in comfort.comfort. 2.2. Peripheral learning is valued.Peripheral learning is valued.
  98. 98. LanguageLanguage Teaching:SUGTeaching:SUG 3. Students must respect and3. Students must respect and trust the teacher’s the teacher’s authority. 4. The teacher “desuggests” the4. The teacher “desuggests” the barriers: L2 learning is fun.barriers: L2 learning is fun.
  99. 99. LanguageLanguage Teaching:SUGTeaching:SUG 5. Students’ imagination is5. Students’ imagination is activated (Suggestion).activated (Suggestion). 6. Students’ confidence is raised6. Students’ confidence is raised (Suggestion).(Suggestion).
  100. 100. LanguageLanguage Teaching:SUGTeaching:SUG 7. Choosing new names and7. Choosing new names and biographies enhances feelingbiographies enhances feeling of security (suggestion).of security (suggestion). 8. Easy to handle dialogs come8. Easy to handle dialogs come first.first.
  101. 101. LanguageLanguage Teaching:SUGTeaching:SUG 9. Students’ attention is off the9. Students’ attention is off the Form (structure) and onForm (structure) and on communication.communication. 10. The lessons indirectly10. The lessons indirectly enhance positive Suggestions.enhance positive Suggestions.
  102. 102. LanguageLanguage Teaching:SUGTeaching:SUG 11. Grammar and vocabulary are11. Grammar and vocabulary are taught very superficially.taught very superficially. 12. Mother tongue and12. Mother tongue and translation are used to transfertranslation are used to transfer meaning.meaning.
  103. 103. LanguageLanguage Teaching:SUGTeaching:SUG 13. Double planedness: language13. Double planedness: language message is the consciousmessage is the conscious level; music is thelevel; music is the subconscious level. They gosubconscious level. They go together. Decoration of thetogether. Decoration of the environment is so important.environment is so important.
  104. 104. LanguageLanguage Teaching:SUGTeaching:SUG 14. To overcome the barriers, a14. To overcome the barriers, a pseudo-passive state ispseudo-passive state is needed.needed. 15. Homework is done at night15. Homework is done at night and in the morning.and in the morning.
  105. 105. LanguageLanguage Teaching:SUGTeaching:SUG 16. Dramatization and fantasy16. Dramatization and fantasy reduce the barriers to learning.reduce the barriers to learning. 17. The arts (music, drama, … )17. The arts (music, drama, … ) should be part of the processshould be part of the process of learning.of learning.
  106. 106. LanguageLanguage Teaching:SUGTeaching:SUG 18. Novelty is the to motivation18. Novelty is the to motivation (learning activities are varied).(learning activities are varied). 19. Infantalization is the key19. Infantalization is the key factor. A childlike attitude tofactor. A childlike attitude to learning helps a lot.learning helps a lot.
  107. 107. LanguageLanguage Teaching:SUGTeaching:SUG 20. In some activities the20. In some activities the conscious attention focuses onconscious attention focuses on using L2, not on the structureusing L2, not on the structure and form.and form. 21.Errors are tolerated and21.Errors are tolerated and corrected indirectly later.corrected indirectly later.
  108. 108. LanguageLanguage Teaching:SUGTeaching:SUG Two kinds of materials:Two kinds of materials: 1. Direct support: texts and tapes1. Direct support: texts and tapes 2. Indirect support: classroom2. Indirect support: classroom decoration and musicdecoration and music
  109. 109. LanguageLanguage Teaching:SUGTeaching:SUG Zero beginners are differentZero beginners are different from false beginners.from false beginners. Students are required to talk exStudents are required to talk ex tempore (not from memorizedtempore (not from memorized lines).lines).
  110. 110. LanguageLanguage Teaching:SUGTeaching:SUG Students are immersed in theStudents are immersed in the method and forget their pastmethod and forget their past (new names).(new names). Words are taught in word pairs.Words are taught in word pairs.
  111. 111. LanguageLanguage Teaching:SUGTeaching:SUG The texts should beThe texts should be emotionally and motivationallyemotionally and motivationally powerful. They have literarypowerful. They have literary value.value. Musical background leads toMusical background leads to relaxed body and alert mind.relaxed body and alert mind.
  112. 112. LanguageLanguage Teaching:CLLTeaching:CLL Community Language Learning:Community Language Learning: Students as “whole persons”Students as “whole persons” feelings + intellect + physicalfeelings + intellect + physical reactions + instinctive protectivereactions + instinctive protective reactions + desire to learnreactions + desire to learn
  113. 113. LanguageLanguage Teaching:CLLTeaching:CLL Counseling LearningCounseling Learning →→ Community Language LearningCommunity Language Learning (By: Charles A. Curran)(By: Charles A. Curran) His theory is based on adultHis theory is based on adult learninglearning..
  114. 114. LanguageLanguage Teaching:CLLTeaching:CLL Adults feel frightened in a newAdults feel frightened in a new learning situation: the inherentlearning situation: the inherent change and chances of makingchange and chances of making mistakes frightens them. So themistakes frightens them. So the teacher should play ateacher should play a counselorcounselor..
  115. 115. LanguageLanguage Teaching:CLLTeaching:CLL CLL is a humanistic approachCLL is a humanistic approach taken from Carl Rodger’staken from Carl Rodger’s approach (1950): the focus isapproach (1950): the focus is onon Affective (emotional)Affective (emotional) DomainDomain; it is client (learner); it is client (learner) centered.centered.
  116. 116. LanguageLanguage Teaching:CLLTeaching:CLL Factors of Affective Domain:Factors of Affective Domain: Empathy, self-esteem, attitudeEmpathy, self-esteem, attitude extroversion, inhibition,extroversion, inhibition, imitation, anxiety, and so on.imitation, anxiety, and so on.
  117. 117. LanguageLanguage Teaching:CLLTeaching:CLL Language process is not justLanguage process is not just:: sender → message → receiversender → message → receiver It is interactional andIt is interactional and communicative. It is a socialcommunicative. It is a social processprocess..
  118. 118. LanguageLanguage Teaching:CLLTeaching:CLL CLL is a holistic approach:CLL is a holistic approach: Cognitive + Affective factorsCognitive + Affective factors Classroom interaction isClassroom interaction is between peers (symmetrical) orbetween peers (symmetrical) or learner-knower (asymmetrical)learner-knower (asymmetrical)
  119. 119. LanguageLanguage Teaching:CLLTeaching:CLL Principles:Principles: 1.1. The teacher starts a friendlyThe teacher starts a friendly relationship.relationship. 2.2. The teacher’s explanation ofThe teacher’s explanation of the activities brings security.the activities brings security.
  120. 120. LanguageLanguage Teaching:CLLTeaching:CLL 3. Language is for3. Language is for communication.communication. 4. The teacher’s standing4. The teacher’s standing position can be effective inposition can be effective in reducing tension and fosteringreducing tension and fostering interaction.interaction.
  121. 121. LanguageLanguage Teaching:CLLTeaching:CLL 5. The teacher is caring about5. The teacher is caring about the students limitations andthe students limitations and fears. They learn with differentfears. They learn with different paces.paces. 6. Time limits are revealed;6. Time limits are revealed; security follows!security follows!
