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Speaking and listening leaflets
 

Speaking and listening leaflets

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    Speaking and listening leaflets Speaking and listening leaflets Presentation Transcript

    • Primary National Strategy Drama – key teaching points Speaking, Listening, Learning: working with children in Key Stages 1 and 2 Drama needs to be explicitly taught in its own right and can also be used as a tool for understanding in subjects across the curriculum. Drama provides many opportunities for children to use heritage languages and knowledge of a range of cultures to experiment with styles of speaking, gesture and mime. Drama – making it work When teaching children to participate Extend children’s understanding in the classroom in performance: of drama by: • develop characters through movement, • going to live performances and viewing use of voice and facial expressions, a range of plays on screen; To develop their skills in drama, children need to learn to: dialogue and interaction with • talking about how theatrical effects • improvise and work in role, creating and sustaining roles both other characters; individually and when working with others; are achieved; • use space and grouping, props and • script and perform plays and stories using language and actions to • collecting and considering reviews, different ways to adapt to an audience; programme notes and advertisements express and convey situations, characters and emotions; • create dramatic effects through music, and relating these to what they • respond to their own and others’ performances, commenting lighting, sounds, costume, make-up have seen. and scenery; constructively on dramatic effects, characterisation and overall impact. Using the convention of teacher in role • develop understanding of how to act out When teaching drama, remember to: plots, dramatising the problem, climax • Teacher in role involves taking on some and resolution; aspects of a character in the situation • model language which is appropriate to the role, context and theme; being explored. Sometimes this may be • challenge children to move beyond the familiar and everyday; • provide opportunities for rehearsing, signalled by changing voice or putting polishing and presenting plays • build in time to reflect on both the meaning of the drama and how on a piece of clothing (such as a scarf for performance. for a pirate). Alternatively, use a it is enacted; convention such as standing in or out • structure activities in a unit of work to build both children’s skills in When reflecting on work in progress of a circle, holding an item or clapping as well as evaluating at the end: drama and work in role, and their understanding of themes and ideas; to signal moving in or out of role. • use appropriate technical vocabulary; Working in role can be a way of • vary the techniques used so that children develop a repertoire and • encourage discussion of the meaning of challenging children’s ideas and make progress in performance, working in role and evaluation; the drama and how this is created in influencing their thinking without • establish ground rules for drama sessions so that children have speech and action; stopping the drama. a clear framework within which to create roles, explore movement • prompt comparisons of dramas on a or develop scenarios. similar theme, contrasting dramatisations of stories or events with original texts or recounts. © Crown copyright 2003 This leaflet is one of a series of four. Additional copies of all leaflets can be ordered by contacting DfES Publications and quoting ref DfES 0624-2003. © Crown copyright 2003
    • Freeze frames Conscience alley Forum theatre Meetings Freeze frames are still images or silent tableaux Conscience or decision alley is a means Forum theatre allows an incident or event to The teacher in role, perhaps as an official, used to illustrate a specific incident or event. of exploring a character’s mind at a moment be seen from different points of view, making it can call a meeting for the whole class to attend. They are useful for enabling close scrutiny of an of crisis and of investigating the complexity a very useful strategy for examining alternative Meetings enable information to be shared with incident or situation. Individual children or groups of the decision they are facing. ideas. A small group acts out a scene while the the whole group so that a group decision can be are asked to represent the characters at a rest of the class watch them. The class work made about the situation they face. Meetings The class create two lines facing each other. significant moment. Freeze frames can be as directors of the group in role, e.g. asking encourage children to adopt a collective role, One child in role as a particular character improvised or planned briefly. Positioning and them to act or speak in a different way, e.g. as islanders or Romans, which can help less walks down the ‘alley’ between the lines. body shape have to be considered carefully in suggesting that a character might behave confident children. Meetings used at the start of Children voice the character’s thoughts, both for order to represent ideas or emotions. Freeze differently, questioning the characters in role, a drama can be an efficient way of creating roles and against a particular decision or action that frames also help establish roles by giving or suggesting an alternative interpretation or focusing on a problem. the character is facing, acting as his/her children thinking time. Sequential frames can be for what is happening. conscience. The child in role listens to his used to represent the key events as a narrative conscience before making a decision about progresses. Freeze frames can be brought to life the course of action to take. through improvisation or used as the basis for thought tracking. Working in role –u om techniqu se sro es f u l clas Thought tracking Flashbacks and This is a good technique for creating and then flash forwards examining