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The Dublin Core 1:1
Principle in the Age of
Linked Data
Dr. Richard J. Urban
Florida State University
School of Information
http://chi.cci.fsu.edu
@musebrarian
Acknowledgements
• Dissertation Committee:
– Dr. Michael B. Twidale
– Dr. Allen Renear
– Dr. Carole Palmer
• UIUC Conceptual Foundations
Research Group
– Dr. Karen Wickett
• IMLS Digital Collections and
Content Project
http:/imlsdcc.grainger.illinois.edu
• Urban, R. J. (2012).
Principle Paradigms:
Revisiting the Dublin
Core 1:1 Principle
(Dissertation).
University of Illinois at
Urbana-Champaign,
Retrieved from
http://hdl.handle.net/2142/3
1109
The Principle Defined
In general, Dublin Core metadata describes one
manifestation or version of a resource, rather than
assuming that manifestations stand in for one another.
For instance, a jpeg image of the Mona Lisa has much in
common with the original painting, but it is not the same
as the painting. As such the digital image should be
described as itself, most likely with the creator of the
digital image included as a Creator or Contributor, rather
than just the painter of the original Mona Lisa. The
relationship between the metadata for the original and
the reproduction is part of the metadata description, and
assists the user in determining whether he or she needs
to go to the Louvre for the original, or whether his/her
need can be met by a reproduction (Hillmann, 2003).
The Principle Defined
In general, Dublin Core metadata describes one
manifestation or version of a resource, rather than
assuming that manifestations stand in for one another.
For instance, a jpeg image of the Mona Lisa has much
in common with the original painting, but it is not the
same as the painting. As such the digital image should
be described as itself, most likely with the creator of the
digital image included as a Creator or Contributor, rather
than just the painter of the original Mona Lisa. The
relationship between the metadata for the original and
the reproduction is part of the metadata description,
and assists the user in determining whether he or she
needs to go to the Louvre for the original, or whether
his/her need can be met by a reproduction (Hillmann,
2003).
“One to one…is a many-headed-snake
6
and it has bitten us often over the years”
-Stu Waibel
How did we get the 1:1 Principle?
How did we get the 1:1 Principle?
How did we get the 1:1 Principle?
How did we get the 1:1 Principle?
What are we describing? (Simonton, 1962)
Facsimile Theory
• The Facsimile Theory
privileged the intellectual
content of an item by making
the “original” resource the
focus of the record
representing a reproduction.
Following the long-standing
practice of dash entries, a
description of the
reproduction itself would be
included as a note.
• AACR1
• LCRI 1.11A
Edition Theory
• The Edition Theory required
a record to represent the
physical features of the
reproduction, using a note
to provide a description of
the “original” resource.
• AACR2 “Cardinal Principle”
describe the “item-at-hand”
See Miller (2010) in regards to how these can be applied to 1:1 Principle
problems/solutions.
http://dcpapers.dublincore.org/ojs/pubs/article/view/1043/992
Graham (1992)
Beyond the Book
Describing Visual Resources and Artworks
• MARC Visual Materials
(1980s)
• MARC Archival Manuscript
Control (AMC) (1980s)
• ArtMARC (1997)
• Research Libraries Group
(RLG)/RLIN (1978)
• Visual Resource Association
(1982)
• Getty Art History Information
Program (AHIP) (1983-1999)
– (Later the Getty Information
Institute)
Principle Precursor?
• The [Art and Architecture Thesaurus]
considers reproductions of works of
art to be surrogates for original
works and will recommend that they be
indexed in a similar fashion. For example,
PAINTING (655) would be used to describe
both Leonardo's Mona Lisa and a slide
reproduction; SLIDE (655) would also be
used in the latter case. This holds
serious implications for effective
retrieval….In an integrated
database containing both of these
media, searchers interested only
in examples of actual paintings
might have to learn to exclude
slides, microfilm, and other
reproduction media in their search
queries to retrieve only records
for original paintings. . . . One
solution might be the addition of a
“reproduction” facet to indexing strings
for object surrogates so that they would
be differentiated from “originals” in a
browse display
– (Dooley & Zinham, 1990).