  122. 122. LanguageLanguage Teaching:CLLTeaching:CLL 7. The teacher and students are7. The teacher and students are whole persons (Affective +whole persons (Affective + Cognitive factors).Cognitive factors).
  123. 123. LanguageLanguage Teaching:CLLTeaching:CLL 8. Learners have different8. Learners have different strategies, paces and styles ofstrategies, paces and styles of learning. The teacher makeslearning. The teacher makes them feel relaxed (Affectivethem feel relaxed (Affective factors).factors).
  124. 124. LanguageLanguage Teaching:CLLTeaching:CLL 9. The teacher is a counselor.9. The teacher is a counselor. Negative feelings blockNegative feelings block learning.learning. 10. L1 is part of the process of10. L1 is part of the process of learning. Understanding shouldlearning. Understanding should be guaranteed.
  125. 125. LanguageLanguage Teaching:CLLTeaching:CLL 11. Activities should be clear11. Activities should be clear /clarified (Affective factors)./clarified (Affective factors). 12. The tasks are given one by12. The tasks are given one by one to reduce the to reduce the barriers.
  126. 126. LanguageLanguage Teaching:CLLTeaching:CLL 13. Students go from total13. Students go from total dependence on the teacher todependence on the teacher to independence and initiative.independence and initiative. 14. Relaxed reflection and14. Relaxed reflection and thinking fosters the process.thinking fosters the process.
  127. 127. LanguageLanguage Teaching:CLLTeaching:CLL 15. Having a choice results in15. Having a choice results in developing an inner wisdom.developing an inner wisdom. 16. Careful listening is needed to16. Careful listening is needed to learn to discriminate and seelearn to discriminate and see the similarities and differences.the similarities and differences.
  128. 128. LanguageLanguage Teaching:CLLTeaching:CLL 17. Group work and cooperation17. Group work and cooperation is preferred to preferred to competition. 18. Indirect correction reduces18. Indirect correction reduces tension.tension.
  129. 129. LanguageLanguage Teaching:CLLTeaching:CLL 19. Interaction among the peers19. Interaction among the peers (students) leads to trust and(students) leads to trust and less threat.less threat. 20. Learning takes place if the20. Learning takes place if the task neither too new nor tootask neither too new nor too familiar.familiar.
  130. 130. LanguageLanguage Teaching:CLLTeaching:CLL 21. Thinking about learning21. Thinking about learning experiences is as positive asexperiences is as positive as reflecting on L2.reflecting on L2. 22. In early stages, the syllabus22. In early stages, the syllabus is learner dependent (oriented).is learner dependent (oriented).
  131. 131. LanguageLanguage Teaching:CLLTeaching:CLL Curran: there are sixCurran: there are six elementselements for nondefensive learningfor nondefensive learning:: Security, aggressionSecurity, aggression (assertiveness),(assertiveness), attention, reflection, retentionattention, reflection, retention (integration), discrimination(integration), discrimination
  132. 132. LanguageLanguage Teaching:CLLTeaching:CLL Evaluation in CLL is not fixed,Evaluation in CLL is not fixed, but it should be in line with thebut it should be in line with the principles. The test is mainlyprinciples. The test is mainly integrative, not discrete point.integrative, not discrete point. Self evaluation is also valued.Self evaluation is also valued.
  133. 133. LanguageLanguage Teaching:CLLTeaching:CLL In CLL culture and language areIn CLL culture and language are inseparable. The teacher andinseparable. The teacher and students form a communitystudents form a community (learning is persons). They(learning is persons). They trust each other and thetrust each other and the process.process.
  134. 134. LanguageLanguage Teaching:TPRTeaching:TPR Total Physical Response is anTotal Physical Response is an example of “Comprehensionexample of “Comprehension Approach”.Approach”. The importance is given toThe importance is given to Listening Comprehension.Listening Comprehension.
  135. 135. LanguageLanguage Teaching:TPRTeaching:TPR The idea of ComprehensionThe idea of Comprehension Approach comes from childApproach comes from child language acquisition. Speakinglanguage acquisition. Speaking is a natural product of a natural product of listening.
  136. 136. LanguageLanguage Teaching:TPRTeaching:TPR Many methods are based on L1Many methods are based on L1 acquisition. Krashen andacquisition. Krashen and Terrell’s “natural Approach”:Terrell’s “natural Approach”:
  137. 137. LanguageLanguage Teaching:TPRTeaching:TPR communication through picturescommunication through pictures and words is fostered, but L1 isand words is fostered, but L1 is also used. Natural Approach isalso used. Natural Approach is similar to Direct Method, but insimilar to Direct Method, but in former L1 is allowed.former L1 is allowed.
  138. 138. LanguageLanguage Teaching:TPRTeaching:TPR In Winitz and Reed’sIn Winitz and Reed’s selfself instructional programinstructional program and inand in Winitz’Winitz’ The LearnablesThe Learnables,, students listen and look atstudents listen and look at relevant pictures.relevant pictures.
  139. 139. LanguageLanguage Teaching:TPRTeaching:TPR In Asher’s TPR students listenIn Asher’s TPR students listen and respond in actions.and respond in actions.
  140. 140. LanguageLanguage Teaching:TPRTeaching:TPR TP is based on “Trace Theory”:TP is based on “Trace Theory”: the more a memory connectionthe more a memory connection is traced, the storage ofis traced, the storage of memory associations is easiermemory associations is easier (Heb’s Law).(Heb’s Law).
  141. 141. LanguageLanguage Teaching:TPRTeaching:TPR Tracing and retracing can beTracing and retracing can be both verbal (language) andboth verbal (language) and motor (actions). Themotor (actions). The combination of the two fosterscombination of the two fosters the recall.the recall.
  142. 142. LanguageLanguage Teaching:TPRTeaching:TPR TPR is humanistic in saying thatTPR is humanistic in saying that gamelike movements reducegamelike movements reduce stress. TPR is basicallystress. TPR is basically structuralist (imperative verbsstructuralist (imperative verbs at the center).at the center).
  143. 143. LanguageLanguage Teaching:TPRTeaching:TPR TPR claims that nonabstractionsTPR claims that nonabstractions (verbs and concrete nouns)(verbs and concrete nouns) help us learn us learn abstractions.
  144. 144. LanguageLanguage Teaching:TPRTeaching:TPR Language chunks are practicedLanguage chunks are practiced rather than single items.rather than single items. No grammar explanation isNo grammar explanation is givengiven
  145. 145. LanguageLanguage Teaching:TPRTeaching:TPR The theory of psychology isThe theory of psychology is BahavioristBahaviorist:: Verbal Stimulus → ResponseVerbal Stimulus → Response
  146. 146. LanguageLanguage Teaching:TPRTeaching:TPR The learning hypotheses:The learning hypotheses: 1. Innate bio program: listening1. Innate bio program: listening before speaking (Naturalbefore speaking (Natural Approach) and synchronizedApproach) and synchronized with body.with body.
  147. 147. LanguageLanguage Teaching:TPRTeaching:TPR 2. Affective Filter: meaning2. Affective Filter: meaning through movementsthrough movements 3. Brain Lateralization: motor3. Brain Lateralization: motor activities are right brainactivities are right brain centered (following Piaget).centered (following Piaget).