the private thoughts of characters at particularly tense moments of a narrative. It Hot-seating These strategies are effective for getting children focuses on the characters in a freeze frame, or to focus on the consequences of action rather those from an ongoing drama where the action Hot-seating focuses closely on a character and than on the action itself. They help avoid the full- has been frozen. It involves the rest of the class enables motivation to be explored. It is also a scale battle scene, for example! They encourage contributing ideas as if they were speaking the good way of exploring the gaps in a character’s reflection and discussion. They stop the dramatic thoughts of one of the characters. These can story. Hot-seating involves the class in asking Paired improvisation action and require the children to refocus on support or contrast with the words that the questions of someone in role as a character, something that happened before, which may characters actually say. The class makes a fictional or historical, who sits in the ‘hot-seat’. This strategy helps to get children quickly into have caused a particular event, or happened circle around the character and says their The questions can be prepared or improvised. a drama. Pairs are given roles or agree them for later, perhaps as a consequence of the action. thoughts one at a time, or individual children This works best if both the role player and the themselves. They begin a dialogue on a signal, Other strategies, such as freeze frames, may be can stand next to the frozen character and questioners are familiar with the character and making the conversation up, in role as the used to create the flashback from the speak their thoughts aloud. the narrative or situation. characters, as they go along. perspective of different people or characters. © Crown copyright 2003
    • Primary National Strategy Group discussion – key teaching points Speaking, Listening, Learning: working with children in Key Stages 1 and 2 Planning for group work includes deciding • Random mixed-ability groups increase the best size and composition of the children’s experience of working with groups and which roles children will take. different partners and different views. Group discussion and • Single-sex groups are socially more Group size • Working in pairs is quick and easy. comfortable for some children and can be useful in contexts where one sex interaction – making it work It demands a contribution from tends to dominate. both partners. Roles for group members in the classroom • Working in small groups of three or four offers diversity of ideas without • Leader/chair – organises the group, becoming threatening or cumbersome. encourages all to participate and • Working in larger groups of five to seven to complete the task. Working together in pairs and small groups helps children to learn to: produces a greater range of ideas and • Scribe – notes main points of discussion • develop the language and social skills needed for cooperation helps pupils gain the confidence and and any decisions, checks accuracy and collaboration; skill to contribute in whole-class of notes with group members. • use exploratory language to try out ideas; discussion. • Reporter – works with scribe to organise • extend their ideas as they share these with others; the report on findings, summing up and • stretch their language as they talk critically and constructively; Group composition presenting ideas. • support and build on each other’s contributions; • Friendship groups are secure • Mentor – helps group members to • take their turns in discussion. and unthreatening and help children carry out the task, supporting them build confidence. and explaining what is needed. Children need varied experience of groups, including: • Ability groups enable work to be pitched • for different purposes, such as investigating, problem solving, • Observer – makes notes on how at the appropriate level of challenge. the group works and on different sorting, planning, predicting, reporting, evaluating; • Structured mixed-ability groups ensure contributions, then shares the • with different outcomes, such as carrying out an experiment, a range of views and are especially observations with the group. constructing an artefact, making a presentation, deciding suitable for tasks which require diversity. on actions; • Mixed- as well as same-language groups offer advantages to children • learning to use talk in different ways, such as discussing, learning English as an additional hypothesising, agreeing and disagreeing, questioning, reflecting. language, depending on the nature of the task. © Crown copyright 2003 This leaflet is one of a series of four. Additional copies of all leaflets can be ordered by contacting DfES Publications and quoting ref DfES 0624-2003. © Crown copyright 2003
    • Jigsaw Think-Pair-Share Jigsaw procedure: Children are asked to consider an issue • Organise the class into home groups, preferably of or problem individually, such as reading equal numbers. and preparing a response to an • Number each child in the home group: 1, 2, 3 or 4. If information text, or preparing a news the numbers in a group are uneven, two children can item to be read aloud. They then explain be set the same individual task: 1, 2, 3, 4, 4. their ideas to a partner. After the pairs • Assign each child with the same number (i.e. all the have discussed the issue, they may join number 3s) to one area for investigation. another pair, share views and emerge • The children now rearrange themselves to form expert with a group conclusion or perspective. groups (i.e. all the number 1s together, etc.) to undertake investigations, discuss their work and agree on the main points to report back to the home group. • Children re-form into their home groups and each Snowballing individual member reports back on the findings of the Children are organised to discuss something or to investigate expert group. an issue in pairs. The pairs then join another pair to form a group and share their findings. The small