Publishing and UsingLinked Open Data            Richard J. Urban, Ph.D.            School of Library and Information Studi...
January 8, 2013Tuesday’s Schedule•   9:00 am- 10:30 am     Class Session: Information Modeling Fundamentals•   10:30-10:45...
Humanities Data Models• What are the models that we currently  use?  – Document-based models  – Database Models  – Probabi...
How RDF is Different• Based in knowledge representation  languages (artificial intelligence)• Grounded in formal predicate...
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Semantic_Web_Stack        #lod4h
Model-Theoretic Semantics1. use formal structures and rules to ensure   that every legitimate language expression   has a ...
Interpretations• The basic intuition of model-theoretic  semantics is that asserting a sentence makes  a claim about the w...
Entailment• A entails B• A is true• Therefore B is  true                   #lod4h
EntailmentA.   Jane is the mother of John.B.   All mothers are females.C.    No females are males.D.   Jane is not a male....
Identity & Constants• Logical languages, like first-order logic,  rely on binding constants to referents.• RDF does this b...
Literal/Non-Literal• Literal: Text strings that are directly used  as objects of a statement.• Typed Literals: strings tha...
Examplesfoaf:name “Leonardo da Vinci”                      Plain literaldcterms:title “La Joconde”@fr                     ...
MODELING LINKED DATAWITH RDFS            #lod4h
Classes/subclasses• Class: types of resources which we wish  to assign properties and relationships.• Subclasses inherit a...
@prefix rdf: <http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#>@prefix rdfs: <http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#>@prefix xsd...
Properties/subproperties• Properties: attributes of defined classes.  Establish relationships between resources  and value...
ex:length rdf:type rdfs:property ;      rdfs:label “Length”ex:loa rdf:type rdfs:property;         rdfs:subPropertyOf ex:le...
Domain/Range• Domain: which class may have a property  (what can be the subject of a triple that  uses this property)• Ran...
ex:loa rdfs:range xsd:floatex:vessel_type rdf:type rdfs:property;     rdfs:domain ex:vessel ;     rdfs:range skos:concept ...
Limitations of RDFs•   Cardinality•   Transitivity•   Equivalence (of classes/instances)•   Constraining range based on do...
An easier way!• Protégé Ontology Editor  http://protege.stanford.edu/                        #lod4h
Cultural Heritage• CIDOC – Conceptual Reference Model  – Lightweight Information Describing Objects    (LIDO) (XML Schema)...
LUNCH        #lod4h
SPARQL         #lod4h
Basic SPARQLPrefix <…>                         Declare what schemas                                   you are using.Prefix...
SELECT ?personWHERE{ ?person :givenName "Richard" .}http://mith.umd.edu/dhwiwiki/index.php/SPARQL_Examples                ...
SELECT ?propertyName ?propertyValueWHERE{<http://chi.cci.fsu.edu/person/rurban#>?propertyName ?propertyValue .}           ...
SELECT *WHERE{    ?s ?p ?o .}                 #lod4h
SELECT *WHERE{    ?s ?p ?o .}                 #lod4h
SELECT *WHERE{    ?s ?p ?o .    FILTER (regex (?o, "edu", "i"))}Additional functions:http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf-sparql-query...
• CONSTRUCT: returns results as RDF  triples (not a web page to browse)• ASK: returns boolean (true/false)• DESCRIBE: prov...
dbPedia• SPARQL endpoint  http://dbpedia.org/snorql/• Faceted Search  http://dbpedia.org/fct/  – View SPARQL              ...
LINKED DATA FOR PROJECTS            #lod4h
Next up:• 5:30-7:00 pm  DHWI Public DH: API Workshop  Registered Attendees Only                    #lod4h
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Publishing and Using Linked Open Data - Day 2

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Information Modeling Fundamentals
Linked Data Models (RDFs)
Searching Linked Data (SPARQL)

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Publishing and Using Linked Open Data - Day 2