  148. 148. LanguageLanguage Teaching:TPRTeaching:TPR Students master L2 through rightStudents master L2 through right hemisphere motor activitieshemisphere motor activities while the left one (languagewhile the left one (language center!) is watching andcenter!) is watching and learning.learning.
  149. 149. LanguageLanguage Teaching:TPRTeaching:TPR Principles:Principles: 1. Meaning is transferred1. Meaning is transferred through actions. Right brainthrough actions. Right brain (nonverbal center) is involved.(nonverbal center) is involved. Chunks are preferred to singleChunks are preferred to single words.words.
  150. 150. LanguageLanguage Teaching:TPRTeaching:TPR 2. Listening before speaking.2. Listening before speaking. 3. Actions accompany the3. Actions accompany the language. The teacher actslanguage. The teacher acts first.first. 4. The basic structure is4. The basic structure is imperative (only volunteersimperative (only volunteers act).act).
  151. 151. LanguageLanguage Teaching:TPRTeaching:TPR 5. Students first observe and5. Students first observe and then perform the actions.then perform the actions. 6. Feeling of success and little6. Feeling of success and little anxiety facilitate learning.anxiety facilitate learning.
  152. 152. LanguageLanguage Teaching:TPRTeaching:TPR 7.Changing order of commands7.Changing order of commands blocks sheer memorization.blocks sheer memorization. 8. Correction should be indirect8. Correction should be indirect and through actions.and through actions.
  153. 153. LanguageLanguage Teaching:TPRTeaching:TPR 9. Novelty of commands can be9. Novelty of commands can be motivating.motivating. 10. Language learning should be10. Language learning should be fun (funny commands).fun (funny commands).
  154. 154. LanguageLanguage Teaching:TPRTeaching:TPR 11. Spoken language comes first.11. Spoken language comes first. 12. Speaking emerges very12. Speaking emerges very naturally. They choose tonaturally. They choose to speake.speake.
  155. 155. LanguageLanguage Teaching:TPRTeaching:TPR 13. The teacher is tolerant of the13. The teacher is tolerant of the errors. Delicate points anderrors. Delicate points and details are put off for later anddetails are put off for later and higher levels.higher levels.
  156. 156. Language Teaching:Language Teaching: CLTCLT The Communicative LanguageThe Communicative Language TeachingTeaching UNIT 9UNIT 9
  157. 157. Language Teaching:CLTLanguage Teaching:CLT This is a British Approach thatThis is a British Approach that followed Oral Approach orfollowed Oral Approach or Situational Language TeachingSituational Language Teaching (simultaneous with Direct(simultaneous with Direct Method).Method).
  158. 158. Language Teaching:CLTLanguage Teaching:CLT The decline of SLT – similar toThe decline of SLT – similar to Direct Method – was due toDirect Method – was due to Chomsky’s influence.In BritainChomsky’s influence.In Britain functional and communicativefunctional and communicative aspects gained prominence.aspects gained prominence.
  159. 159. Language Teaching:CLTLanguage Teaching:CLT While in the U.S. innateness andWhile in the U.S. innateness and Generativity of language wereGenerativity of language were important (under Chomsky’simportant (under Chomsky’s influence), in Britaininfluence), in Britain communication was importantcommunication was important
  160. 160. Language Teaching:CLTLanguage Teaching:CLT Many methods claim to beMany methods claim to be communicative.communicative. They also say that structure andThey also say that structure and vocabulary are important.vocabulary are important.
  161. 161. Language Teaching:CLTLanguage Teaching:CLT Communicative Approach:theseCommunicative Approach:these are good but not enough. Weare good but not enough. We can not get ready forcan not get ready for communication if justcommunication if just vocabulary and structure arevocabulary and structure are worked on.worked on.
  162. 162. Language Teaching:CLTLanguage Teaching:CLT Communication includesCommunication includes functions. Functions are whatfunctions. Functions are what we do with the language:we do with the language: arguing, persuading,arguing, persuading, promising, rejection orpromising, rejection or accepting an invitation, …accepting an invitation, …
  163. 163. Language Teaching:CLTLanguage Teaching:CLT All these functions happenAll these functions happen inside a social context. Wilkin’sinside a social context. Wilkin’s Functional Notional ApproachFunctional Notional Approach formed the basis offormed the basis of Communicative Approach.Communicative Approach.
  164. 164. Language Teaching:CLTLanguage Teaching:CLT Functions are what we do withFunctions are what we do with the language, but Notionalthe language, but Notional categories are: time, sequence,categories are: time, sequence, quantity, location, frequency.quantity, location, frequency.
  165. 165. Language Teaching:CLTLanguage Teaching:CLT Communicative Approach,Communicative Approach, Communicative LanguageCommunicative Language Teaching, functional ApproachTeaching, functional Approach and Notional Functionaland Notional Functional Approach have almost the sameApproach have almost the same goals.goals.
  166. 166. Language Teaching:CLTLanguage Teaching:CLT Knowledge of forms, meaningsKnowledge of forms, meanings and functions can be positive ifand functions can be positive if they help the learner in thethey help the learner in the process ofprocess of meaning exchangemeaning exchange ..
  167. 167. Language Teaching:CLTLanguage Teaching:CLT There are two versions ofThere are two versions of Communicative Approach:Communicative Approach: 1. Weak Version (standard): the1. Weak Version (standard): the goal is to provide chances togoal is to provide chances to use English for communication.use English for communication.
  168. 168. Language Teaching:CLTLanguage Teaching:CLT This is called ‘learning to use’ orThis is called ‘learning to use’ or ‘language for communication’.‘language for communication’. 2. Strong Version: language as2. Strong Version: language as communication – usingcommunication – using language to learn.language to learn.
  169. 169. Language Teaching:CLTLanguage Teaching:CLT The linguistic theory behindThe linguistic theory behind Communicative Approach isCommunicative Approach is Dell Hymes’ communicativeDell Hymes’ communicative competence (1972).competence (1972).
  170. 170. Language Teaching:CLTLanguage Teaching:CLT He believed that Chomsky’sHe believed that Chomsky’s ‘linguistic competence’ was too‘linguistic competence’ was too limited. Linguistic competencelimited. Linguistic competence doesn't justify social anddoesn't justify social and functional rules of thefunctional rules of the language.language.
  171. 171. Language Teaching:CLTLanguage Teaching:CLT Hymes’ competence deals withHymes’ competence deals with both knowledge (both knowledge (usageusage) and) and useuse..
  172. 172. Language Teaching:CLTLanguage Teaching:CLT Principles:Principles: 1. Authentic language in real1. Authentic language in real context:sports columns from acontext:sports columns from a recent newspaperrecent newspaper
  173. 173. Language Teaching:CLTLanguage Teaching:CLT 2. Ability to figure out someone’s2. Ability to figure out someone’s intentions:communicativeintentions:communicative competencecompetence
  174. 174. Language Teaching:CLTLanguage Teaching:CLT 3.Language: a vehicle for3.Language: a vehicle for communication, not the objectcommunication, not the object of study (language forof study (language for communication).communication).