groups then join together to make a larger one, for example: Statements game 2 4 8 16 whole-class plenary/centre A group is given a set of cards on which Rainbowing statements are written. The group is asked to agree, through discussion, how to Each member of a working group is given a colour. This approach can be useful when controversial material is categorise the statements, e.g. either agree When the group task is complete the children form being read and evaluated, perhaps for bias or for portraying or disagree with the statement or place them new groups according to their colours. Within the stereotypical images. in order of importance or relevance, when colour groups, children compare findings/discuss some might be considered of equal what they have achieved. This is a useful way of importance, using the power triangle: disseminating and sharing ideas. It helps children to clarify their own understanding and provides an Envoys (x = a statement) opportunity for them to question others and to seek justification for any viewpoints. It is a useful This is a method of disseminating ideas and information that can overcome a more X technique for reading and critical evaluation of laborious and repetitive procedure of having each group ‘report back’ to the whole class. X X fiction or poetry. It can also be used for drafting and Once each group has completed its initial discussion, it sends out one member as X X X redrafting, when children work on a story starter in an envoy to the next group. Envoys move round all the other groups in turn X X X X one group and then, in their colour group, pool explaining/sharing ideas gathered from the groups they have visited. ideas and draw out the best features. The process ➯ ➯ can then be repeated for the next phase of a story. D+A Group A Group Group C Group A B A B Information gap Last ➯ First ➯ ➯ ➯ C+D Choose a topic that can be divided into two complementary parts, for A+B D B B D Step Step example, a comparison of the lives of rich and poor children in Victorian times or a discussion of the pros and cons of experiments on animals. Split a small group into two sub-groups and give each group information related to one part Group C Group Group A Group ➯ ➯ of the topic. To complete the task, pupils will need to use talk to share the D C D C+B C information and draw it together. Group discussion – useful classroom techniques © Crown copyright 2003
    • Primary National Strategy Speaking, Listening, Learning: working with children in Key Stages 1 and 2 Children need planned opportunities to listen and respond to different speakers – including friends, the whole class and a range of adults, as well as to radio and TV broadcasts. For children new to English, it is particularly helpful to support listening by providing non-verbal cues including illustrations, Listening – making it work models and actions. in the classroom Listening – key teaching points Listening needs to be explicitly taught and reinforced throughout the curriculum. Make listening Encourage active, responsive necessary listening When listening, children are: • hearing models of language in use; • Avoid repeating what children say, • Give a purpose for listening in advance. • learning about how speakers use gesture, volume, tone; and expect others to respond. • observing how, in groups, speakers interact, take turns and • Present material clearly with prompts to • Devise activities where, to complete support listening, e.g. using voice to influence others. the task, all children need to have signal changes in focus, emphasising In developing their skills in listening, children need to learn to: contributed what they know. key words. • ask questions to clarify what they have heard; • Do not repeat instructions. • Demonstrate active listening, • build on what others say; e.g. eye contact, asking questions, • evaluate what has been said; • Sometimes speak quietly. quick recapping. • respond non-verbally, e.g. by nodding or maintaining eye contact. • Insist children respond to the • Help children identify features of Children show they have listened and understood when they: last speaker (this may need to include language, gesture and non-verbal cues • identify the gist of an account; wait time). which help the listener. • recall main ideas; • Make sure children answer the question they are asked, e.g. how or why or • Ask children to reflect on • re-present information; what, and do not accept vague replies. how they listened. • follow instructions correctly; • Practise strategies to structure listening, • make relevant comments and responses; • Encourage children to speak audibly • respond to others, maintaining communication; e.g. physical responses to mark key so all can hear, making teacher • ask questions to clarify understanding; points, forming mental pictures, rephrasing unnecessary. • notice significant uses of language; thinking of a question to ask. • create new meanings based on what they have heard. © Crown copyright 2003 This leaflet is one of a series of four. Additional copies of all leaflets can be ordered by contacting DfES Publications and quoting ref DfES 0624-2003. © Crown copyright 2003
