SlideShare a Scribd company logo
1 of 35
HOW
TO DO
THINGS
WITH
METADATA
From Rights Statements to Speech
Acts.
R. J. URBAN
Metadata Semantics
Knowledge Organization
• Colloquial
• Informal, document-like
representation structures.
• Metadata elements
conform to a complex set
of rules.
• Supports information
retrieval.
• Creates descriptions that
identify resources.
Knowledge
Representation
• Formal
• Grounded in formal
theories of First Order
Logic
• Metadata assertions are
true/false within an
interpretation.
• Available to support
formal reasoning.
• Relies on names to
identify resource.
Metadata Pragmatics?
• Semantics: what do words (signifiers, etc.)
mean?
– Colloquial MARC/XML semantics
– Formal semantics for knowledge
representation.
• Resource Description Language (RDF)
• Pragmatics: how does context contribute
to meaning?
– As humans we regularly interpret the meaning
of metadata successfully, even though it may
not be formally represented or machine
understandable.
So what?
Dublin Core Rights
Typically, rights information includes a
statement about various property rights
associated with the resource, including
intellectual property rights.
So what?
DC Terms class: rightsStatement
A statement about the intellectual property
rights (IPR) held in or over a Resource, a
legal document giving official permission to
do something with a resource, or a
statement about access rights.
DPLA Rights Statements
DPLA Rights Statements
87,000
unique values
Research Questions
• What are organizations trying to do with
rights statements?
• How are rights statements a kind of
speech act?
Europeana Context
“The [Task Force on Metadata Quality]
noted that many data providers
approach rights statements as an
afterthought and lack sufficient know-
how to apply the appropriate statement.
They therefore choose a restrictive
rights statement as a default.”
http://goo.gl/lHaeMX
Europeana Rights Statements
– Public Domain
– In Copyright
• Various Creative Commons Licenses
• Rights Reserved – Free Access
• Rights Reserved – Paid Access
– Orphan Works
– Unknown
– http://pro.europeana.eu/page/available-rights-statements
International Standardized
Rights Statements
• Europeana + Digital Public Library of
America (DPLA)
• http://rightsstatements.org/
• SKOS vocabulary representing 10 rights
statement classifications.
Problem
Metadata Quality Frameworks
Schlosser’s Memes
• Specific Ownership statements:
“copyright [organization]”
• Vague Ownership statements:
“copyright retained by the original owner”
• What you can/can’t do:
“we encourage fair use of copyrighted
material”
• Protecting Ourselves and You:
“no information on the rights in the collection,
researchers are responsible for determining
copyright.”
Schlosser, M. (2009). Unless otherwise indicated: A survey of
copyright statements on digital library collections. College &
Research Libraries, 70(4), 371–385.
http://doi.org/10.5860/crl.70.4.371
Speech Acts
J.L. Austin
• Maybe not all “statements” are
true/false
• Performatives
• Questions
• Commands
• Promises
• Oaths
• Declarations
• locutionary vs. illocutionary
meaning
Speech Acts
• Maybe not all “statements” are
true/false
• Performatives
• Questions
• Commands
• Promises
• Oaths
• Declarations
• locutionary vs. illocutionary
meaning
Searle’s Speech Act Theory
• Illocutionary force =
– Illocutionary point
(purpose of
statement) +
– Direction of fit
(relation of
utterance to the
world) +
– Speaker intention
(psychological
state)
Searle (1979) Speech Act
Taxonomy
Category Description Direction of fit
Assertive Utterances that commit the speaker
to the expressed truth proposition.
“The cat is on the mat.”
Words-to-world
Commisive Utterances that commit the speaker
to some future action.
“I shall faithfully uphold the office of
the president….”
World-to-words
Declarations Utterances that bring about some
change in the world.
“I now pronounce you man and
wife.”
World-to-words and
word-to-world
Directives Utterances that consist of an attempt
by the speaker to get the hearer to
do something. “Please pass the
salt.”
World-to-words
Expressives Expresses the speakers emotional or
psychological attitude towards a
No direction of fit.
Method: Sample
• 87,610 unique values found in aggregated
DPLA metadata as dc:rights.
– Frequency counts of associated records.
• Drop statements associated with fewer
than 100 records. (n=86,482)
– Of these, 78,191 only associated with one
record.
• Result: 1295 statements
Method: Cleanup
• http://openrefine.org
• Make all statements lowercase.
• Remove extra whitespace.
• Remove uniquing features:
– DOIs
– Copyright [date]
– Gift of/donated by [name]
– Cite as [citation string]
• Result: 488 statements
Method: statement analysis
• 488 statements
– Qualitative coding according to Searle’s
Taxonomy of Speech Acts.
• What is the proper unit of analysis?
– 603 coded excerpts. (these are not
necessarily sentences, especially for long
complex directives).
Assertives (n=199)
• Schlosser’s ownership statements.
• “all rights reserved”
• “copyright [copyright holder]”
• “copyright [date]”
• “This work is in the public domain”
• “No known copyright restrictions”
• “Purchased with Smithsonian Trust funds”
Directives (n=272)
• Schlossers What you can and can’t do and Protecting
ourselves and you.
• “contact the host institution for more information”
• “users may download the images for personal or
educational use - students may include images in
reports, for instance, and teachers may use the
images in the classroom - if the following credit line is
included with the image: courtesy of the georgia
archives.”
• “to purchase copies of images and/or for copyright
information, contact university of [x]”
• “this item may be subject to copyright”
• “this image available for use only with the expressed,
written consent of the [x] historical society “
Commissive (n=1)
• i hereby certify that, if appropriate, i have obtained and
attached hereto a written permission statement from the
owner(s) of each third party copyrighted matter to be included
in my thesis, dissertation, or project report, and specifically
allowing distribution as specified below. i certify that the
version i submitted is the same as that approved by my
advisory committee. i hereby grant to brigham young
university and its agents the non-exclusive license to archive
and make accessible, under the conditions specified below,
my thesis, dissertation, or project report in whole or in part in
all forms of media, now or hereafter known. i retain all other
ownership rights to the copyright of the thesis, dissertation, or
project report. i also retain the right to use in future works
(such as articles or books) all or part of this thesis,
dissertation, or project report.;
Expressives (n=1)
• the new york public library is interested in
learning more about items you've seen on
our websites or elsewhere online. if you
have any more information about an item
or its copyright status, we want to hear
from you.
Rights statement patterns
Assertive + directive.
Copyright [date], [organization].
For more information contact
x@x.edu
Non-Speech Acts (n=130)
• Unexpected discovery!
• “university of utah”
• person@ex.org
• "watt hall 4d, usc, los angeles, ca 90089-
0294”
• Are URLs speech acts?
– http://ex.org/rights.html
Non-speech acts in context
<http://ex.org/resource001>
<dc:rights> “University of Utah”
• Still not really a “statement”
• Not a legal document.
• Not a permission.
So what?
• Europeana Rights statements really about Assertives.
– Creative Commons Licenses (maybe more directive, but
still represented as an assertion that a license is available)
• Open Digital Rights Language (ODRL)
https://www.w3.org/community/odrl/
– Policies
• Permissions
• Constraints
– Intended to be actionable by a system, so very tightly
defined.
– Mapping statements to ODRL may be difficult.
Permissions/constraints often mixed in rights statements
sentences.
– Not well supported in cultural heritage digital library
software.
Next steps
• Can text analysis help automatically
assign International Standard Rights
Metadata.
– Automatically recognize and separate
different kinds of speech acts.
– Determine relationship to rights statements.
• Fork Cohen’s Ciranda (detects speech
acts in emails)?
Parallel Research
• What do rights
statements refer to?
• Same data set.
• Tagged according to
indexical/referential
statements.
– This collection
– This (digital image)
– The work
– Etc. etc.

