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Linked Open Data for Libraries
Presented at Dutch National Librarian/Information Professianal Association annual conference 2011 - NVB2011
November 17, 2011

Linked Open Data for Libraries

  1. 1. Linked Open Data for libraries Lukas Koster Library Systems Coordinator Library of the University of Amsterdam @lukask NVB 2011, 17 november 2011
  2. 2.
  3. 3. Agenda <ul><li>Open data </li></ul><ul><li>Linked data </li></ul><ul><li>Linked Open Data and Libraries </li></ul><ul><li>Options for libraries </li></ul><ul><li>Recommendations </li></ul>
  4. 4. Open data: 5 stars (Tim Berners-Lee) Data: no stars Open Data: 1 star - O pen L icence Open Data: 2 stars - Re usable Open Data: 3 stars - O pen F ormat Linked Open Data: 4 stars - URI 's Linked Open Data: 5 stars - L inked D ata
  5. 5. Linked data: 4 rules (Tim Berners-Lee) <ul><li>Use URIs as names for things </li></ul><ul><li>Use HTTP URIs so that people can look up those names. </li></ul><ul><li>When someone looks up a URI, provide useful information, using the standards (RDF, SPARQL) </li></ul><ul><li>Include links to other URIs, so that they can discover more things. </li></ul>
  6. 6. RDF URI Triple Ontology Vocabulary
  7. 7. URIs <ul><li>Unique identifiers on the web </li></ul><ul><li>Instead of internal database primary key </li></ul><ul><li> (Dan Brown) </li></ul><ul><li> (The Da Vinci Code) </li></ul>
  8. 8. Relational databases: primary keys Primary key Primary key Foreign key Books Title Author Year ID Authors Name Year ID Authors record Dan Brown 1964 456 ID Name Year The Da Vinci Code Books record 456 2003 1289 Title ID Author Year
  9. 9. Relational databases and applications Select title, year from books Select name, year from authors where Database Application User interface SQL Title : The Da Vinci Code Author : Dan Brown, 1964 Year : 2003 Authors record Dan Brown 1964 456 ID Name Year The Da Vinci Code Books record 456 2003 1289 Title ID Author Year
  10. 10. URIs Primary key Primary key Foreign key OpenLibrary Title Author Year URI VIAF Name Year URI Authors record Dan Brown 1964 URI Name Year The Da Vinci Code Books record 2003 Title URI Author Year
  11. 11. Linked data and applications Select ?title ?year … Select ?name ?year WHERE ….. Database Application User interface SPARQL Title : The Da Vinci Code Author : Dan Brown, 1964 Year : 2003 Authors record Dan Brown 1964 URI Name Year The Da Vinci Code Books record 2003 Title URI Author Year
  12. 12. Triples <ul><li>Subject - Predicate – Object </li></ul><ul><li>Thing – Relation - Thing </li></ul>written by painted by is about author of painter of is subject of uri uri uri uri uri uri
  13. 13. Triples and URIs <ul><li>URIs for: </li></ul><ul><li>Subject </li></ul><ul><li>Object </li></ul><ul><li>Relation </li></ul>uri uri uri
  14. 14. RDF – Resource Description Framework <ul><li>Used for defining ontologies/vocabularies </li></ul><ul><li>Data model ( what can be described ) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Classes (types), attributes, relations </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Used for describing triples </li></ul><ul><li>Data ( what is described ) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Objects, attribute values, relations </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>Description: </li></ul><ul><li>Namespace: http:// </li></ul>
  16. 16. BIBO - Bibliographic Ontology <ul><li>xml:base=&quot;; </li></ul><ul><li>xmlns:owl2xml=&quot;; </li></ul><ul><li>xmlns:terms=&quot;; </li></ul><ul><li>xmlns:xsd=&quot;; </li></ul><ul><li>xmlns:status=&quot;&bibo;status/&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>xmlns:vann=&quot;; </li></ul><ul><li>xmlns:schema=&quot;; </li></ul><ul><li>xmlns:rdfs=&quot;; </li></ul><ul><li>xmlns:foaf=&quot;; </li></ul><ul><li>xmlns:prism=&quot;; </li></ul><ul><li>xmlns:owl=&quot;; </li></ul><ul><li>xmlns:skos=&quot;; </li></ul><ul><li>xmlns:event=&quot;; </li></ul><ul><li>xmlns:ns=&quot;; </li></ul><ul><li>xmlns:degrees=&quot;&bibo;degrees/&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>xmlns:rdf=&quot;; </li></ul><ul><li>xmlns:bibo=&quot;;> </li></ul>Ontologies used Dublin Core - Metadata FOAF - People SKOS – Thesaurus, Subjects
  17. 17. BIBO - Bibliographic Ontology <ul><li><!-- --> </li></ul><ul><li><owl:Class rdf:about=&quot;Book&quot;> </li></ul><ul><li><rdfs:label xml:lang=&quot;en&quot;>Book</rdfs:label> </li></ul><ul><li><rdfs:subClassOf rdf:resource=&quot;Document&quot;/> </li></ul><ul><li><rdfs:isDefinedBy rdf:datatype=&quot;&xsd;anyURI&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>></rdfs:isDefinedBy> </li></ul><ul><li><ns:term_status>stable</ns:term_status> </li></ul><ul><li><rdfs:comment xml:lang=&quot;en&quot;>A written or printed work of fiction or nonfiction, usually on sheets of paper fastened or bound together within covers. </li></ul><ul><li></rdfs:comment> </li></ul><ul><li></owl:Class> </li></ul>Class/Object type