    • Listening – us ef te chniques om Babble gabble Barrier games The teacher tells the Barrier games focus ul ro children they are going to listen to a story and afterwards work in pairs on giving and receiving instructions. They prompt children to focus class Ways to listen All change! and retell it. After the on what they need to Different listening initial telling, one child complete a task. The frames can help children Select a sentence and begins to retell the story speaker has to give clear Word tennis Telephone focus on what they hear say it in a monotone. to a partner as fast as information and explicit conversations – before a broadcast, Now repeat the sentence he/she can, but with as instructions to the This is a way of making a for example: using different intonation, much attention to detail listener. The listener story with a partner, and To emphasise the need • give the topic and ask e.g. as a question and as possible. After a has to ask questions emphasises listening for to use language rather children to work out then as an exclamation. minute the teacher calls, to clarify understanding key words, main points than gesture or facial questions they would What is the impact of ‘Change!’ and the and gain information, and events, focusing on Draw a story expression, children sit like answers to; the change? listener now has to while keeping track of the need to make sense. back to back with • guide the listening Show that a sentence continue with the tale. what has been said. For Each person says one Read a story while the ‘telephones’ for by giving children can mean different things This pattern continues example, place children word or phrase in turn so children sit and listen. conversation. The headings to help them depending on which for a number of turns. on either side of a that the story is Pause at the end of content of the listen systematically; words are emphasised, It is important to let the screen, so that a speaker continually passed sections, allow some conversation can vary, • suggest children count e.g. I didn’t borrow my children know they do can describe an object backwards and forwards. think time and tell for example it might be on their fingers each brother’s best jacket not have to retell the that the listener has to For example: once/ children to draw the passing on information, time they hear key yesterday. How does story in the same words draw. Alternatively a there/ was/ a/ queen/ relevant part of the story. discussing a problem or words; different groups the meaning change? as the teacher. However, speaker can give who/ wanted/ to/ fly/ so/ At the end of the story, describing an event. should listen for This can be varied to they do have to listen directions from one map she/ sent/ for/ … ask children what the The children must listen different words; explore the use of carefully in order to while the listener draws or: once there was story is about and get carefully to what is said • ask children to make gesture, listener eye remember the plot and the route on a blank a girl/who liked writing them to retell the story since they cannot see a picture in their contact or the sequence of events. version of the same map. plays/so she began … from their drawings. the person speaking. heads as they listen. encouragement. © Crown copyright 2003
    • Primary National Strategy Speaking – key teaching points Speaking, Listening, Learning: working with children in Key Stages 1 and 2 When teaching children to make Remember to: extended contributions, encourage • give children time to think before them to: • make eye contact with listeners; they respond to questions; • expect children to provide extended Speaking – making it work • speak clearly and audibly; • use facial expression and gesture answers that will interest others in the class; in the classroom to emphasise points and refer • follow up children’s contributions to objects and places; with further questions rather than • use precise and persuasive words repetition or ritual praise; In developing their skills in speaking, children need to learn to: to convey meaning and hold • choose topics that will challenge • adapt their speaking to the listeners; listeners’ attention; children cognitively; • use a range of ways to express themselves; • make meaning clear, organising • expect children to speak to the class • use talk to clarify their ideas; ideas in a helpful order and making or group, not just to the teacher; • sustain their talk to develop thinking and reasoning. links between them; • make sure children speak loudly Speaking includes: • respond to others’ contributions and clearly so others can hear. • putting thoughts into words and sharing in groups; by adding or elaborating on them or • taking opportunities to speak at some length to explain ideas by putting across another view. in different situations; • giving a talk or presentation using gestures, aids, rhetorical devices. Children learning English as an additional language Children need planned opportunities to speak in a range For these children it is particularly helpful to: of contexts, including: • allow rehearsal time before asking used, distinguishing everyday and • to different audiences, such as the class, the teacher, other adults; them to contribute; technical meanings, exploring • with different levels of formality, such as with friends, to another class, common metaphors and idioms; in assembly; • expect more than one-word • for different purposes, such as recounting events and telling stories, answers; • group children carefully, judging how best to use their differing skills explaining and describing, justifying views and persuading others. • provide models of appropriate use of English and reinforce correct in English; Children need to be taught how to make more extended contributions usage wherever possible; • check that children understand the such as: • ensure children become familiar with key words and concepts needed for • expanding ideas, using because, so, if, but; different ways in which words are the topic or theme talked about. • making connections between reasoning and predicting; • using language to organise and sequence ideas. At times, children benefit from using their home language, for example when getting their ideas together. © Crown copyright 2003 This leaflet is one of a series of four. Additional copies of all leaflets can be ordered by contacting DfES Publications and quoting ref DfES 0624-2003. © Crown copyright 2003