  175. 175. Language Teaching:CLTLanguage Teaching:CLT 4. One function in different4. One function in different linguistic forms (the goal is tolinguistic forms (the goal is to convey meaning with a nyconvey meaning with a ny possible and suitable form).possible and suitable form).
  176. 176. Language Teaching:CLTLanguage Teaching:CLT 5. Language use at higher levels5. Language use at higher levels (supra sentential, text or(supra sentential, text or discourse level).discourse level).
  177. 177. Language Teaching:CLTLanguage Teaching:CLT Note: Discourse orNote: Discourse or communication has threecommunication has three elements: 1. Real communicationelements: 1. Real communication (information gap), 2. Task based(information gap), 2. Task based activities, 3. Meaningfulnessactivities, 3. Meaningfulness (authenticity).(authenticity).
  178. 178. Language Teaching:CLTLanguage Teaching:CLT In discourse analysis: cohesionIn discourse analysis: cohesion (physical connectedness) and(physical connectedness) and coherence (connectedness incoherence (connectedness in meaning)meaning)
  179. 179. Language Teaching:CLTLanguage Teaching:CLT 6. The importance of games as6. The importance of games as real communication (taskreal communication (task based activities)based activities) Note: Immediate feedbackNote: Immediate feedback ensures the learner of theensures the learner of the result.result.
  180. 180. Language Teaching:CLTLanguage Teaching:CLT 7. Opportunities for self7. Opportunities for self expressionexpression 8. Errors as natural outcome of8. Errors as natural outcome of development of communicationdevelopment of communication skills.skills.
  181. 181. Language Teaching:CLTLanguage Teaching:CLT 9. Establishment of situations to9. Establishment of situations to promote communication (strippromote communication (strip story).story).
  182. 182. Language Teaching:CLTLanguage Teaching:CLT 10. Cooperation and team work10. Cooperation and team work as a chance to negotiateas a chance to negotiate meaning.meaning. 11. Role play as an example of11. Role play as an example of social context (language forsocial context (language for communication)communication)
  183. 183. Language Teaching:CLTLanguage Teaching:CLT 12. Language forms with respect12. Language forms with respect to social communicative normsto social communicative norms (talking to your boss vs. talking(talking to your boss vs. talking to your colleague)to your colleague)
  184. 184. Language Teaching:CLTLanguage Teaching:CLT 13. The teacher as an advisor13. The teacher as an advisor giving guidelines to groupsgiving guidelines to groups 14. A choice about what to say14. A choice about what to say (linguistic competence) and(linguistic competence) and how to say (communicativehow to say (communicative one).one).
  185. 185. 15. Grammar and vocabulary15. Grammar and vocabulary from functions, situationalfrom functions, situational context and roles.context and roles. Language Teaching:CLTLanguage Teaching:CLT
  186. 186. Language Teaching:CLTLanguage Teaching:CLT 16. Listening to authentic16. Listening to authentic language as homework.language as homework.
  187. 187. Language Teaching:CLTLanguage Teaching:CLT What is the goal of the teacher?What is the goal of the teacher? To develop communicativeTo develop communicative competence in the learners.competence in the learners. Form, meaning and functionForm, meaning and function are all critical.are all critical.
  188. 188. Language Teaching:CLTLanguage Teaching:CLT What are the roles of theWhat are the roles of the teacher?teacher? 1. Facilitator of learning process,1. Facilitator of learning process, 2. Manager of classroom2. Manager of classroom activities, 3. Advisor, 4. Co-activities, 3. Advisor, 4. Co- communicatorcommunicator
  189. 189. Language Teaching:CLTLanguage Teaching:CLT What is the role of the student?What is the role of the student? The learner is a communicator,The learner is a communicator, actively engaged in transferringactively engaged in transferring meaning and a responsiblemeaning and a responsible manager of the social activities.manager of the social activities.
  190. 190. Language Teaching:CLTLanguage Teaching:CLT Characteristics of the process?Characteristics of the process? Usage and use are bothUsage and use are both important. Activities – role play,important. Activities – role play, problem solving tasks, games –problem solving tasks, games – are communication oriented.are communication oriented.
  191. 191. Language Teaching:CLTLanguage Teaching:CLT Note: information gap is a criticalNote: information gap is a critical issue: a real interaction is madeissue: a real interaction is made to exchange meaning – toto exchange meaning – to reveal make unknownreveal make unknown information.information.
  192. 192. Language Teaching:CLTLanguage Teaching:CLT The nature of student-teacherThe nature of student-teacher interaction?interaction? The teacher is the initiator ofThe teacher is the initiator of activities. The interaction isactivities. The interaction is basically student-student.basically student-student.
  193. 193. Language Teaching:CLTLanguage Teaching:CLT How about the student’sHow about the student’s feelings?feelings? The students are more motivatedThe students are more motivated if they do something real andif they do something real and purposeful with the language.purposeful with the language.
  194. 194. Language Teaching:CLTLanguage Teaching:CLT Note: Team work andNote: Team work and cooperation also fosters thecooperation also fosters the feeling of security. Theyfeeling of security. They integrate L2 with theirintegrate L2 with their personality.personality.
  195. 195. Language Teaching:CLTLanguage Teaching:CLT How are language/cultureHow are language/culture viewed?viewed? Language: form, meaning andLanguage: form, meaning and function. Culture is part of realfunction. Culture is part of real communication (e.g., the use ofcommunication (e.g., the use of nonverbal behavior).nonverbal behavior).
  196. 196. Language Teaching:CLTLanguage Teaching:CLT The important areas ofThe important areas of language?language? Functions over forms. TheFunctions over forms. The syllabus is functional and asyllabus is functional and a variety of form are introducedvariety of form are introduced in each each function.
  197. 197. Language Teaching:CLTLanguage Teaching:CLT Note: at first easier functions areNote: at first easier functions are used to introduce easier forms.used to introduce easier forms. In general function determinesIn general function determines form not the other way round.form not the other way round.
  198. 198. Language Teaching:CLTLanguage Teaching:CLT Note: the students learn aboutNote: the students learn about cohesion and coherence in realcohesion and coherence in real communication, not in ancommunication, not in an explicit way (by scrambling andexplicit way (by scrambling and unscrambling the text).unscrambling the text).
  199. 199. Language Teaching:CLTLanguage Teaching:CLT What is the role of L1?What is the role of L1? L1 has almost no role.L1 has almost no role. Communication happens in L2Communication happens in L2 context.context.
  200. 200. Language Teaching:CLTLanguage Teaching:CLT How is evaluationHow is evaluation accomplished?accomplished? Both accuracy and fluency areBoth accuracy and fluency are evaluated. The ideal learner is aevaluated. The ideal learner is a the best communicator. Thethe best communicator. The use of forms is not valuable byuse of forms is not valuable by itself.itself.
  201. 201. Language Teaching:CLTLanguage Teaching:CLT Note: Evaluation here is informalNote: Evaluation here is informal and happens in the process ofand happens in the process of acting communicatively. Butacting communicatively. But the test is a communicative testthe test is a communicative test which deals with functions.which deals with functions.