More Related Content

What's hot

Finding and managing information (including endnote OR zotero)
Finding and managing information (including endnote OR zotero)Finding and managing information (including endnote OR zotero)
Finding and managing information (including endnote OR zotero)Jamie Bisset
 
S alvarado revision wk 7 copyright crash course
S alvarado revision wk 7 copyright crash courseS alvarado revision wk 7 copyright crash course
S alvarado revision wk 7 copyright crash coursesalvara85
 
CSCI6530: Library Instruction for Research Methods in Computer Science
CSCI6530: Library Instruction for Research Methods in Computer ScienceCSCI6530: Library Instruction for Research Methods in Computer Science
CSCI6530: Library Instruction for Research Methods in Computer Scienceciakov
 
EngWri 300 (Silcox)
EngWri 300 (Silcox)EngWri 300 (Silcox)
EngWri 300 (Silcox)karlsen
 
Using Lucene/Solr to Build CiteSeerX and Friends
Using Lucene/Solr to Build CiteSeerX and FriendsUsing Lucene/Solr to Build CiteSeerX and Friends
Using Lucene/Solr to Build CiteSeerX and Friendslucenerevolution
 
Csci 6530 2015 fall_cli2
Csci 6530 2015 fall_cli2Csci 6530 2015 fall_cli2
Csci 6530 2015 fall_cli2ciakov
 
Historic collections for researchers (November 2013)
Historic collections for researchers (November 2013)Historic collections for researchers (November 2013)
Historic collections for researchers (November 2013)Jamie Bisset
 
Text REtrieval Conference (TREC) Dynamic Domain Track 2015
Text REtrieval Conference (TREC) Dynamic Domain Track 2015Text REtrieval Conference (TREC) Dynamic Domain Track 2015
Text REtrieval Conference (TREC) Dynamic Domain Track 2015Grace Hui Yang
 
Csci 6530 2016 fall presentation
Csci 6530 2016 fall presentationCsci 6530 2016 fall presentation
Csci 6530 2016 fall presentationciakov
 
Influence of Timeline and Named-entity Components on User Engagement
Influence of Timeline and Named-entity Components on User Engagement Influence of Timeline and Named-entity Components on User Engagement
Influence of Timeline and Named-entity Components on User Engagement Roi Blanco
 
Near Real-time Web-Page Recs Using Content Features
Near Real-time Web-Page Recs Using Content FeaturesNear Real-time Web-Page Recs Using Content Features
Near Real-time Web-Page Recs Using Content FeaturesAshok Venkatesan
 
Transfer students and the library
Transfer students and the libraryTransfer students and the library
Transfer students and the libraryTraciwm
 
Introduction
IntroductionIntroduction
Introductionsriniefs
 
EngWri 300 (Magneson)
EngWri 300 (Magneson)EngWri 300 (Magneson)
EngWri 300 (Magneson)karlsen
 

What's hot (20)

Finding and managing information (including endnote OR zotero)
Finding and managing information (including endnote OR zotero)Finding and managing information (including endnote OR zotero)
Finding and managing information (including endnote OR zotero)
 
S alvarado revision wk 7 copyright crash course
S alvarado revision wk 7 copyright crash courseS alvarado revision wk 7 copyright crash course
S alvarado revision wk 7 copyright crash course
 
CSCI6530: Library Instruction for Research Methods in Computer Science
CSCI6530: Library Instruction for Research Methods in Computer ScienceCSCI6530: Library Instruction for Research Methods in Computer Science
CSCI6530: Library Instruction for Research Methods in Computer Science
 
Copyrighted material and your PhD thesis
Copyrighted material and your PhD thesisCopyrighted material and your PhD thesis
Copyrighted material and your PhD thesis
 
EngWri 300 (Silcox)
EngWri 300 (Silcox)EngWri 300 (Silcox)
EngWri 300 (Silcox)
 
Using Lucene/Solr to Build CiteSeerX and Friends
Using Lucene/Solr to Build CiteSeerX and FriendsUsing Lucene/Solr to Build CiteSeerX and Friends
Using Lucene/Solr to Build CiteSeerX and Friends
 
Intl190 kahler guide
Intl190 kahler guideIntl190 kahler guide
Intl190 kahler guide
 
Csci 6530 2015 fall_cli2
Csci 6530 2015 fall_cli2Csci 6530 2015 fall_cli2
Csci 6530 2015 fall_cli2
 
Poli100q guide
Poli100q guidePoli100q guide
Poli100q guide
 
Historic collections for researchers (November 2013)
Historic collections for researchers (November 2013)Historic collections for researchers (November 2013)
Historic collections for researchers (November 2013)
 
Copyright and text and data mining
Copyright and text and data miningCopyright and text and data mining
Copyright and text and data mining
 
Text REtrieval Conference (TREC) Dynamic Domain Track 2015
Text REtrieval Conference (TREC) Dynamic Domain Track 2015Text REtrieval Conference (TREC) Dynamic Domain Track 2015
Text REtrieval Conference (TREC) Dynamic Domain Track 2015
 
Csci 6530 2016 fall presentation
Csci 6530 2016 fall presentationCsci 6530 2016 fall presentation
Csci 6530 2016 fall presentation
 
Influence of Timeline and Named-entity Components on User Engagement
Influence of Timeline and Named-entity Components on User Engagement Influence of Timeline and Named-entity Components on User Engagement
Influence of Timeline and Named-entity Components on User Engagement
 