    • Speaking – useful Glove puppets and shadow theatre classroom techniques Puppets can be used by children to make and tell stories. Providing a tape recorder while children are rehearsing or developing the script helps them to go through an oral drafting process and understand how they develop and refine their story. Children can reflect on their use of language and voices. Debates This technique can also be used to explain, instruct or inform. Talk partners Encourage children to stick to a point of view To enable all children to participate in speaking: and to use language • put children into pairs and allocate time for each to persuasively. Choose a Photos and paintings Radio talk to the other at specific points in a teaching topic where they need Use photographs or paintings to encourage groups broadcast sequence, e.g. to share experiences, generate to look for new to construct a story or report. Help children to tell ideas, reflect on what they have just learned; information and which the story dramatically, using voices for characters To focus on how to • retain pairs for a period of time, e.g. up to half a allows for different and intonation for climax or atmosphere. sustain talk without the term, so that they establish routines, gain points of view. Divide Use photos in different subjects: help of gestures, eye confidence and develop more extended turns. the class into groups to • geography – photopack of a particular place contact or help from develop their arguments or environment; listeners, ask pupils, in and reasons. They can • design and technology – photographs of pairs or small groups, to either choose one constructions to discuss how buildings are make a radio broadcast. person to present their designed; The topic should involve ideas or organise the • history – compare photographs with artists’ explaining and presentation between impressions of events and objects. reasoning, or trying to them. Share ideas for persuade listeners. After how to be persuasive in playing back different the presentations. examples, discuss what makes a good radio broadcast. Predicaments and problems Use opportunities from across the curriculum to focus attention on the language needed when problems are difficult to solve, for example: Just a minute • an historical figure at a critical turning point; Give children a topic and ask them to speak without • scientists considering the consequences of hesitation, deviation or repetition for up to a minute. a discovery, discussing pros and cons and Others can challenge when the rules are broken ways forward. and if the challenge is successful the challenger As children talk they will need to weigh up continues the topic to the end of the minute alternatives, recognise conflicting points of view unless challenged! and negotiate situations. This can involve role-play. © Crown copyright 2003
    • Progression in Speaking and Listening in Key Stages 1 and 2 Speaking Listening Group discussion Drama Year 1/2 Can he/she: Can he/she: Can he/she: Can he/she: • convey simple information showing awareness • listen with sustained concentration to others • ask and answer relevant questions • use improvisation and work in role to explore of what the listener needs to know? in the class and to an adult speaking? and suggest ideas to others? characters and situations? • use words to sequence and sustain talk? • ask relevant questions, follow instructions • take turns as a speaker and listener when • present dramatisations to others in the class, • speak clearly and audibly to a large group? and remember main points? working with others? based on work they have done? • vary voice and intonation with purpose? • identify points of interest when listening • consider alternatives, agree what to do • talk about how some dramatic effects are to a story told or broadcast? and report this to another group? achieved in live or recorded performances? Sam and Darcy discuss and Emily uses improvisation to explore When explaining his group’s game, Matthew Lewis listens with sustained concentration to reach agreement, taking turns as speakers the feelings of characters. She devises dialogue conveys detailed information clearly and audibly for the group discussion about inventing a game. When and listeners. They offer suggestions for their findings and, in her group, presents a dramatisation to the rest the listeners. He uses sequencing language to order his explaining the instructions to the rest of the class, he and are beginning to build on the contributions of others. of the class. Emily develops a detailed explanation about the instructions, although more variation in delivery would help remembers the main points and delivers them clearly, using When reporting back to the class, Sam and Darcy offer motivation of the characters. While she joins in the class to emphasise key points. His teacher helps him explain a sequencing language to support others’ listening. He alternative viewpoints and present feedback constructively. discussion on the effectiveness of the performances, she difficulty in understanding and assists him in demonstrates active listening in the detail he provides In the plenary session, the teacher assists Darcy in is not yet able to talk about how dramatic effects identifying what more he needed to know. and in the way he answers relevant questions. clarifying misconceptions. are achieved. Year 3/4 Can he/she: Can he/she: Can he/she: Can he/she: • take a long turn spontaneously? • listen attentively in discussion by following • use talk to plan and organise work in a group? • improvise dialogue and events to interpret key • give a clear account/explanation which up points, agreeing or disagreeing with • participate in group work where the tasks ideas and issues? is sustained and complete? other speakers? are both speculative and practical? • perform plays to engage the interest of an • use presentation techniques such as visual • use background knowledge about speakers • work in groups of different sizes, taking audience in school? aids, gestures? to focus their listening purposefully? different roles? • compare and comment constructively on the • use formal language appropriately? • identify in broadcasts some of the • sustain group work over time, organising success of different performances? presentational features used in shaping group members and resources? and organising meanings? Lauren is able to offer opinions and During the group discussion Anharad As chair, Ashley uses talk When the whole class