  202. 202. Language Teaching:CLTLanguage Teaching:CLT Note: the tests are integrativeNote: the tests are integrative such as writing a letter to asuch as writing a letter to a friend which is a function andfriend which is a function and conveys meaning. It si also aconveys meaning. It si also a social activity.
  203. 203. Language Teaching:CLTLanguage Teaching:CLT How are the errors treated?How are the errors treated? Errors of form are tolerated as aErrors of form are tolerated as a natural outcome. Linguisticnatural outcome. Linguistic knowledge is not very criticalknowledge is not very critical for communicative ability.for communicative ability.
  204. 204. Language Teaching:CLTLanguage Teaching:CLT Techniques and materials:Techniques and materials: 1. Authentic materials (real1. Authentic materials (real world)world) 2, scrambled sentences2, scrambled sentences (cohesion and coherence)(cohesion and coherence)
  205. 205. Language Teaching:CLTLanguage Teaching:CLT 3. Language games (information3. Language games (information gap, choice and feedback)gap, choice and feedback) 4. Picture strip story (information4. Picture strip story (information gap, team work, problemgap, team work, problem solving and negotiatingsolving and negotiating meaning)meaning)
  206. 206. Language Teaching:CLTLanguage Teaching:CLT 5. Role play (different social5. Role play (different social contexts lead to different rolescontexts lead to different roles and each role uses certainand each role uses certain forms for each function).forms for each function).
  207. 207. Language Teaching:CLTLanguage Teaching:CLT The goals of the teacher?The goals of the teacher? To accelerate the process ofTo accelerate the process of learning for communication.learning for communication. The learner’s mental powersThe learner’s mental powers must be trapped bymust be trapped by dessuggesting.dessuggesting.
  208. 208. Language Teaching:CLTLanguage Teaching:CLT The role of the teacher?The role of the teacher? He is the authority. He should beHe is the authority. He should be trusted and respected (placebotrusted and respected (placebo effect).effect).
  209. 209. Language Teaching:CLTLanguage Teaching:CLT Features of teaching/learning?Features of teaching/learning? A. Students are comfortable.A. Students are comfortable. Furniture and decoration areFurniture and decoration are important. Music accompanies.important. Music accompanies.
  210. 210. Language Teaching:CLTLanguage Teaching:CLT B. Posters displayingB. Posters displaying grammatical information are ongrammatical information are on the wall (peripheral learning).the wall (peripheral learning). New names and biographiesNew names and biographies (new identities)(new identities)
  211. 211. Language Teaching:CLTLanguage Teaching:CLT C. lengthy dialogs in L2 with L1C. lengthy dialogs in L2 with L1 translation and notes ontranslation and notes on vocabulary and grammar. In thevocabulary and grammar. In the first major phase (receptive) thefirst major phase (receptive) the teacher reads the dialog alongteacher reads the dialog along the music.the music.
  212. 212. Language Teaching:CLTLanguage Teaching:CLT D.D. Now the whole brain (left andNow the whole brain (left and right) is involved (similar toright) is involved (similar to TPR). The students also see heTPR). The students also see he translation.translation.
  213. 213. Language Teaching:CLTLanguage Teaching:CLT In the second major phaseIn the second major phase (activation) the students(activation) the students engage in various activities:engage in various activities: dramatization, games, songs,dramatization, games, songs, question and answer exercises.question and answer exercises.
  214. 214. Language Teaching:CLTLanguage Teaching:CLT The nature of interaction?The nature of interaction? The teacher initiates. The whenThe teacher initiates. The when they feel relaxed the studentsthey feel relaxed the students also initiate interaction.also initiate interaction.
  215. 215. Language Teaching:CLTLanguage Teaching:CLT How are the feelings dealt with?How are the feelings dealt with? They have to be relaxed andThey have to be relaxed and confident. Learning comesconfident. Learning comes naturally not by forcenaturally not by force (suggestion and desuggestion).(suggestion and desuggestion).
  216. 216. Language Teaching:CLTLanguage Teaching:CLT How is language/culture viewed?How is language/culture viewed? A. Communication is a two planeA. Communication is a two plane activity. In the first planeactivity. In the first plane language happens. In thelanguage happens. In the second nonverbal factorssecond nonverbal factors affect.affect.
  217. 217. Language Teaching:CLTLanguage Teaching:CLT B. culture includes the life of L2B. culture includes the life of L2 speakers and the fine arts.speakers and the fine arts.
  218. 218. Language Teaching:CLTLanguage Teaching:CLT What areas/skills areWhat areas/skills are emphasized?emphasized? Vocabulary is emphasized.Vocabulary is emphasized. Grammar is dealt with explicitlyGrammar is dealt with explicitly (conscious attention) but(conscious attention) but minimally. Speaking is valued.minimally. Speaking is valued.
  219. 219. Language Teaching:CLTLanguage Teaching:CLT The role of L1?The role of L1? L1 makes the dialog clear andL1 makes the dialog clear and easy so the students geteasy so the students get relaxed.relaxed.
  220. 220. Language Teaching:CLTLanguage Teaching:CLT How is evaluation done?How is evaluation done? It is done on the class activitiesIt is done on the class activities not through formal testsnot through formal tests (Suggestology).(Suggestology).
  221. 221. Language Teaching:CLTLanguage Teaching:CLT How are the errors treated?How are the errors treated? At the early stages no directAt the early stages no direct correction happens. Later theycorrection happens. Later they receive indirect correction onreceive indirect correction on form.form.
  222. 222. Language Teaching:CLTLanguage Teaching:CLT The goals of the teacher?The goals of the teacher? Natural communication, learningNatural communication, learning about their own learning andabout their own learning and taking responsibility for it,taking responsibility for it, acting nondefensively:as wholeacting nondefensively:as whole persons.persons.
  223. 223. Language Teaching:CLTLanguage Teaching:CLT The teacher’s role?The teacher’s role? He is a counselor first. He is caringHe is a counselor first. He is caring and supportive.and supportive.
  224. 224. Language Teaching:CLTLanguage Teaching:CLT The student’s role?The student’s role? At first they are totallyAt first they are totally dependent like a client to adependent like a client to a counselor. Five stages to movecounselor. Five stages to move from dependence tofrom dependence to independence.independence.
  225. 225. Language Teaching:CLTLanguage Teaching:CLT Features of teaching andFeatures of teaching and learning?learning? A. At first they speak in L1 andA. At first they speak in L1 and the teacher gives L2 translationthe teacher gives L2 translation in chunks.
  226. 226. Language Teaching:CLTLanguage Teaching:CLT B. Later a transcript is made ofB. Later a transcript is made of the dialog and L1 words arethe dialog and L1 words are written under that. Activitieswritten under that. Activities follow: grammar points, makingfollow: grammar points, making new sentences, sentences, pronunciation.
  227. 227. Language Teaching:CLTLanguage Teaching:CLT The nature of interaction?The nature of interaction? A. The nature changes over time.A. The nature changes over time. Sometimes the teacherSometimes the teacher removes himself from the circleremoves himself from the circle to encourage them to encourage them to interact.