  1. 1. Publishing and UsingLinked Open Data Richard J. Urban, Ph.D. School of Library and Information Studies Florida State University rurban@fsu.edu @musebrarian #lod4h
  2. 2. January 8, 2013Tuesday’s Schedule• 9:00 am- 10:30 am Class Session: Information Modeling Fundamentals• 10:30-10:45 am break• 10:45- Noon Class Session: Linked Data Models• Noon- 1:00 pm Lunch (on your own)• 1:00- 2:45 pm Class Session: Searching Linked Data• 2:45- 3:00 pm break• 3:00-5:00 pm Class Session: Identifying Linked Data for Participant Projects• 5:30-7:00 pm DHWI Public DH: API Workshop Registered Attendees Only #lod4h
  3. 3. Humanities Data Models• What are the models that we currently use? – Document-based models – Database Models – Probabilistic/Statistical Models (NLP) #lod4h
  4. 4. How RDF is Different• Based in knowledge representation languages (artificial intelligence)• Grounded in formal predicate logic/description logics • 20th Century developments in the philosophy of language (Leibnitz, Russell, Wittgenstein, Peirce, Frege, Kripke, Tarski, etc.)• Intended to enable intelligent reasoning #lod4h
  5. 5. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Semantic_Web_Stack #lod4h
  6. 6. Model-Theoretic Semantics1. use formal structures and rules to ensure that every legitimate language expression has a well-defined meaning;2. define what is means for a statement in a language to be true under a particular interpretation;3. allow us to formalize the intuitive notion of logical consequence, that is, of one statement following logically from others; and…4. provide a basis for implementing automated reasoning via an appropriate proof theory. #lod4h
  7. 7. Interpretations• The basic intuition of model-theoretic semantics is that asserting a sentence makes a claim about the world: it is another way of saying that the world is, in fact, so arranged as to be an interpretation which makes the sentence true. In other words, an assertion amounts to stating a constraint on the possible ways the world might be. – Anyone can say anything about anything. – But…you need to tell me what your interpretation is so I can evaluate it. #lod4h
  8. 8. Entailment• A entails B• A is true• Therefore B is true #lod4h
  9. 9. EntailmentA. Jane is the mother of John.B. All mothers are females.C. No females are males.D. Jane is not a male.• Entailment enables us to generate valid inferences from RDF data. #lod4h
  10. 10. Identity & Constants• Logical languages, like first-order logic, rely on binding constants to referents.• RDF does this by using URIs as a constant. #lod4h
  11. 11. Literal/Non-Literal• Literal: Text strings that are directly used as objects of a statement.• Typed Literals: strings that conform to a datatype – XML Datatypes: http://goo.gl/4wQss – XMLLiteral• Non-Literal: URIs that name a resource. #lod4h
  12. 12. Examplesfoaf:name “Leonardo da Vinci” Plain literaldcterms:title “La Joconde”@fr Plain literal w/dcterms:title “Mona Lisa”@en language:birthday“1452-04-15”^^<http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#date> . Type literal #lod4h
  13. 13. MODELING LINKED DATAWITH RDFS #lod4h
  14. 14. Classes/subclasses• Class: types of resources which we wish to assign properties and relationships.• Subclasses inherit all the properties of a class.• RDFs allows a subclass to have multiple parents. #lod4h
  15. 15. @prefix rdf: <http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#>@prefix rdfs: <http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#>@prefix xsd: <http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#>@prefix ex: <http://www.example.org/vessels#>ex:vessel rdf:type rdfs:class ; rdfs:label “Vessel” ;ex:ship rdf:type rdfs:class; rdfs:subClassOf ex:vessel ; rdfs:label “Ship” . #lod4h
  16. 16. Properties/subproperties• Properties: attributes of defined classes. Establish relationships between resources and values (literals, non-literals). #lod4h
  17. 17. ex:length rdf:type rdfs:property ; rdfs:label “Length”ex:loa rdf:type rdfs:property; rdfs:subPropertyOf ex:length ; rdfs:label “Length over all” ;ex:lwl rdf:type rdfs:property; rdfs:subPropertyOf ex:length ; rdfs:label “Length at waterline” . #lod4h
  18. 18. Domain/Range• Domain: which class may have a property (what can be the subject of a triple that uses this property)• Range: what class of objects can be used with this property. – A class of resources – Literals/datatypes, etc. #lod4h
  19. 19. ex:loa rdfs:range xsd:floatex:vessel_type rdf:type rdfs:property; rdfs:domain ex:vessel ; rdfs:range skos:concept . #lod4h
  20. 20. Limitations of RDFs• Cardinality• Transitivity• Equivalence (of classes/instances)• Constraining range based on domain – Domain:basketball teamMembers 5 – Domain:soccer teamMembers 11 #lod4h
  21. 21. An easier way!• Protégé Ontology Editor http://protege.stanford.edu/ #lod4h
  22. 22. Cultural Heritage• CIDOC – Conceptual Reference Model – Lightweight Information Describing Objects (LIDO) (XML Schema) – Europeana Data Model (EDM)• Bibliontology• Open Annotation Collaboration #lod4h
  23. 23. LUNCH #lod4h
  24. 24. SPARQL #lod4h
  25. 25. Basic SPARQLPrefix <…> Declare what schemas you are using.Prefix <…>SELECT ?displayVariables Query resultsFROM/FROM NAMED Specify a datasetWHERE { subject object predicate . Query pattern } Query modifiersORDER BY/LIMIT/OFFSET #lod4h
  26. 26. SELECT ?personWHERE{ ?person :givenName "Richard" .}http://mith.umd.edu/dhwiwiki/index.php/SPARQL_Examples #lod4h
  27. 27. SELECT ?propertyName ?propertyValueWHERE{<http://chi.cci.fsu.edu/person/rurban#>?propertyName ?propertyValue .} #lod4h
  28. 28. SELECT *WHERE{ ?s ?p ?o .} #lod4h
  29. 29. SELECT *WHERE{ ?s ?p ?o .} #lod4h
  30. 30. SELECT *WHERE{ ?s ?p ?o . FILTER (regex (?o, "edu", "i"))}Additional functions:http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf-sparql-query/#tests #lod4h
  31. 31. • CONSTRUCT: returns results as RDF triples (not a web page to browse)• ASK: returns boolean (true/false)• DESCRIBE: provide a specified set of properties for a resource #lod4h
  32. 32. dbPedia• SPARQL endpoint http://dbpedia.org/snorql/• Faceted Search http://dbpedia.org/fct/ – View SPARQL #lod4h
  33. 33. LINKED DATA FOR PROJECTS #lod4h
  34. 34. Next up:• 5:30-7:00 pm DHWI Public DH: API Workshop Registered Attendees Only #lod4h
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