Along comes Dublin Core…
• Dublin Core describes “document-like
objects” on the Web
– What counts as a document-like object?
– What about things that aren’t on the Web that
we want to provide access to?
– What about digital reproductions and
surrogates of offline originals?
Date Workshops Events
1995 DC-1 (Dublin, OH)
1996 DC-2 (Warwick, GBR) • Warwick Framework.
• How Dublin Core should handle the
representation of surrogates left
unresolved.
DC-3 CNI/OCLC Image Workshop
(Dublin, OH)
• Images as DLOs
• Relationships/Source Discussed
1997 DC-4 (Canberra, AUS) • Eric Jul introduces idea for 1:1 “to each
resource, it’s own description”
RLG/ALCTS Summit (Mountain View, CA) • Drafting Guidelines for Extending Dublin
Core
DC-5 (Helsinki, FIN) • 1:1 and Relation Work groups established
• AHDS Report
1998 DC-6 (Washington, D.C.) • Discussion continues on listservs
• RDF emerges from W3C
• Beginnings of DC Abstract Model
1999 DC-7 (Frankfurt, DEU) • Bearman et al. (1999) discusses “logical
clusters of metadata” used for the INDECS
project.
2000 DC-8 (Ottawa, CAN) • Relation and One-to-One Working Groups
disbanded
2001 DC-9 (Tokyo, JPN) • OAI-PMH 1.1 requires simple Dublin Core.
2003 DC-2003 (Seattle, WA) • 1:1 appears in Using Dublin Core
Guidelines for Extending the Use of Dublin
Core Elements (RLG, 1997)
• Extend Dublin Core beyond Web-based
resources
– Images as DLOs
– Non-web resources
• Include “record type indicators”
– is a DLO the original or not
– Is the DLO Internet-accessible or not
Guidelines for Extending the Use of Dublin
Core Elements (RLG, 1997)
• Modify DC term definitions to indicate “values
that describe the intellectual content of the
original resource.”
• “Concoct a way to start and end sets of DC
elements” in order to describe
originals/surrogates.
• Add terms to Resource Type vocabulary for
surrogates/offline resources.
• Make better use of Relation/Source to help
structure original/surrogate descriptions.
one2one WG
Relations/Source WG
Original Record
Source
Relation
Reproduction
Record
Source
Relation
Version
Record
Source
Relation
The Principle in DCAM
The abstract model presented above indicates that each DC metadata
description describes one, and only one, resource. This is
commonly referred to as the one-to-one principle.
However, real-world metadata applications tend to be based on
loosely grouped sets of descriptions (where the described resources
are typically related in some way), known here as description sets.
For example, a description set might comprise descriptions of both a
painting and the artist. Furthermore, it is often the case that a
description set will also contain a description about the description set
itself (sometimes referred to as 'admin metadata' or 'meta-metadata').
Description sets are instantiated, for the purposes of exchange
between software applications, in the form of metadata records,
according to one of the DCMI encoding guidelines (for example,
XHTML meta tags, XML and RDF/XML) [DCMI-ENCODINGS].
1:1 Principle Violations
<title>Mona Lisa</title>
<date>2008</date>
<date>1501-1519</date>
<source>TIFF</source>
<type>image</type>
<format>oil on poplar board</format>
<format>image/jpeg</format>
<format>H. 77 cm; W. 53 cm</format>
<format>16781 bytes</format>
Limitations of Violations
Reference an important part of semantics
date.orginal date.digtial
refersTo refersTo
SAVE US, RDF!
Knowledge
Organization
• Objective: Relevant Retrieval
of surrogate records.
• Rules for Bibliographic
Control/ Descriptive
Cataloging
• MARC/OAI-DC XML Syntax
Knowledge
Representation
• Objective: Intelligent
Reasoning
• Semantic Web
• Resource Description
Framework (RDF)
29
Knowledge
Organization
• Identity through definite
descriptions
• Fixed record syntaxes with
informal semantics.