  228. 228. Language Teaching:CLTLanguage Teaching:CLT B. Sometimes he gives L1B. Sometimes he gives L1 translation.At later timetranslation.At later time students take morestudents take more responsibility. Both areresponsibility. Both are decision makers (student-decision makers (student- teacher centeredness).teacher centeredness).
  229. 229. Language Teaching:CLTLanguage Teaching:CLT How are the feelings treated?How are the feelings treated? Precise instructions,L1Precise instructions,L1 equivalents, establishing timeequivalents, establishing time limits,easy to handle lessons,limits,easy to handle lessons, and taking responsibility bringand taking responsibility bring securitysecurity..
  230. 230. Language Teaching:CLTLanguage Teaching:CLT How is language/culture viewed?How is language/culture viewed? Language is for communication.Language is for communication. Culture is integrated withCulture is integrated with language.language.
  231. 231. Language Teaching:CLTLanguage Teaching:CLT What areas are emphasized?What areas are emphasized? In early stages the studentsIn early stages the students design the syllabus. The mostdesign the syllabus. The most important skills areimportant skills are understanding and speakingunderstanding and speaking the language.the language.
  232. 232. Language Teaching:CLTLanguage Teaching:CLT What is the role of L1?What is the role of L1? Security is initially enhanced bySecurity is initially enhanced by having L1 equivalents.having L1 equivalents.
  233. 233. Language Teaching:CLTLanguage Teaching:CLT How is evaluationHow is evaluation accomplished?accomplished? There is no particular mode ofThere is no particular mode of evaluation. But teacher madeevaluation. But teacher made integrative tests is moreintegrative tests is more common than discrete pointcommon than discrete point tests.tests.
  234. 234. Language Teaching:CLTLanguage Teaching:CLT How are the errors responded?How are the errors responded? Without calling everyone’sWithout calling everyone’s attention to error, the teacherattention to error, the teacher corrects it indirectly.corrects it indirectly.
  235. 235. Language Teaching:Content based...Language Teaching:Content based... Chapter 10Chapter 10 Content-based, task-based, andContent-based, task-based, and Participatory ApproachesParticipatory Approaches
  236. 236. Language Teaching:Content based...Language Teaching:Content based... Three approaches that makeThree approaches that make communication centralcommunication central Content based instructionContent based instruction Task-based approachTask-based approach Participatory approachParticipatory approach
  237. 237. Language Teaching:Content based...Language Teaching:Content based... These approaches do not focusThese approaches do not focus on form or function.on form or function. They give more importance toThey give more importance to process of learningprocess of learning over linguisticover linguistic content.content.
  238. 238. Language Teaching:Content based...Language Teaching:Content based... Here instead of ‘learning to useHere instead of ‘learning to use English’ we try to ‘use English toEnglish’ we try to ‘use English to learn’.learn’. Here instead of ‘English forHere instead of ‘English for communication’ we try to gaincommunication’ we try to gain ‘English as communication’.‘English as communication’.
  239. 239. Language Teaching:Content based...Language Teaching:Content based... ESP (English for special purposes) isESP (English for special purposes) is content oriented or content based. Englishcontent oriented or content based. English for pilots, nurses, businessmen are somefor pilots, nurses, businessmen are some examples.examples.
  240. 240. Language Teaching:Content based...Language Teaching:Content based... What is the special contribution of ESP?What is the special contribution of ESP? It integrates language and content.It integrates language and content.
  241. 241. Language Teaching:Content based...Language Teaching:Content based... What was the purpose of ‘language acrossWhat was the purpose of ‘language across the curriculum’ movement?the curriculum’ movement? It was for native speakers in EnglandIt was for native speakers in England (1970s) to integrate reading and writing(1970s) to integrate reading and writing into all other subjects.into all other subjects.
  242. 242. Language Teaching:Content based...Language Teaching:Content based... In ESP, the selection and sequence ofIn ESP, the selection and sequence of language items arise from communicativelanguage items arise from communicative needs, not predetermined syllabi (plural ofneeds, not predetermined syllabi (plural of syllabus).syllabus).
  243. 243. Language Teaching:Content based...Language Teaching:Content based... OBSERVATIONS ANDOBSERVATIONS AND PRINCIPLESPRINCIPLES
  244. 244. Language Teaching:Content based...Language Teaching:Content based... The subject matter (content) is theThe subject matter (content) is the platform for language learning. Languageplatform for language learning. Language learning is not happening in generallearning is not happening in general English text and discourse.English text and discourse.
  245. 245. Language Teaching:Content based...Language Teaching:Content based... Previous knowledge is the basis. It helpsPrevious knowledge is the basis. It helps them learn better. So if the text is aboutthem learn better. So if the text is about geography we begin with Iran.geography we begin with Iran.
  246. 246. Language Teaching:Content based...Language Teaching:Content based... Relevance of language to the students’Relevance of language to the students’ academic needs motivates them. Foracademic needs motivates them. For example, nurses like to know theexample, nurses like to know the terminology of their major. This is a meansterminology of their major. This is a means to an end, not an end in an end, not an end in iteself.
  247. 247. Language Teaching:Content based...Language Teaching:Content based... In other words, here the language is theIn other words, here the language is the medium of instruction and not the purposemedium of instruction and not the purpose (end) of that.(end) of that.
  248. 248. Language Teaching:Content based...Language Teaching:Content based... If the content of communication isIf the content of communication is interesting to the students, learninginteresting to the students, learning happens with greater speed and depth.happens with greater speed and depth.
  249. 249. Language Teaching:Content based...Language Teaching:Content based... With the presence of contextual clues,With the presence of contextual clues, vocabulary learning is easier. (cloze testvocabulary learning is easier. (cloze test and fill in the blanks)and fill in the blanks)
  250. 250. Language Teaching:Content based...Language Teaching:Content based... Authenticity means content + use.Authenticity means content + use. Even with authentic texts, the learnersEven with authentic texts, the learners need support by providing examples.need support by providing examples.
  251. 251. Language Teaching:Content based...Language Teaching:Content based... Learners work with meaningful, cognitivelyLearners work with meaningful, cognitively demanding, and authenticdemanding, and authentic texts and taskstexts and tasks (learning by doing)(learning by doing)..
  252. 252. Language Teaching:Content based...Language Teaching:Content based... They work within the framework of allThey work within the framework of all language skills, not just conversationally.language skills, not just conversationally. This is what real communication is. This isThis is what real communication is. This is an example of anan example of an immersion programimmersion program..
  253. 253. Language Teaching:Content based...Language Teaching:Content based... ADJUNCT MODEL:ADJUNCT MODEL: In adjunct model, the students take aIn adjunct model, the students take a normal academic course and a languagenormal academic course and a language course related to that academic course.course related to that academic course. Content teacher and language teacherContent teacher and language teacher teach their courses in a way to help theteach their courses in a way to help the other course too.other course too.
  254. 254. Language Teaching:Content based...Language Teaching:Content based... Sheltered language instruction (contentSheltered language instruction (content based):based): Both native and non native speakers of aBoth native and non native speakers of a language take academic courses but forlanguage take academic courses but for non native speakers ‘sheltered’ instructionnon native speakers ‘sheltered’ instruction is provided to help them through theis provided to help them through the difficult process of studying content in adifficult process of studying content in a foreign language.foreign language.