SOC 111 (Fall 2012)
SOC 111 (Fall 2012)SOC 111 (Fall 2012)
SOC 111 (Fall 2012)
 
Near Real-time Web-Page Recs Using Content Features
Near Real-time Web-Page Recs Using Content FeaturesNear Real-time Web-Page Recs Using Content Features
Near Real-time Web-Page Recs Using Content Features
 
Poli153 guide
Poli153 guidePoli153 guide
Poli153 guide
 
Transfer students and the library
Transfer students and the libraryTransfer students and the library
Transfer students and the library
 
Introduction
IntroductionIntroduction
Introduction
 
EngWri 300 (Magneson)
EngWri 300 (Magneson)EngWri 300 (Magneson)
EngWri 300 (Magneson)
 

Viewers also liked

The Wilderness Theology of John Muir B Anthony MA Thesis
The Wilderness Theology of John Muir B Anthony MA ThesisThe Wilderness Theology of John Muir B Anthony MA Thesis
The Wilderness Theology of John Muir B Anthony MA ThesisBrian Anthony
 
Blood amps poster_090210
Blood amps poster_090210Blood amps poster_090210
Blood amps poster_090210Jervin22000
 
Cultural Heritage Information Dashboards
Cultural Heritage Information DashboardsCultural Heritage Information Dashboards
Cultural Heritage Information DashboardsRichard Urban
 
Worst-Case Scenario: Being Detected without Knowing You are Detected
Worst-Case Scenario: Being Detected without Knowing You are DetectedWorst-Case Scenario: Being Detected without Knowing You are Detected
Worst-Case Scenario: Being Detected without Knowing You are DetectedAshwini Almad
 
EMERGENCY ALERT: The Anatomy of a Campus Crisis
EMERGENCY ALERT: The Anatomy of a Campus CrisisEMERGENCY ALERT: The Anatomy of a Campus Crisis
EMERGENCY ALERT: The Anatomy of a Campus CrisisWest Virginia University
 
Diagnosis and treatment of amphetamine abuse
Diagnosis and treatment of amphetamine abuseDiagnosis and treatment of amphetamine abuse
Diagnosis and treatment of amphetamine abuseAsra Hameed
 

Viewers also liked (12)

The Wilderness Theology of John Muir B Anthony MA Thesis
The Wilderness Theology of John Muir B Anthony MA ThesisThe Wilderness Theology of John Muir B Anthony MA Thesis
The Wilderness Theology of John Muir B Anthony MA Thesis
 
Boots
BootsBoots
Boots
 
Cloud wrap
Cloud wrapCloud wrap
Cloud wrap
 
Blood amps poster_090210
Blood amps poster_090210Blood amps poster_090210
Blood amps poster_090210
 
Cultural Heritage Information Dashboards
Cultural Heritage Information DashboardsCultural Heritage Information Dashboards
Cultural Heritage Information Dashboards
 
Worst-Case Scenario: Being Detected without Knowing You are Detected
Worst-Case Scenario: Being Detected without Knowing You are DetectedWorst-Case Scenario: Being Detected without Knowing You are Detected
Worst-Case Scenario: Being Detected without Knowing You are Detected
 
Przemysł spotkań - od gigantów po perełki
Przemysł spotkań - od gigantów po perełki Przemysł spotkań - od gigantów po perełki
Przemysł spotkań - od gigantów po perełki
 
Raport "Przemysł spotkań i wydarzeń w Polsce 2016" / Poland Meetings and Even...
Raport "Przemysł spotkań i wydarzeń w Polsce 2016" / Poland Meetings and Even...Raport "Przemysł spotkań i wydarzeń w Polsce 2016" / Poland Meetings and Even...
Raport "Przemysł spotkań i wydarzeń w Polsce 2016" / Poland Meetings and Even...
 
EMERGENCY ALERT: The Anatomy of a Campus Crisis
EMERGENCY ALERT: The Anatomy of a Campus CrisisEMERGENCY ALERT: The Anatomy of a Campus Crisis
EMERGENCY ALERT: The Anatomy of a Campus Crisis
 
Les5e ppt 01
Les5e ppt 01Les5e ppt 01
Les5e ppt 01
 
Raport "Przemysł spotkań i wydarzeń w Polsce 2016" / Poland Meetings and Even...
Raport "Przemysł spotkań i wydarzeń w Polsce 2016" / Poland Meetings and Even...Raport "Przemysł spotkań i wydarzeń w Polsce 2016" / Poland Meetings and Even...
Raport "Przemysł spotkań i wydarzeń w Polsce 2016" / Poland Meetings and Even...
 
Diagnosis and treatment of amphetamine abuse
Diagnosis and treatment of amphetamine abuseDiagnosis and treatment of amphetamine abuse
Diagnosis and treatment of amphetamine abuse
 

Similar to How to do things with metadata: From rights statements to speech acts.

Data management basics, for UC Davis EDU 292
Data management basics, for UC Davis EDU 292Data management basics, for UC Davis EDU 292
Data management basics, for UC Davis EDU 292Phoebe Ayers
 
Natural Language Search with Knowledge Graphs (Haystack 2019)
Natural Language Search with Knowledge Graphs (Haystack 2019)Natural Language Search with Knowledge Graphs (Haystack 2019)
Natural Language Search with Knowledge Graphs (Haystack 2019)Trey Grainger
 
Special Collections, Special Thesauri: Managing and Publishing Local Vocabula...
Special Collections, Special Thesauri: Managing and Publishing Local Vocabula...Special Collections, Special Thesauri: Managing and Publishing Local Vocabula...
Special Collections, Special Thesauri: Managing and Publishing Local Vocabula...Allison Jai O'Dell
 
Virtual Organizations 2.0: Social Constructs for Data-centered Collaborative ...
Virtual Organizations 2.0: Social Constructs for Data-centered Collaborative ...Virtual Organizations 2.0: Social Constructs for Data-centered Collaborative ...
Virtual Organizations 2.0: Social Constructs for Data-centered Collaborative ...Globus
 
Haystack 2019 - Natural Language Search with Knowledge Graphs - Trey Grainger
Haystack 2019 - Natural Language Search with Knowledge Graphs - Trey GraingerHaystack 2019 - Natural Language Search with Knowledge Graphs - Trey Grainger
Haystack 2019 - Natural Language Search with Knowledge Graphs - Trey GraingerOpenSource Connections
 
The Architecture of Understanding
The Architecture of UnderstandingThe Architecture of Understanding
The Architecture of UnderstandingPeter Morville
 
The Architecture of Understanding
The Architecture of UnderstandingThe Architecture of Understanding
The Architecture of UnderstandingPeter Morville
 