  18. 18. BIBO - Bibliographic Ontology <ul><li><urn:isbn:0385504209> a bibo:Book ; dc:creator <> ; dc:title “The Da Vinci Code&quot;@en ; dc:date &quot;2003“ </li></ul>Book example
  19. 19. RDF Subjects as string values <ul><li><dcterms:subject>Fiction</dcterms:subject> </li></ul><ul><li><dcterms:subject>Cryptographers</dcterms:subject> </li></ul><ul><li><dcterms:subject>Grail</dcterms:subject> </li></ul><ul><li><dcterms:subject>Secret societies</dcterms:subject> </li></ul><ul><li><dcterms:subject>Art museum curators</dcterms:subject> </li></ul><ul><li><dcterms:subject>Manuscripts</dcterms:subject> </li></ul><ul><li><dcterms:subject>Appreciation</dcterms:subject> </li></ul><ul><li><dcterms:subject>Crimes against</dcterms:subject> </li></ul><ul><li><dcterms:subject>Romans</dcterms:subject> </li></ul><ul><li><dcterms:subject>Aventures</dcterms:subject> </li></ul><ul><li><dcterms:subject>Suspense fiction</dcterms:subject> </li></ul><ul><li><dcterms:subject>Religious articles</dcterms:subject> </li></ul><ul><li><dcterms:subject>Occultisme</dcterms:subject> </li></ul><ul><li><dcterms:subject>Accessible book</dcterms:subject> </li></ul><ul><li><dcterms:subject>Protected DAISY</dcterms:subject> </li></ul>
  20. 20. Subjects as URIs <ul><li><dcterms:subject> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li></dcterms:subject> </li></ul><ul><li><dcterms:subject> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li></dcterms:subject> </li></ul>
  21. 21. DBPedia (WikiPedia)
  22. 22. LoC
  23. 23. Two sides Publish Consume
  24. 24. Summary: Linked Open Data The web as global database/web of data RDF as universal API Applications using global data via RDF WWW
  25. 25. Original objective of libraries <ul><li>Gateways to information </li></ul><ul><li>Printed material </li></ul><ul><li>Physical objects </li></ul><ul><li>On location </li></ul>Bibliotheken en leeszalen in beeld, 1990
  26. 26. Changing information world WWW
  27. 27. Changing role for libraries Reference desk Content curation Information gateway
  28. 28. Linked data options for libraries <ul><li>Consume </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Traditional cataloguing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enrichment of existing catalogue data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Create new information aggregates (new!) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Publish (unique stuff) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Holdings/usage data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Special collections </li></ul></ul>
  29. 29. Linked data options for libraries <ul><ul><li>Traditional cataloguing </li></ul></ul>
  30. 30. Links as text strings Links to internal records
  31. 31. RDA <ul><li>Resource Description and Access </li></ul>
  32. 32. FRBR F unctional R equirements for B ibliographic R ecords Defined in relation to tasks performed by users when searching and making use of national bibliographies and library catalogues
  33. 33. FRBR User Tasks <ul><li>Find </li></ul><ul><li>Identify </li></ul><ul><li>Select </li></ul><ul><li>Obtain </li></ul><ul><li>Navigate </li></ul>
  34. 34. FRBR <ul><li>Group 1: What? W ork E xpression M anifestation I tem </li></ul><ul><li>Group 2: By who? P erson C orporate Body </li></ul><ul><ul><li>FRAD Functional Requirements for Authority Data </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Group 3: About what? C oncept O bject E vent P lace </li></ul><ul><ul><li>FRSAD Functional Requirements for Subject Authority Data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Title – Author - Subject </li></ul></ul>
  35. 35. © Library of Congress/Barbara Tillett
  36. 36. FRBR for books Editions Copies Original Adaptation Translation
  37. 37. FRBR Group 1 Entities - WEMI Manifestation Item Work Expression Catalogue Missing links
  38. 38. Triples written by painted by is about author of painter of is subject of uri uri uri uri uri uri
  39. 39. LOD, FRBR and cataloguing written by painted by author of painter of is subject of is about Manifestation Item Work Expression Dan Brown The Da Vinci Code Leonardo da Vinci The Last Supper Dutch translation De Da Vinci Code Holding OBA http://<expression-uri> http://<manifestation-uri> Library
  40. 40. Work Expression Manifestation URI 650 $a 100 $a 245 $a Subject http :// Author The Da Vinci Code Original Title http://<expression-uri> URI 245 $a De Da Vinci Code Title 546 $a dut (or: URI to language code) Language Work 260 $c 2006 Date 260 $b Publisher http://<expression-uri> Expression http://<manifestation-uri> URI