  255. 255. Language Teaching:Content based...Language Teaching:Content based... All what we said is also applicable if weAll what we said is also applicable if we combine language and vocational/jobcombine language and vocational/job purposes.purposes.
  256. 256. Language Teaching:Content based...Language Teaching:Content based... Whole Language Approach:Whole Language Approach: Language is taught holistically not inLanguage is taught holistically not in pieces like grammar and vocabulary (itpieces like grammar and vocabulary (it comes from Gestalt psychology where thecomes from Gestalt psychology where the whole is emphasized rather than thewhole is emphasized rather than the pieces and segments).pieces and segments).
  257. 257. Language Teaching:Content based...Language Teaching:Content based... Holistic approaches are ‘top down’ in theHolistic approaches are ‘top down’ in the sense that they work from meaning tosense that they work from meaning to linguistic form.linguistic form.
  258. 258. Language Teaching:Content based...Language Teaching:Content based... In ‘bottom up’ methods, the students startIn ‘bottom up’ methods, the students start with pieces and then try to put the pieceswith pieces and then try to put the pieces together to make a wholetogether to make a whole (audiolingualism).(audiolingualism).
  259. 259. Language Teaching:Content based...Language Teaching:Content based... In ‘whole language learning’ errors areIn ‘whole language learning’ errors are natural parts of learning process. Herenatural parts of learning process. Here Vygotsky’s idea about social nature ofVygotsky’s idea about social nature of learning is encouraged.learning is encouraged.
  260. 260. Language Teaching:Content based...Language Teaching:Content based... In ‘language experience approach’, whichIn ‘language experience approach’, which is an example of ‘holistic learning’,is an example of ‘holistic learning’, students read texts about their own lifestudents read texts about their own life experience. Students mention their storiesexperience. Students mention their stories in the first language and the teacherin the first language and the teacher converts them into L2. This is done toconverts them into L2. This is done to facilitate learning.facilitate learning.
  261. 261. Language Teaching:Content based...Language Teaching:Content based... Process writing and journal keeping areProcess writing and journal keeping are also examples of Whole Learning. In thealso examples of Whole Learning. In the former, writing is seen as a process informer, writing is seen as a process in which the teacher and studentswhich the teacher and students collaborate to build up ideas. It is not justcollaborate to build up ideas. It is not just an assignment to be done by assignment to be done by students.
  262. 262. Language Teaching:Content based...Language Teaching:Content based... The latter is like keeping a diary in whichThe latter is like keeping a diary in which students write their feelings and anythingstudents write their feelings and anything else they want to communicate with theelse they want to communicate with the teacher. The teacher ‘dialogues’ with theteacher. The teacher ‘dialogues’ with the writings and writes responses on them butwritings and writes responses on them but does not correct the form.does not correct the form.
  263. 263. Language Teaching:Content based...Language Teaching:Content based... Task-Based InstructionTask-Based Instruction
  264. 264. Language Teaching:Content based...Language Teaching:Content based... Task based approach also uses naturalTask based approach also uses natural context. ‘Do to Learn’ is the basic concept.context. ‘Do to Learn’ is the basic concept. You learn better while you perform andYou learn better while you perform and interact with other students. ‘probleminteract with other students. ‘problem solving’ is the key concept. In problemsolving’ is the key concept. In problem solving you develop new knowledge bysolving you develop new knowledge by focusing on the old.focusing on the old.
  265. 265. Language Teaching:Content based...Language Teaching:Content based... Observations andObservations and experiencesexperiences
  266. 266. Language Teaching:Content based...Language Teaching:Content based... The tasks in the class are clear andThe tasks in the class are clear and purposeful.purposeful. The task needs to be challenging.The task needs to be challenging. The task develops by teacher-learnerThe task develops by teacher-learner interaction.interaction.
  267. 267. Language Teaching:Content based...Language Teaching:Content based... The teacher uses normal language withThe teacher uses normal language with normal speed.normal speed. The teacher helps them find correctThe teacher helps them find correct answers.answers. Language is used to perform a task, notLanguage is used to perform a task, not just for linguistic development.just for linguistic development.
  268. 268. Language Teaching:Content based...Language Teaching:Content based... Authentic activity through authenticAuthentic activity through authentic language use is encouraged.language use is encouraged. The focus is on meaning.The focus is on meaning. They receive feedback for what they did.They receive feedback for what they did.
  269. 269. Language Teaching:Content based...Language Teaching:Content based... Three types of tasks (Probhu)Three types of tasks (Probhu) 1. Information gap activity: exchanging1. Information gap activity: exchanging information to perform a task (studentsinformation to perform a task (students exchange information about their weeklyexchange information about their weekly schedules)schedules)
  270. 270. Language Teaching:Content based...Language Teaching:Content based... 2. Opinion gap activity: students give their2. Opinion gap activity: students give their feelings to perform (finding solutions forfeelings to perform (finding solutions for unemployment)unemployment)
  271. 271. Language Teaching:Content based...Language Teaching:Content based... 3. Reasoning gap activity: students derive3. Reasoning gap activity: students derive new information from the data they werenew information from the data they were given (finding he best way to a city bygiven (finding he best way to a city by looking at and discussing a map)looking at and discussing a map)
  272. 272. Language Teaching:Content based...Language Teaching:Content based... The last type - reasoning gap – involvesThe last type - reasoning gap – involves more engagement and is moremore engagement and is more challenging.challenging.
  273. 273. Language Teaching:Content based...Language Teaching:Content based... Long and Crooks (1993): three other typesLong and Crooks (1993): three other types of tasks (syllabi)of tasks (syllabi) 1. Procedural: the example is the lesson1. Procedural: the example is the lesson given in the bookgiven in the book
  274. 274. Language Teaching:Content based...Language Teaching:Content based... 2. Communication interaction: the2. Communication interaction: the students along with the teacher decidestudents along with the teacher decide upon the task to do.upon the task to do. 3. Meaningful interaction: working on3. Meaningful interaction: working on meaning while drawing attention to form.meaning while drawing attention to form.
  275. 275. Language Teaching:Content based...Language Teaching:Content based... What is ‘Project Work Approach’?What is ‘Project Work Approach’? Here the students elect a project to do, forHere the students elect a project to do, for example they decide to publish a schoolexample they decide to publish a school news paper.
  276. 276. Language Teaching:Content based...Language Teaching:Content based... The first step is planning throughThe first step is planning through collaboration.collaboration. The second step is collecting information.The second step is collecting information. The final step is reviewing their report.The final step is reviewing their report.
  277. 277. Language Teaching:Content based...Language Teaching:Content based... In all stages, the teacher acts as aIn all stages, the teacher acts as a counselor and consultant not as a projectcounselor and consultant not as a project director.director.
  278. 278. Language Teaching:Content based...Language Teaching:Content based... Participatory ApproachParticipatory Approach By: Paula FreireBy: Paula Freire
  279. 279. Language Teaching:Content based...Language Teaching:Content based... It begins with meaningful content. FormIt begins with meaningful content. Form emerges from content.emerges from content. The content is not about subject matter,The content is not about subject matter, but about issues of interest.but about issues of interest.