The Architecture of Understanding
The Architecture of UnderstandingThe Architecture of Understanding
The Architecture of UnderstandingPeter Morville
 
Intro to Linked Open Data in Libraries, Archives & Museums
Intro to Linked Open Data in Libraries, Archives & MuseumsIntro to Linked Open Data in Libraries, Archives & Museums
Intro to Linked Open Data in Libraries, Archives & MuseumsJon Voss
 
Linked Open Data in Libraries, Archives & Museums
Linked Open Data in Libraries, Archives & MuseumsLinked Open Data in Libraries, Archives & Museums
Linked Open Data in Libraries, Archives & MuseumsJon Voss
 
Is data publication the right metaphor?
Is data publication the right metaphor?Is data publication the right metaphor?
Is data publication the right metaphor?Research Data Alliance
 
Is data publication the right metaphor?
Is data publication the right metaphor?Is data publication the right metaphor?
Is data publication the right metaphor?Mark Parsons
 
Lexical Semantics, Semantic Similarity and Relevance for SEO
Lexical Semantics, Semantic Similarity and Relevance for SEOLexical Semantics, Semantic Similarity and Relevance for SEO
Lexical Semantics, Semantic Similarity and Relevance for SEOKoray Tugberk GUBUR
 
lexical-semantics-221118101910-ccd46ac3.pdf
lexical-semantics-221118101910-ccd46ac3.pdflexical-semantics-221118101910-ccd46ac3.pdf
lexical-semantics-221118101910-ccd46ac3.pdfGagu6
 
Epistemic networks for Epistemic Commitments
Epistemic networks for Epistemic CommitmentsEpistemic networks for Epistemic Commitments
Epistemic networks for Epistemic CommitmentsSimon Knight
 
Inspiration Architecture: The Future of Libraries
Inspiration Architecture: The Future of LibrariesInspiration Architecture: The Future of Libraries
Inspiration Architecture: The Future of LibrariesPeter Morville
 
Digital Odyssey 2015 - Open Collections
Digital Odyssey 2015 - Open CollectionsDigital Odyssey 2015 - Open Collections
Digital Odyssey 2015 - Open CollectionsOurDigitalWorld
 
FSU SLIS InfoSvcs Wk 3 - Web Search & Evaluation
FSU SLIS InfoSvcs Wk 3 - Web Search & EvaluationFSU SLIS InfoSvcs Wk 3 - Web Search & Evaluation
FSU SLIS InfoSvcs Wk 3 - Web Search & EvaluationLorri Mon
 

Similar to How to do things with metadata: From rights statements to speech acts. (20)

Sls guide2018
Sls guide2018Sls guide2018
Sls guide2018
 
Data management basics, for UC Davis EDU 292
Data management basics, for UC Davis EDU 292Data management basics, for UC Davis EDU 292
Data management basics, for UC Davis EDU 292
 
Natural Language Search with Knowledge Graphs (Haystack 2019)
Natural Language Search with Knowledge Graphs (Haystack 2019)Natural Language Search with Knowledge Graphs (Haystack 2019)
Natural Language Search with Knowledge Graphs (Haystack 2019)
 
Special Collections, Special Thesauri: Managing and Publishing Local Vocabula...
Special Collections, Special Thesauri: Managing and Publishing Local Vocabula...Special Collections, Special Thesauri: Managing and Publishing Local Vocabula...
Special Collections, Special Thesauri: Managing and Publishing Local Vocabula...
 
Virtual Organizations 2.0: Social Constructs for Data-centered Collaborative ...
Virtual Organizations 2.0: Social Constructs for Data-centered Collaborative ...Virtual Organizations 2.0: Social Constructs for Data-centered Collaborative ...
Virtual Organizations 2.0: Social Constructs for Data-centered Collaborative ...
 
Haystack 2019 - Natural Language Search with Knowledge Graphs - Trey Grainger
Haystack 2019 - Natural Language Search with Knowledge Graphs - Trey GraingerHaystack 2019 - Natural Language Search with Knowledge Graphs - Trey Grainger
Haystack 2019 - Natural Language Search with Knowledge Graphs - Trey Grainger
 
The Architecture of Understanding
The Architecture of UnderstandingThe Architecture of Understanding
The Architecture of Understanding
 
Research & citing sources made easy
Research & citing sources made easyResearch & citing sources made easy
Research & citing sources made easy
 
The Architecture of Understanding
The Architecture of UnderstandingThe Architecture of Understanding
The Architecture of Understanding
 
The Architecture of Understanding
The Architecture of UnderstandingThe Architecture of Understanding
The Architecture of Understanding
 
Intro to Linked Open Data in Libraries, Archives & Museums
Intro to Linked Open Data in Libraries, Archives & MuseumsIntro to Linked Open Data in Libraries, Archives & Museums
Intro to Linked Open Data in Libraries, Archives & Museums
 
Linked Open Data in Libraries, Archives & Museums
Linked Open Data in Libraries, Archives & MuseumsLinked Open Data in Libraries, Archives & Museums
Linked Open Data in Libraries, Archives & Museums
 
Is data publication the right metaphor?
Is data publication the right metaphor?Is data publication the right metaphor?
Is data publication the right metaphor?
 
Is data publication the right metaphor?
Is data publication the right metaphor?Is data publication the right metaphor?
Is data publication the right metaphor?
 
Lexical Semantics, Semantic Similarity and Relevance for SEO
Lexical Semantics, Semantic Similarity and Relevance for SEOLexical Semantics, Semantic Similarity and Relevance for SEO
Lexical Semantics, Semantic Similarity and Relevance for SEO
 
lexical-semantics-221118101910-ccd46ac3.pdf
lexical-semantics-221118101910-ccd46ac3.pdflexical-semantics-221118101910-ccd46ac3.pdf
lexical-semantics-221118101910-ccd46ac3.pdf
 
Epistemic networks for Epistemic Commitments
Epistemic networks for Epistemic CommitmentsEpistemic networks for Epistemic Commitments
Epistemic networks for Epistemic Commitments
 
Inspiration Architecture: The Future of Libraries
Inspiration Architecture: The Future of LibrariesInspiration Architecture: The Future of Libraries
Inspiration Architecture: The Future of Libraries
 
Digital Odyssey 2015 - Open Collections
Digital Odyssey 2015 - Open CollectionsDigital Odyssey 2015 - Open Collections
Digital Odyssey 2015 - Open Collections
 
FSU SLIS InfoSvcs Wk 3 - Web Search & Evaluation
FSU SLIS InfoSvcs Wk 3 - Web Search & EvaluationFSU SLIS InfoSvcs Wk 3 - Web Search & Evaluation
FSU SLIS InfoSvcs Wk 3 - Web Search & Evaluation
 