• Meaning supplied by
principles, rules, etc.
Knowledge
Representation
• Identity through names
(URIs)
• Complex graph of
relationships among named
resources.
• Formal semantics supplied by
interpretations and models.
30
1:1
KO
KR
creator: Gustav Eiffel
date: 1889
http://ex.org/eiffelTower
Use URIs as names
of things
creator: Gustav Eiffel
date: 1889
http://ex.org/eiffelTower
Use URIs as names
of things
http://ex.org/eiffelTower
Use URIs as names
of things
<http://dbpedia.org/resource/Eiffel_Tower>
<http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#sameAs>
<http://rdf.freebase.com/ns/m.02j81> .
<http://dbpedia.org/resource/Eiffel_Tower>
<http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#type>
<http://dbpedia.org/class/yago/Skyscraper104233124> .
<http://dbpedia.org/resource/Eiffel_Tower>
<http://dbpedia.org/property/id> "s0000021"@en .
<http://dbpedia.org/resource/Eiffel_Tower>
<http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#sameAs>
<http://cy.dbpedia.org/resource/Tu0175r_Eiffel> .
<http://dbpedia.org/resource/Eiffel_Tower>
<http://dbpedia.org/property/caption> "The Eiffel Tower as
seen from"@en .
<http://dbpedia.org/resource/Eiffel_Tower>
<http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#sameAs>
<http://ilo.dbpedia.org/resource/Torre_Eiffel> .
<http://dbpedia.org/resource/Eiffel_Tower>
<http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#sameAs>
owl:sameAs?
<http://dbpedia.org/resource/Eiffel_Tower>
<http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#sameA
s> <http://rdf.freebase.com/ns/m.02j81> .
<http://dbpedia.org/resource/Eiffel_Tower>
<http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-
syntax-ns#type>
<http://dbpedia.org/class/yago/Skyscrape
r104233124> .
<http://dbpedia.org/resource/Eiffel_Tower>
<http://dbpedia.org/property/id>
What does this mean for RDF Validation?
What does this mean for RDF Validation?
How can we understand and define
metadata mindsets.
Credits
• Portrait of Lisa Gherardini, wife of Francesco del Giocondo, known as the Mona Lisa (the Joconde in
French) © Musee du Louvre/A. Dequier – M. Bard
• Double Headed Snake - British Museum by http://www.flickr.com/photos/dunechaser/2793043767/
• The DeLorean Time Machine in "Back to the Future”
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Delorean5.jpg
• Becraft, Andrew. Lego Back to the Future Delorean https://flic.kr/p/fbD2xD
• Gonzalez, Jorge Philipe. Maquinas del Tiempo. https://flic.kr/p/4hxhib
• MsSarahKelly. Back to the Future by Graffiti Life. https://flic.kr/p/fmBsBt
• flying_rhino_303 Andy Warhol "30 Mona Lisa's" Pop Art Conceptual Art artist 35mm slide
• http://www.ebay.com/itm/Andy-Warhol-034-30-Mona-Lisa-039-s-034-Pop-Art-Conceptual-Art-artist-
35mm-slide-
/291197617937?nma=true&si=dWZ0WmtfQUo9bQaQ%252BB7jDrq4sIo%253D&orig_cvip=true&rt=nc&_
trksid=p2047675.l2557
• Tillett, B. Horizontal Bibliographic Relationships
https://pantherfile.uwm.edu/kipp/public/courses/511/511notes-bibstructs_html_m42e2c6da.png
• CDWA E-R Diagram http://www.getty.edu/research/publications/electronic_publications/cdwa/entity.html
• Lincoln, Matthew Heirarchies of AAT http://matthewlincoln.net/pages/dendrogram-fullscreen.html
• Pixel Mona Lisa http://www.whatkeptmefrom.com/blog/?q=pixelartseries
• Stars Wars Hologram http://static.thetechjournal.net/wp-content/uploads/2012/10/star-wars-hologra.jpg
• Stopethegears https://flic.kr/p/2F4zSb

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The Dublin Core 1:1 Principle in the Age of Linked Data

  • 1. The Dublin Core 1:1 Principle in the Age of Linked Data Dr. Richard J. Urban Florida State University School of Information http://chi.cci.fsu.edu @musebrarian
  • 2. Acknowledgements • Dissertation Committee: – Dr. Michael B. Twidale – Dr. Allen Renear – Dr. Carole Palmer • UIUC Conceptual Foundations Research Group – Dr. Karen Wickett • IMLS Digital Collections and Content Project http:/imlsdcc.grainger.illinois.edu • Urban, R. J. (2012). Principle Paradigms: Revisiting the Dublin Core 1:1 Principle (Dissertation). University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Retrieved from http://hdl.handle.net/2142/3 1109
  • 3.