is placed in the role reasons for her views in sustained turns. She listens attentively to the points being made. She then purposefully to plan and organise the group’s of Roman emissaries, Joshua empathises with the provides critical feedback constructively using humour. suggests effective ways of responding to a speaker to practical task. He is alert to reminders from the mentor feelings of others and sees issues from different points of Lauren’s feedback includes evaluation of language features show active listening, which include looking at the person and about what needs to be done or who hasn’t spoken. He view. In role, he can offer opinions and make sustained and she offers illustrative examples of inexplicit vocabulary agreeing or disagreeing with ideas. Anharad demonstrates includes everyone in the group and sums up succinctly. contributions on the pros and cons of invading Britain. (muddy stuff/thingybob). Lauren uses formal language these points in the group discussion which follows and His tendency to dominate the discussion is restrained by When giving feedback, he is able to put himself into the appropriately and understands the importance of further demonstrates sustained listening by giving having a good understanding of the other roles Emperor’s shoes and relate issues in history to his giving evidence for her opinions. detailed answers to questions. within the group. present experience of religious beliefs. Year 5/6 Can he/she: Can he/she: Can he/she: Can he/she: • organise and shape a talk, making • identify the importance of some key • plan and manage work in groups • sustain and reflect on how different connections between ideas and drawing on differences between formal and informal with minimum supervision? techniques for working in role help to explore different points of view? spoken language? • understand and make use of a variety of ways complex issues? • use standard English appropriately? • analyse and evaluate how effectively speakers to support, challenge and accept criticism? • devise and perform a play for • use persuasive techniques deliberately use language to argue and persuade? • negotiate and make decisions taking account a specific audience? to influence the listener? • sustain listening to different sources, making of alternatives and consequences? • evaluate different aspects of a live performance, • use spoken language imaginatively, engaging their own notes? • take different roles effectively, including including characterisation, dramatic effects and the attention and interest of the listener? leading the group? suitability for different audiences? Melica and Samuel combine their Natalie participates fully in stages language resources to organise and shape an After listening to presentations, Conrad analyses When working on ideas for their presentation, of the drama built around the class novel. The argument using a range of persuasive devices, e.g. and evaluates how speakers use language to argue and Alice and Ashley show that they can plan and manage conscience alley technique allows her to enter into the gestures, visual aids and varied intonation. They anticipate persuade. He provides cogent and perceptive feedback their work with minimum supervision. They offer ideas, emotional turmoil of the character and she can evaluate the and make use of counter arguments, demonstrating suggesting, for example, that the role-play interview was a take turns and support one another. They negotiate and effect of the technique and analyse its impact. Natalie now needs a command of persuasive language, using standard to move on to explain how this work has contributed to her overall useful technique, but that the views expressed lacked make decisions about what to include in the talk English appropriately for this formal context. They interpretation of the characters and their motives, and to sufficient evidence. Conrad’s contributions are built and which persuasive devices will prove to be conclude their talk with a memorable reflect on the way working in drama has added to on attentive and sustained listening. most effective. rhetorical flourish. her understanding of the book. What to do next: use the relevant questions as prompts when recording children’s achievements
    • Primary National Strategy Speaking, Listening, Learning: working with children in Key Stages 1 and 2 Progression The poster sets out some criteria for assessing progress throughout the primary age range. Key questions are illustrated by examples of children’s attainment taken from the accompanying video. Use this poster to promote discussion about children’s progress in the four strands of speaking and listening (speaking, listening, group discussion and drama). Suggested activities • Give teachers the relevant questions for their year group and ask them to observe two or three children in one week and then write a brief note about each one, answering the questions. The kind of note is illustrated in the lozenges on the poster. • Follow this up with discussion in year groups to develop consensus around expectations appropriate to these children. • Across the year group, consider whether the teacher notes suggest there is progression and whether curriculum plans could support the progress better. • Are there opportunities for teachers to gain further understanding of progression by visiting each other’s classrooms? For example, a Year 3 teacher observing Year 6 children or a Reception teacher observing a Year 2 class can gain insight into what can be achieved at the end of a key stage. • Compare record-keeping on speaking and listening (see Handbook pages 33 and 34). Does the format and detail support the identification of progression? Are there gaps in the records? These key questions are equally valid for children learning English as an additional language, although they may enter the system at different times and so develop spoken English at a different rate. © Crown copyright 2003 Copies of this poster can be ordered by contacting DfES Publications and quoting ref DfES 0624-2003