More from Richard Urban

Collections Cubed: Into the Third Dimension
Collections Cubed: Into the Third DimensionCollections Cubed: Into the Third Dimension
Collections Cubed: Into the Third DimensionRichard Urban
 
Data-modeling Mindsets and the Digital Humanities
Data-modeling Mindsets and the Digital HumanitiesData-modeling Mindsets and the Digital Humanities
Data-modeling Mindsets and the Digital HumanitiesRichard Urban
 
Digital Libraries in the Third Dimension
Digital Libraries in the Third DimensionDigital Libraries in the Third Dimension
Digital Libraries in the Third DimensionRichard Urban
 
The Dublin Core 1:1 Principle in the Age of Linked Data
The Dublin Core 1:1 Principle in the Age of Linked DataThe Dublin Core 1:1 Principle in the Age of Linked Data
The Dublin Core 1:1 Principle in the Age of Linked DataRichard Urban
 
3D Printing for Scientific & Cultural Collections
3D Printing for Scientific & Cultural Collections3D Printing for Scientific & Cultural Collections
3D Printing for Scientific & Cultural CollectionsRichard Urban
 
Representation Patterns for Cultural Heritage Resources
Representation Patterns for Cultural Heritage Resources Representation Patterns for Cultural Heritage Resources
Representation Patterns for Cultural Heritage Resources Richard Urban
 
Publishing and Using Linked Open Data - Day 5
Publishing and Using Linked Open Data - Day 5Publishing and Using Linked Open Data - Day 5
Publishing and Using Linked Open Data - Day 5Richard Urban
 
Publishing and Using Linked Open Data - Day 4
Publishing and Using Linked Open Data - Day 4Publishing and Using Linked Open Data - Day 4
Publishing and Using Linked Open Data - Day 4Richard Urban
 
Publishing and Using Linked Open Data - Day 2
Publishing and Using Linked Open Data - Day 2Publishing and Using Linked Open Data - Day 2
Publishing and Using Linked Open Data - Day 2Richard Urban
 
Publishing and Using Linked Open Data - Day 1
Publishing and Using Linked Open Data - Day 1 Publishing and Using Linked Open Data - Day 1
Publishing and Using Linked Open Data - Day 1 Richard Urban
 
Linked Open Data for Libraries, Archives, and Museums: An Aggregators View
Linked Open Data for Libraries, Archives, and Museums: An Aggregators ViewLinked Open Data for Libraries, Archives, and Museums: An Aggregators View
Linked Open Data for Libraries, Archives, and Museums: An Aggregators ViewRichard Urban
 
DCMI/ASIS&T Conference Roundup
DCMI/ASIS&T Conference RoundupDCMI/ASIS&T Conference Roundup
DCMI/ASIS&T Conference RoundupRichard Urban
 
Museum Information Visualization Research Files
Museum Information Visualization Research FilesMuseum Information Visualization Research Files
Museum Information Visualization Research FilesRichard Urban
 
Principle Violations: Revisiting the Dublin Core 1:1 Principle
Principle Violations:  Revisiting the Dublin Core 1:1 PrinciplePrinciple Violations:  Revisiting the Dublin Core 1:1 Principle
Principle Violations: Revisiting the Dublin Core 1:1 PrincipleRichard Urban
 
Building and Evaluating Collection Dashboards
Building and Evaluating Collection DashboardsBuilding and Evaluating Collection Dashboards
Building and Evaluating Collection DashboardsRichard Urban
 
The Past's Present Future: Emerging Trends in Online Cultural Heritage
The Past's Present Future:  Emerging Trends in Online Cultural HeritageThe Past's Present Future:  Emerging Trends in Online Cultural Heritage
The Past's Present Future: Emerging Trends in Online Cultural HeritageRichard Urban
 
IMLS DCC Progress Update to the Chief Officers of State Library Agencies (COSLA)
IMLS DCC Progress Update to the Chief Officers of State Library Agencies (COSLA)IMLS DCC Progress Update to the Chief Officers of State Library Agencies (COSLA)
IMLS DCC Progress Update to the Chief Officers of State Library Agencies (COSLA)Richard Urban
 
Modeling CDWA Lite as an OWL-DL Ontology
Modeling CDWA Lite as an OWL-DL OntologyModeling CDWA Lite as an OWL-DL Ontology
Modeling CDWA Lite as an OWL-DL OntologyRichard Urban
 

More from Richard Urban (20)

Collections Cubed: Into the Third Dimension
Collections Cubed: Into the Third DimensionCollections Cubed: Into the Third Dimension
Collections Cubed: Into the Third Dimension
 
Data-modeling Mindsets and the Digital Humanities
Data-modeling Mindsets and the Digital HumanitiesData-modeling Mindsets and the Digital Humanities
Data-modeling Mindsets and the Digital Humanities
 
UX@iSchool
UX@iSchoolUX@iSchool
UX@iSchool
 
Digital Libraries in the Third Dimension
Digital Libraries in the Third DimensionDigital Libraries in the Third Dimension
Digital Libraries in the Third Dimension
 
The Dublin Core 1:1 Principle in the Age of Linked Data
The Dublin Core 1:1 Principle in the Age of Linked DataThe Dublin Core 1:1 Principle in the Age of Linked Data
The Dublin Core 1:1 Principle in the Age of Linked Data
 
3D Printing for Scientific & Cultural Collections
3D Printing for Scientific & Cultural Collections3D Printing for Scientific & Cultural Collections
3D Printing for Scientific & Cultural Collections
 
Representation Patterns for Cultural Heritage Resources
Representation Patterns for Cultural Heritage Resources Representation Patterns for Cultural Heritage Resources
Representation Patterns for Cultural Heritage Resources
 
Publishing and Using Linked Open Data - Day 5
Publishing and Using Linked Open Data - Day 5Publishing and Using Linked Open Data - Day 5
Publishing and Using Linked Open Data - Day 5
 
Publishing and Using Linked Open Data - Day 4
Publishing and Using Linked Open Data - Day 4Publishing and Using Linked Open Data - Day 4
Publishing and Using Linked Open Data - Day 4
 
Publishing and Using Linked Open Data - Day 2
Publishing and Using Linked Open Data - Day 2Publishing and Using Linked Open Data - Day 2
Publishing and Using Linked Open Data - Day 2
 
Publishing and Using Linked Open Data - Day 1
Publishing and Using Linked Open Data - Day 1 Publishing and Using Linked Open Data - Day 1
Publishing and Using Linked Open Data - Day 1
 