  • 4. The Principle Defined In general, Dublin Core metadata describes one manifestation or version of a resource, rather than assuming that manifestations stand in for one another. For instance, a jpeg image of the Mona Lisa has much in common with the original painting, but it is not the same as the painting. As such the digital image should be described as itself, most likely with the creator of the digital image included as a Creator or Contributor, rather than just the painter of the original Mona Lisa. The relationship between the metadata for the original and the reproduction is part of the metadata description, and assists the user in determining whether he or she needs to go to the Louvre for the original, or whether his/her need can be met by a reproduction (Hillmann, 2003).
  • 5. The Principle Defined In general, Dublin Core metadata describes one manifestation or version of a resource, rather than assuming that manifestations stand in for one another. For instance, a jpeg image of the Mona Lisa has much in common with the original painting, but it is not the same as the painting. As such the digital image should be described as itself, most likely with the creator of the digital image included as a Creator or Contributor, rather than just the painter of the original Mona Lisa. The relationship between the metadata for the original and the reproduction is part of the metadata description, and assists the user in determining whether he or she needs to go to the Louvre for the original, or whether his/her need can be met by a reproduction (Hillmann, 2003).
  • 6. “One to one…is a many-headed-snake 6 and it has bitten us often over the years” -Stu Waibel
  • 7. How did we get the 1:1 Principle?
  • 8. How did we get the 1:1 Principle?
  • 9. How did we get the 1:1 Principle?
  • 10. How did we get the 1:1 Principle?
  • 11. What are we describing? (Simonton, 1962) Facsimile Theory • The Facsimile Theory privileged the intellectual content of an item by making the “original” resource the focus of the record representing a reproduction. Following the long-standing practice of dash entries, a description of the reproduction itself would be included as a note. • AACR1 • LCRI 1.11A Edition Theory • The Edition Theory required a record to represent the physical features of the reproduction, using a note to provide a description of the “original” resource. • AACR2 “Cardinal Principle” describe the “item-at-hand” See Miller (2010) in regards to how these can be applied to 1:1 Principle problems/solutions. http://dcpapers.dublincore.org/ojs/pubs/article/view/1043/992
  • 13. Beyond the Book Describing Visual Resources and Artworks • MARC Visual Materials (1980s) • MARC Archival Manuscript Control (AMC) (1980s) • ArtMARC (1997) • Research Libraries Group (RLG)/RLIN (1978) • Visual Resource Association (1982) • Getty Art History Information Program (AHIP) (1983-1999) – (Later the Getty Information Institute)
  • 14. Principle Precursor? • The [Art and Architecture Thesaurus] considers reproductions of works of art to be surrogates for original works and will recommend that they be indexed in a similar fashion. For example, PAINTING (655) would be used to describe both Leonardo's Mona Lisa and a slide reproduction; SLIDE (655) would also be used in the latter case. This holds serious implications for effective retrieval….In an integrated database containing both of these media, searchers interested only in examples of actual paintings might have to learn to exclude slides, microfilm, and other reproduction media in their search queries to retrieve only records for original paintings. . . . One solution might be the addition of a “reproduction” facet to indexing strings for object surrogates so that they would be differentiated from “originals” in a browse display – (Dooley & Zinham, 1990).