  280. 280. Language Teaching:Content based...Language Teaching:Content based... Freire engaged the students withFreire engaged the students with immediate social problemsimmediate social problems (unemployment, low income, addiction).(unemployment, low income, addiction).
  281. 281. Language Teaching:Content based...Language Teaching:Content based... The purpose is not just linguisticThe purpose is not just linguistic development, but for taking actions anddevelopment, but for taking actions and thinking about the problems.thinking about the problems. Education is not value free (it is valueEducation is not value free (it is value loaded where feelings are involved)loaded where feelings are involved)
  282. 282. Language Teaching:Content based...Language Teaching:Content based... As an example: compare discussingAs an example: compare discussing addiction with talking about the use ofaddiction with talking about the use of elevators in carrying things.elevators in carrying things.
  283. 283. Language Teaching:Content based...Language Teaching:Content based... Observations and PrinciplesObservations and Principles
  284. 284. Language Teaching:Content based...Language Teaching:Content based... The class activity is tuned to outside worldThe class activity is tuned to outside world The syllabus is not predetermined orThe syllabus is not predetermined or apriori. It is a posteriori, determinedapriori. It is a posteriori, determined through discussion.through discussion.
  285. 285. Language Teaching:Content based...Language Teaching:Content based... For example, the first session they tak andFor example, the first session they tak and read about addiction and they find out thatread about addiction and they find out that the main reason is unemployment, so thethe main reason is unemployment, so the next session they discuss session they discuss unemployment.
  286. 286. Language Teaching:Content based...Language Teaching:Content based... Education is very effective if it isEducation is very effective if it is experience oriented. This also motivatesexperience oriented. This also motivates them.them. Students see themselves as activeStudents see themselves as active participants in the social life.participants in the social life.
  287. 287. Language Teaching:Content based...Language Teaching:Content based... Language form follows and is geared toLanguage form follows and is geared to content. Form is not dealt with in isolation.content. Form is not dealt with in isolation. Students can create materials to be usedStudents can create materials to be used in the following the following session.
  288. 288. Language Teaching:Content based...Language Teaching:Content based... Self evaluation is encouraged. TheSelf evaluation is encouraged. The students see the outcome and evaluatestudents see the outcome and evaluate the process of learning.the process of learning.
  289. 289. Language Teaching:Learning Strategy...Language Teaching:Learning Strategy... Chapter 11Chapter 11
  290. 290. Language Teaching:Learning Strategy...Language Teaching:Learning Strategy... Learning Strategy Training,Learning Strategy Training, Cooperative Learning, andCooperative Learning, and Multiple IntelligencesMultiple Intelligences
  291. 291. Language Teaching:Learning Strategy...Language Teaching:Learning Strategy... These are three methodologicalThese are three methodological innovations.innovations. The focus of all is on the learner; they areThe focus of all is on the learner; they are learner oriented (opposite of teacherlearner oriented (opposite of teacher oriented methods such as Grammaroriented methods such as Grammar translation).translation).
  292. 292. Language Teaching:Learning Strategy...Language Teaching:Learning Strategy... Learning Strategy TrainingLearning Strategy Training
  293. 293. Language Teaching:Learning Strategy...Language Teaching:Learning Strategy... What is a learning strategy?What is a learning strategy? The techniques or devices a learner mayThe techniques or devices a learner may use to acquire knowledge. (Rubin 1975)use to acquire knowledge. (Rubin 1975)
  294. 294. Language Teaching:Learning Strategy...Language Teaching:Learning Strategy... What are the features of good languageWhat are the features of good language learners?learners? They are willing and accurate guessers.They are willing and accurate guessers. They have great desire to communicateThey have great desire to communicate although they may look foolish.although they may look foolish.
  295. 295. Language Teaching:Learning Strategy...Language Teaching:Learning Strategy... They pay attention to both meaning andThey pay attention to both meaning and form.form. They practice and monitor their own andThey practice and monitor their own and others’ speech.others’ speech.
  296. 296. Language Teaching:Learning Strategy...Language Teaching:Learning Strategy... These strategies should be taught.These strategies should be taught. Learning strategies training is as importantLearning strategies training is as important as language training. (Wenden 1985)as language training. (Wenden 1985)
  297. 297. Language Teaching:Learning Strategy...Language Teaching:Learning Strategy... Observations and PrinciplesObservations and Principles
  298. 298. Language Teaching:Learning Strategy...Language Teaching:Learning Strategy... Prior knowledge and experiences arePrior knowledge and experiences are used to build up new knowledge.used to build up new knowledge. Studying strategies of learning leads toStudying strategies of learning leads to academic success.academic success. Learning should be taught, as well asLearning should be taught, as well as language.language.
  299. 299. Language Teaching:Learning Strategy...Language Teaching:Learning Strategy... Autonomy is encouraged: students shouldAutonomy is encouraged: students should become independent and self regulatedbecome independent and self regulated learners. Self assessment-evaluatinglearners. Self assessment-evaluating one’s own progress- also helps’s own progress- also helps autonomy.
  300. 300. Language Teaching:Learning Strategy...Language Teaching:Learning Strategy... Learners should be capable of transferringLearners should be capable of transferring strategies to new learning situations. Ifstrategies to new learning situations. If they are trained to use prefixes tothey are trained to use prefixes to understand meaning, they need tounderstand meaning, they need to practice it at home.practice it at home.
  301. 301. Language Teaching:Learning Strategy...Language Teaching:Learning Strategy... Remember that the methodological trendsRemember that the methodological trends in chapter 11 complement the onesin chapter 11 complement the ones presented in chapter 10.presented in chapter 10.
  302. 302. Language Teaching:Learning Strategy...Language Teaching:Learning Strategy... For example, strategies should be taughtFor example, strategies should be taught within the framework of content area texts.within the framework of content area texts.
  303. 303. Language Teaching:Learning Strategy...Language Teaching:Learning Strategy... The strategies we practiced in chapter 11The strategies we practiced in chapter 11 are ‘metacognitive strategies’ according toare ‘metacognitive strategies’ according to Chamot and O’Malley (1994).Chamot and O’Malley (1994).
  304. 304. Language Teaching:Learning Strategy...Language Teaching:Learning Strategy... Metacognitive strategies are used to plan,Metacognitive strategies are used to plan, monitor, and evaluate a learning task.monitor, and evaluate a learning task. They also include: arranging theThey also include: arranging the conditions that boost learning; setting longconditions that boost learning; setting long and short term goals; checking one’sand short term goals; checking one’s comprehension during listening orcomprehension during listening or reading.reading.
  305. 305. Language Teaching:Learning Strategy...Language Teaching:Learning Strategy... Chamot and O’Malley also identify twoChamot and O’Malley also identify two other categories: cognitive strategiesother categories: cognitive strategies which involve learners’ interaction andwhich involve learners’ interaction and manipulation of materials, and ...manipulation of materials, and ...
  306. 306. Language Teaching:Learning Strategy...Language Teaching:Learning Strategy... Social / affective strategies where learnersSocial / affective strategies where learners interact with other persons. Affectiveinteract with other persons. Affective factors include feelings and attitudes.factors include feelings and attitudes.