Linked Open Data for Libraries, Archives, and Museums: An Aggregators View
Linked Open Data for Libraries, Archives, and Museums: An Aggregators ViewLinked Open Data for Libraries, Archives, and Museums: An Aggregators View
Linked Open Data for Libraries, Archives, and Museums: An Aggregators View
 
DCMI/ASIS&T Conference Roundup
DCMI/ASIS&T Conference RoundupDCMI/ASIS&T Conference Roundup
DCMI/ASIS&T Conference Roundup
 
Museum Information Visualization Research Files
Museum Information Visualization Research FilesMuseum Information Visualization Research Files
Museum Information Visualization Research Files
 
Principle Violations: Revisiting the Dublin Core 1:1 Principle
Principle Violations:  Revisiting the Dublin Core 1:1 PrinciplePrinciple Violations:  Revisiting the Dublin Core 1:1 Principle
Principle Violations: Revisiting the Dublin Core 1:1 Principle
 
Building and Evaluating Collection Dashboards
Building and Evaluating Collection DashboardsBuilding and Evaluating Collection Dashboards
Building and Evaluating Collection Dashboards
 
The Past's Present Future: Emerging Trends in Online Cultural Heritage
The Past's Present Future:  Emerging Trends in Online Cultural HeritageThe Past's Present Future:  Emerging Trends in Online Cultural Heritage
The Past's Present Future: Emerging Trends in Online Cultural Heritage
 
IMLS DCC Progress Update to the Chief Officers of State Library Agencies (COSLA)
IMLS DCC Progress Update to the Chief Officers of State Library Agencies (COSLA)IMLS DCC Progress Update to the Chief Officers of State Library Agencies (COSLA)
IMLS DCC Progress Update to the Chief Officers of State Library Agencies (COSLA)
 
Modeling CDWA Lite as an OWL-DL Ontology
Modeling CDWA Lite as an OWL-DL OntologyModeling CDWA Lite as an OWL-DL Ontology
Modeling CDWA Lite as an OWL-DL Ontology
 
Museum Metaverses
Museum MetaversesMuseum Metaverses
Museum Metaverses
 

Recently uploaded

ClimART Action | eTwinning Project
ClimART Action    |    eTwinning ProjectClimART Action    |    eTwinning Project
ClimART Action | eTwinning Projectjordimapav
 
Grade Three -ELLNA-REVIEWER-ENGLISH.pptx
Grade Three -ELLNA-REVIEWER-ENGLISH.pptxGrade Three -ELLNA-REVIEWER-ENGLISH.pptx
Grade Three -ELLNA-REVIEWER-ENGLISH.pptxkarenfajardo43
 
4.11.24 Mass Incarceration and the New Jim Crow.pptx
4.11.24 Mass Incarceration and the New Jim Crow.pptx4.11.24 Mass Incarceration and the New Jim Crow.pptx
4.11.24 Mass Incarceration and the New Jim Crow.pptxmary850239
 
Expanded definition: technical and operational
Expanded definition: technical and operationalExpanded definition: technical and operational
Expanded definition: technical and operationalssuser3e220a
 
Visit to a blind student's school🧑‍🦯🧑‍🦯(community medicine)
Visit to a blind student's school🧑‍🦯🧑‍🦯(community medicine)Visit to a blind student's school🧑‍🦯🧑‍🦯(community medicine)
Visit to a blind student's school🧑‍🦯🧑‍🦯(community medicine)lakshayb543
 
THEORIES OF ORGANIZATION-PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION
THEORIES OF ORGANIZATION-PUBLIC ADMINISTRATIONTHEORIES OF ORGANIZATION-PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION
THEORIES OF ORGANIZATION-PUBLIC ADMINISTRATIONHumphrey A Beña
 
Influencing policy (training slides from Fast Track Impact)
Influencing policy (training slides from Fast Track Impact)Influencing policy (training slides from Fast Track Impact)
Influencing policy (training slides from Fast Track Impact)Mark Reed
 
4.16.24 21st Century Movements for Black Lives.pptx
4.16.24 21st Century Movements for Black Lives.pptx4.16.24 21st Century Movements for Black Lives.pptx
4.16.24 21st Century Movements for Black Lives.pptxmary850239
 
Q4-PPT-Music9_Lesson-1-Romantic-Opera.pptx
Q4-PPT-Music9_Lesson-1-Romantic-Opera.pptxQ4-PPT-Music9_Lesson-1-Romantic-Opera.pptx
Q4-PPT-Music9_Lesson-1-Romantic-Opera.pptxlancelewisportillo
 
Multi Domain Alias In the Odoo 17 ERP Module
Multi Domain Alias In the Odoo 17 ERP ModuleMulti Domain Alias In the Odoo 17 ERP Module
Multi Domain Alias In the Odoo 17 ERP ModuleCeline George
 
INTRODUCTION TO CATHOLIC CHRISTOLOGY.pptx
INTRODUCTION TO CATHOLIC CHRISTOLOGY.pptxINTRODUCTION TO CATHOLIC CHRISTOLOGY.pptx
INTRODUCTION TO CATHOLIC CHRISTOLOGY.pptxHumphrey A Beña
 
How to Make a Duplicate of Your Odoo 17 Database
How to Make a Duplicate of Your Odoo 17 DatabaseHow to Make a Duplicate of Your Odoo 17 Database
How to Make a Duplicate of Your Odoo 17 DatabaseCeline George
 
IPCRF/RPMS 2024 Classroom Observation tool is your access to the new performa...
IPCRF/RPMS 2024 Classroom Observation tool is your access to the new performa...IPCRF/RPMS 2024 Classroom Observation tool is your access to the new performa...
IPCRF/RPMS 2024 Classroom Observation tool is your access to the new performa...MerlizValdezGeronimo
 
Team Lead Succeed – Helping you and your team achieve high-performance teamwo...
Team Lead Succeed – Helping you and your team achieve high-performance teamwo...Team Lead Succeed – Helping you and your team achieve high-performance teamwo...
Team Lead Succeed – Helping you and your team achieve high-performance teamwo...Association for Project Management
 
AUDIENCE THEORY -CULTIVATION THEORY - GERBNER.pptx
AUDIENCE THEORY -CULTIVATION THEORY -  GERBNER.pptxAUDIENCE THEORY -CULTIVATION THEORY -  GERBNER.pptx
AUDIENCE THEORY -CULTIVATION THEORY - GERBNER.pptxiammrhaywood
 