  • 15. Along comes Dublin Core… • Dublin Core describes “document-like objects” on the Web – What counts as a document-like object? – What about things that aren’t on the Web that we want to provide access to? – What about digital reproductions and surrogates of offline originals?
  • 16. Date Workshops Events 1995 DC-1 (Dublin, OH) 1996 DC-2 (Warwick, GBR) • Warwick Framework. • How Dublin Core should handle the representation of surrogates left unresolved. DC-3 CNI/OCLC Image Workshop (Dublin, OH) • Images as DLOs • Relationships/Source Discussed 1997 DC-4 (Canberra, AUS) • Eric Jul introduces idea for 1:1 “to each resource, it’s own description” RLG/ALCTS Summit (Mountain View, CA) • Drafting Guidelines for Extending Dublin Core DC-5 (Helsinki, FIN) • 1:1 and Relation Work groups established • AHDS Report 1998 DC-6 (Washington, D.C.) • Discussion continues on listservs • RDF emerges from W3C • Beginnings of DC Abstract Model 1999 DC-7 (Frankfurt, DEU) • Bearman et al. (1999) discusses “logical clusters of metadata” used for the INDECS project. 2000 DC-8 (Ottawa, CAN) • Relation and One-to-One Working Groups disbanded 2001 DC-9 (Tokyo, JPN) • OAI-PMH 1.1 requires simple Dublin Core. 2003 DC-2003 (Seattle, WA) • 1:1 appears in Using Dublin Core
  • 17. Guidelines for Extending the Use of Dublin Core Elements (RLG, 1997) • Extend Dublin Core beyond Web-based resources – Images as DLOs – Non-web resources • Include “record type indicators” – is a DLO the original or not – Is the DLO Internet-accessible or not
  • 18. Guidelines for Extending the Use of Dublin Core Elements (RLG, 1997) • Modify DC term definitions to indicate “values that describe the intellectual content of the original resource.” • “Concoct a way to start and end sets of DC elements” in order to describe originals/surrogates. • Add terms to Resource Type vocabulary for surrogates/offline resources. • Make better use of Relation/Source to help structure original/surrogate descriptions.
  • 21. The Principle in DCAM The abstract model presented above indicates that each DC metadata description describes one, and only one, resource. This is commonly referred to as the one-to-one principle. However, real-world metadata applications tend to be based on loosely grouped sets of descriptions (where the described resources are typically related in some way), known here as description sets. For example, a description set might comprise descriptions of both a painting and the artist. Furthermore, it is often the case that a description set will also contain a description about the description set itself (sometimes referred to as 'admin metadata' or 'meta-metadata'). Description sets are instantiated, for the purposes of exchange between software applications, in the form of metadata records, according to one of the DCMI encoding guidelines (for example, XHTML meta tags, XML and RDF/XML) [DCMI-ENCODINGS].
  • 22.
  • 23. 1:1 Principle Violations <title>Mona Lisa</title> <date>2008</date> <date>1501-1519</date> <source>TIFF</source> <type>image</type> <format>oil on poplar board</format> <format>image/jpeg</format> <format>H. 77 cm; W. 53 cm</format> <format>16781 bytes</format>
  • 25.
  • 26.