Using Grammatical Signals Suitable to Patterns of Idea Development
Using Grammatical Signals Suitable to Patterns of Idea DevelopmentUsing Grammatical Signals Suitable to Patterns of Idea Development
Using Grammatical Signals Suitable to Patterns of Idea Developmentchesterberbo7
 
ICS2208 Lecture6 Notes for SL spaces.pdf
ICS2208 Lecture6 Notes for SL spaces.pdfICS2208 Lecture6 Notes for SL spaces.pdf
ICS2208 Lecture6 Notes for SL spaces.pdfVanessa Camilleri
 

Recently uploaded (20)

ClimART Action | eTwinning Project
ClimART Action    |    eTwinning ProjectClimART Action    |    eTwinning Project
ClimART Action | eTwinning Project
 
Grade Three -ELLNA-REVIEWER-ENGLISH.pptx
Grade Three -ELLNA-REVIEWER-ENGLISH.pptxGrade Three -ELLNA-REVIEWER-ENGLISH.pptx
Grade Three -ELLNA-REVIEWER-ENGLISH.pptx
 
4.11.24 Mass Incarceration and the New Jim Crow.pptx
4.11.24 Mass Incarceration and the New Jim Crow.pptx4.11.24 Mass Incarceration and the New Jim Crow.pptx
4.11.24 Mass Incarceration and the New Jim Crow.pptx
 
Expanded definition: technical and operational
Expanded definition: technical and operationalExpanded definition: technical and operational
Expanded definition: technical and operational
 
Visit to a blind student's school🧑‍🦯🧑‍🦯(community medicine)
Visit to a blind student's school🧑‍🦯🧑‍🦯(community medicine)Visit to a blind student's school🧑‍🦯🧑‍🦯(community medicine)
Visit to a blind student's school🧑‍🦯🧑‍🦯(community medicine)
 
Paradigm shift in nursing research by RS MEHTA
Paradigm shift in nursing research by RS MEHTAParadigm shift in nursing research by RS MEHTA
Paradigm shift in nursing research by RS MEHTA
 
prashanth updated resume 2024 for Teaching Profession
prashanth updated resume 2024 for Teaching Professionprashanth updated resume 2024 for Teaching Profession
prashanth updated resume 2024 for Teaching Profession
 
THEORIES OF ORGANIZATION-PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION
THEORIES OF ORGANIZATION-PUBLIC ADMINISTRATIONTHEORIES OF ORGANIZATION-PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION
THEORIES OF ORGANIZATION-PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION
 
Influencing policy (training slides from Fast Track Impact)
Influencing policy (training slides from Fast Track Impact)Influencing policy (training slides from Fast Track Impact)
Influencing policy (training slides from Fast Track Impact)
 
4.16.24 21st Century Movements for Black Lives.pptx
4.16.24 21st Century Movements for Black Lives.pptx4.16.24 21st Century Movements for Black Lives.pptx
4.16.24 21st Century Movements for Black Lives.pptx
 
Q4-PPT-Music9_Lesson-1-Romantic-Opera.pptx
Q4-PPT-Music9_Lesson-1-Romantic-Opera.pptxQ4-PPT-Music9_Lesson-1-Romantic-Opera.pptx
Q4-PPT-Music9_Lesson-1-Romantic-Opera.pptx
 
Multi Domain Alias In the Odoo 17 ERP Module
Multi Domain Alias In the Odoo 17 ERP ModuleMulti Domain Alias In the Odoo 17 ERP Module
Multi Domain Alias In the Odoo 17 ERP Module
 
INTRODUCTION TO CATHOLIC CHRISTOLOGY.pptx
INTRODUCTION TO CATHOLIC CHRISTOLOGY.pptxINTRODUCTION TO CATHOLIC CHRISTOLOGY.pptx
INTRODUCTION TO CATHOLIC CHRISTOLOGY.pptx
 
How to Make a Duplicate of Your Odoo 17 Database
How to Make a Duplicate of Your Odoo 17 DatabaseHow to Make a Duplicate of Your Odoo 17 Database
How to Make a Duplicate of Your Odoo 17 Database
 
IPCRF/RPMS 2024 Classroom Observation tool is your access to the new performa...
IPCRF/RPMS 2024 Classroom Observation tool is your access to the new performa...IPCRF/RPMS 2024 Classroom Observation tool is your access to the new performa...
IPCRF/RPMS 2024 Classroom Observation tool is your access to the new performa...
 
Team Lead Succeed – Helping you and your team achieve high-performance teamwo...
Team Lead Succeed – Helping you and your team achieve high-performance teamwo...Team Lead Succeed – Helping you and your team achieve high-performance teamwo...
Team Lead Succeed – Helping you and your team achieve high-performance teamwo...
 
AUDIENCE THEORY -CULTIVATION THEORY - GERBNER.pptx
AUDIENCE THEORY -CULTIVATION THEORY -  GERBNER.pptxAUDIENCE THEORY -CULTIVATION THEORY -  GERBNER.pptx
AUDIENCE THEORY -CULTIVATION THEORY - GERBNER.pptx
 
Using Grammatical Signals Suitable to Patterns of Idea Development
Using Grammatical Signals Suitable to Patterns of Idea DevelopmentUsing Grammatical Signals Suitable to Patterns of Idea Development
Using Grammatical Signals Suitable to Patterns of Idea Development
 
ICS2208 Lecture6 Notes for SL spaces.pdf
ICS2208 Lecture6 Notes for SL spaces.pdfICS2208 Lecture6 Notes for SL spaces.pdf
ICS2208 Lecture6 Notes for SL spaces.pdf
 
Faculty Profile prashantha K EEE dept Sri Sairam college of Engineering
Faculty Profile prashantha K EEE dept Sri Sairam college of EngineeringFaculty Profile prashantha K EEE dept Sri Sairam college of Engineering
Faculty Profile prashantha K EEE dept Sri Sairam college of Engineering
 

How to do things with metadata: From rights statements to speech acts.

  • 1. HOW TO DO THINGS WITH METADATA From Rights Statements to Speech Acts. R. J. URBAN
  • 2.
  • 3.
  • 4. Metadata Semantics Knowledge Organization • Colloquial • Informal, document-like representation structures. • Metadata elements conform to a complex set of rules. • Supports information retrieval. • Creates descriptions that identify resources. Knowledge Representation • Formal • Grounded in formal theories of First Order Logic • Metadata assertions are true/false within an interpretation. • Available to support formal reasoning. • Relies on names to identify resource.
  • 5. Metadata Pragmatics? • Semantics: what do words (signifiers, etc.) mean? – Colloquial MARC/XML semantics – Formal semantics for knowledge representation. • Resource Description Language (RDF) • Pragmatics: how does context contribute to meaning? – As humans we regularly interpret the meaning of metadata successfully, even though it may not be formally represented or machine understandable.
  • 6. So what? Dublin Core Rights Typically, rights information includes a statement about various property rights associated with the resource, including intellectual property rights.
  • 7. So what? DC Terms class: rightsStatement A statement about the intellectual property rights (IPR) held in or over a Resource, a legal document giving official permission to do something with a resource, or a statement about access rights.
  • 10. Research Questions • What are organizations trying to do with rights statements? • How are rights statements a kind of speech act?
  • 11. Europeana Context “The [Task Force on Metadata Quality] noted that many data providers approach rights statements as an afterthought and lack sufficient know- how to apply the appropriate statement. They therefore choose a restrictive rights statement as a default.” http://goo.gl/lHaeMX
  • 12. Europeana Rights Statements – Public Domain – In Copyright • Various Creative Commons Licenses • Rights Reserved – Free Access • Rights Reserved – Paid Access – Orphan Works – Unknown – http://pro.europeana.eu/page/available-rights-statements
  • 13. International Standardized Rights Statements • Europeana + Digital Public Library of America (DPLA) • http://rightsstatements.org/ • SKOS vocabulary representing 10 rights statement classifications.
  • 16.
  • 17.
  • 18. Schlosser’s Memes • Specific Ownership statements: “copyright [organization]” • Vague Ownership statements: “copyright retained by the original owner” • What you can/can’t do: “we encourage fair use of copyrighted material” • Protecting Ourselves and You: “no information on the rights in the collection, researchers are responsible for determining copyright.” Schlosser, M. (2009). Unless otherwise indicated: A survey of copyright statements on digital library collections. College & Research Libraries, 70(4), 371–385. http://doi.org/10.5860/crl.70.4.371
  • 19. Speech Acts J.L. Austin • Maybe not all “statements” are true/false • Performatives • Questions • Commands • Promises • Oaths • Declarations • locutionary vs. illocutionary meaning
  • 20. Speech Acts • Maybe not all “statements” are true/false • Performatives • Questions • Commands • Promises • Oaths • Declarations • locutionary vs. illocutionary meaning
  • 21. Searle’s Speech Act Theory • Illocutionary force = – Illocutionary point (purpose of statement) + – Direction of fit (relation of utterance to the world) + – Speaker intention (psychological state)
  • 22. Searle (1979) Speech Act Taxonomy Category Description Direction of fit Assertive Utterances that commit the speaker to the expressed truth proposition. “The cat is on the mat.” Words-to-world Commisive Utterances that commit the speaker to some future action. “I shall faithfully uphold the office of the president….” World-to-words Declarations Utterances that bring about some change in the world. “I now pronounce you man and wife.” World-to-words and word-to-world Directives Utterances that consist of an attempt by the speaker to get the hearer to do something. “Please pass the salt.” World-to-words Expressives Expresses the speakers emotional or psychological attitude towards a No direction of fit.
  • 23. Method: Sample • 87,610 unique values found in aggregated DPLA metadata as dc:rights. – Frequency counts of associated records. • Drop statements associated with fewer than 100 records. (n=86,482) – Of these, 78,191 only associated with one record. • Result: 1295 statements
  • 24. Method: Cleanup • http://openrefine.org • Make all statements lowercase. • Remove extra whitespace. • Remove uniquing features: – DOIs – Copyright [date] – Gift of/donated by [name] – Cite as [citation string] • Result: 488 statements
  • 25. Method: statement analysis • 488 statements – Qualitative coding according to Searle’s Taxonomy of Speech Acts. • What is the proper unit of analysis? – 603 coded excerpts. (these are not necessarily sentences, especially for long complex directives).
  • 26. Assertives (n=199) • Schlosser’s ownership statements. • “all rights reserved” • “copyright [copyright holder]” • “copyright [date]” • “This work is in the public domain” • “No known copyright restrictions” • “Purchased with Smithsonian Trust funds”
  • 27. Directives (n=272) • Schlossers What you can and can’t do and Protecting ourselves and you. • “contact the host institution for more information” • “users may download the images for personal or educational use - students may include images in reports, for instance, and teachers may use the images in the classroom - if the following credit line is included with the image: courtesy of the georgia archives.” • “to purchase copies of images and/or for copyright information, contact university of [x]” • “this item may be subject to copyright” • “this image available for use only with the expressed, written consent of the [x] historical society “
  • 28. Commissive (n=1) • i hereby certify that, if appropriate, i have obtained and attached hereto a written permission statement from the owner(s) of each third party copyrighted matter to be included in my thesis, dissertation, or project report, and specifically allowing distribution as specified below. i certify that the version i submitted is the same as that approved by my advisory committee. i hereby grant to brigham young university and its agents the non-exclusive license to archive and make accessible, under the conditions specified below, my thesis, dissertation, or project report in whole or in part in all forms of media, now or hereafter known. i retain all other ownership rights to the copyright of the thesis, dissertation, or project report. i also retain the right to use in future works (such as articles or books) all or part of this thesis, dissertation, or project report.;
  • 29. Expressives (n=1) • the new york public library is interested in learning more about items you've seen on our websites or elsewhere online. if you have any more information about an item or its copyright status, we want to hear from you.
  • 30. Rights statement patterns Assertive + directive. Copyright [date], [organization]. For more information contact x@x.edu
  • 31. Non-Speech Acts (n=130) • Unexpected discovery! • “university of utah” • person@ex.org • "watt hall 4d, usc, los angeles, ca 90089- 0294” • Are URLs speech acts? – http://ex.org/rights.html
  • 32. Non-speech acts in context <http://ex.org/resource001> <dc:rights> “University of Utah” • Still not really a “statement” • Not a legal document. • Not a permission.
  • 33. So what? • Europeana Rights statements really about Assertives. – Creative Commons Licenses (maybe more directive, but still represented as an assertion that a license is available) • Open Digital Rights Language (ODRL) https://www.w3.org/community/odrl/ – Policies • Permissions • Constraints – Intended to be actionable by a system, so very tightly defined. – Mapping statements to ODRL may be difficult. Permissions/constraints often mixed in rights statements sentences. – Not well supported in cultural heritage digital library software.
  • 34. Next steps • Can text analysis help automatically assign International Standard Rights Metadata. – Automatically recognize and separate different kinds of speech acts. – Determine relationship to rights statements. • Fork Cohen’s Ciranda (detects speech acts in emails)?
  • 35. Parallel Research • What do rights statements refer to? • Same data set. • Tagged according to indexical/referential statements. – This collection – This (digital image) – The work – Etc. etc.