  • 27. Reference an important part of semantics date.orginal date.digtial refersTo refersTo
  • 29. Knowledge Organization • Objective: Relevant Retrieval of surrogate records. • Rules for Bibliographic Control/ Descriptive Cataloging • MARC/OAI-DC XML Syntax Knowledge Representation • Objective: Intelligent Reasoning • Semantic Web • Resource Description Framework (RDF) 29
  • 30. Knowledge Organization • Identity through definite descriptions • Fixed record syntaxes with informal semantics. • Meaning supplied by principles, rules, etc. Knowledge Representation • Identity through names (URIs) • Complex graph of relationships among named resources. • Formal semantics supplied by interpretations and models. 30 1:1
  • 31. KO KR
  • 32. creator: Gustav Eiffel date: 1889 http://ex.org/eiffelTower Use URIs as names of things
  • 33. creator: Gustav Eiffel date: 1889 http://ex.org/eiffelTower Use URIs as names of things
  • 34. http://ex.org/eiffelTower Use URIs as names of things <http://dbpedia.org/resource/Eiffel_Tower> <http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#sameAs> <http://rdf.freebase.com/ns/m.02j81> . <http://dbpedia.org/resource/Eiffel_Tower> <http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#type> <http://dbpedia.org/class/yago/Skyscraper104233124> . <http://dbpedia.org/resource/Eiffel_Tower> <http://dbpedia.org/property/id> "s0000021"@en . <http://dbpedia.org/resource/Eiffel_Tower> <http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#sameAs> <http://cy.dbpedia.org/resource/Tu0175r_Eiffel> . <http://dbpedia.org/resource/Eiffel_Tower> <http://dbpedia.org/property/caption> "The Eiffel Tower as seen from"@en . <http://dbpedia.org/resource/Eiffel_Tower> <http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#sameAs> <http://ilo.dbpedia.org/resource/Torre_Eiffel> . <http://dbpedia.org/resource/Eiffel_Tower> <http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#sameAs>
  • 36. What does this mean for RDF Validation?
  • 37. What does this mean for RDF Validation?
  • 38. How can we understand and define metadata mindsets.
  • 39. Credits • Portrait of Lisa Gherardini, wife of Francesco del Giocondo, known as the Mona Lisa (the Joconde in French) © Musee du Louvre/A. Dequier – M. Bard • Double Headed Snake - British Museum by http://www.flickr.com/photos/dunechaser/2793043767/ • The DeLorean Time Machine in "Back to the Future” https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Delorean5.jpg • Becraft, Andrew. Lego Back to the Future Delorean https://flic.kr/p/fbD2xD • Gonzalez, Jorge Philipe. Maquinas del Tiempo. https://flic.kr/p/4hxhib • MsSarahKelly. Back to the Future by Graffiti Life. https://flic.kr/p/fmBsBt • flying_rhino_303 Andy Warhol "30 Mona Lisa's" Pop Art Conceptual Art artist 35mm slide • http://www.ebay.com/itm/Andy-Warhol-034-30-Mona-Lisa-039-s-034-Pop-Art-Conceptual-Art-artist- 35mm-slide- /291197617937?nma=true&si=dWZ0WmtfQUo9bQaQ%252BB7jDrq4sIo%253D&orig_cvip=true&rt=nc&_ trksid=p2047675.l2557 • Tillett, B. Horizontal Bibliographic Relationships https://pantherfile.uwm.edu/kipp/public/courses/511/511notes-bibstructs_html_m42e2c6da.png • CDWA E-R Diagram http://www.getty.edu/research/publications/electronic_publications/cdwa/entity.html • Lincoln, Matthew Heirarchies of AAT http://matthewlincoln.net/pages/dendrogram-fullscreen.html • Pixel Mona Lisa http://www.whatkeptmefrom.com/blog/?q=pixelartseries • Stars Wars Hologram http://static.thetechjournal.net/wp-content/uploads/2012/10/star-wars-hologra.jpg • Stopethegears https://flic.kr/p/2F4zSb

Editor's Notes

  1. Reproductions Newspaper/Brittle book microfilming Multiple Versions Vinyl/Cassette/CD Electronic Resources Print journal/eJournal “non-Book” resources Visual Resources (slides) Artworks (originals & surrogates)
  2. Reproductions Newspaper/Brittle book microfilming Multiple Versions Vinyl/Cassette/CD Electronic Resources Print journal/eJournal “non-Book” resources Visual Resources (slides) Artworks (originals & surrogates)
  3. Reproductions Newspaper/Brittle book microfilming Multiple Versions Vinyl/Cassette/CD Electronic Resources Print journal/eJournal “non-Book” resources Visual Resources (slides) Artworks (originals & surrogates)
  4. Dumb-down doesn’t account for this.