  41. 41. Work Expression Manifestation Holding Item(s) Global shared bibliographic data Local holdings data URI http://<expression-uri> URI Work http://<expression-uri> Expression http://<manifestation-uri> URI http://<holding-uri> URI http://<manifestation-uri> Manifestation Library Availability http://<holding-uri> Holding http://<item-uri> URI WWW
  42. 42. Manifestation Item Work Expression FRBR Group 1 FRBR Group 2 FRAD FRBR Group 3 FRSAD Holding Publishers Libraries
  43. 43. Problems - challenges <ul><li>Existing circumstances not suited for moving to Linked Cataloguing - RDA/FRBR/LOD: </li></ul><ul><li>Database - Bibliographic formats (MARC) </li></ul><ul><li>Applications - Local library systems </li></ul>
  44. 44. Linked Cataloguing - What’s needed <ul><li>Global Shared Bibliographic Metadata Store(s) </li></ul><ul><li>Global Shared Authority Files </li></ul><ul><li>Open Cataloguing systems </li></ul><ul><li>Supporting for linking with URIs </li></ul>
  45. 45. Linked data options for libraries <ul><ul><li>Enrichment of existing data </li></ul></ul>
  46. 46. FRBR Links
  47. 47. FRBR
  48. 48. Text about author Embedded from DBPedia (Wikipedia Linked Data engine) Uses German National Library Author ID’s
  49. 49. Enrichment - Discovery front ends <ul><li>Examples use Discovery front ends </li></ul><ul><li>Extra layer on top of processed catalogue metadata </li></ul><ul><li>Metadata are FRBRised, based on string matching </li></ul><ul><li>Linked data embedded using scripts/programming, manipulating HTML front end </li></ul>
  50. 50. Example: Pilot project Linking library catalogue data to theatre performance data Dutch Digital Cultural Heritage Foundation DEN as instigator Library of the University of Amsterdam Theatre Institute of The Netherlands
  51. 51. Library catalogue results No FRBR here ( yet )
  52. 52. Library catalogue results
  53. 53. TIN theatre production database
  54. 54. TIN theatre production database
  55. 55. What we made
  56. 56. How we did it - URIs < base-url >/person/Beckett, Samuel < base-url >/title/Beckett, Samuel/Waiting for Godot JavaScript/JQuery HTML
  57. 57. How we did it – JavaScript/JQuery < base-url >/person/Beckett, Samuel < base-url >/title/Beckett, Samuel/Waiting for Godot <base-url>/ production/Beckett, Samuel/Waiting for Godot/1988-11-22/6750
  58. 58. Problems/challenges <ul><li>No common identifiers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Aleph key ≠ key </li></ul></ul><ul><li>No internal links to common entity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No central “ Work ” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>String matching </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Author: ‘ Samuel Beckett ’- ‘ Beckett, Samuel ’ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Title: ‘ Waiting for Godot ’ – ’En attendant Godot ’ </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Copyright </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Photos, videos, audio, artwork </li></ul></ul>
  59. 59. Identifiers/URIs/String matching /title/Beckett, Samuel/Waiting for Godot /title/Beckett, Samuel/Waiting for Godot : a tragicomedy in two acts /title/Beckett, Samuel/En attendant Godot : pièce en deux actes /title/Beckett, Samuel/Wachten op Godot /title/Beckett, Samuel/Waiting for Godot /title/Beckett, Samuel/Waiting For Godot /title/Beckett, Samuel/Wachten op Godot /title/Beckett, Samuel/Wachtend op Godot /title/Beckett, Samuel/Wachten op Godot (De favorieten) /title/Beckett, Samuel/Wachten op Godot (eerste bedrijf) /title/Beckett, Samuel/En attendant Godot /title/Beckett, Samuel/Warten auf Godot
  60. 60. Ideally…. FRBR
  61. 61. Current situation Implicit relations
  62. 62. Enrichment - What’s needed <ul><li>New search type: linked data search </li></ul><ul><li>Mechanisms for consuming external linked data sources </li></ul><ul><li>Options to identify trustworthy LOD sources </li></ul><ul><li>Automatic retrieval and processing of RDF vocabularies </li></ul>
  63. 63. Linked data options for libraries <ul><ul><li>Create new information aggregates </li></ul></ul>
  64. 64. Subject: Anne Frank The girl The war The house The diary The book The movie The play About Library catalogue FRBR
  65. 65. New aggregations
  66. 66. LOCAH – Linking Lives Linked Open Copac Archives Hub Publish linked data Archives+libraries Using Linked Data to create biographical resources
  67. 67. New Aggregates - What’s needed <ul><li>Content curation </li></ul><ul><li>Cooperation </li></ul><ul><li>Technology </li></ul><ul><li>Expertise </li></ul><ul><li>New systems </li></ul>
  68. 68. Linked data options for libraries <ul><ul><li>Publishing </li></ul></ul>
  69. 69. Publishing linked data <ul><li>RDF : </li></ul><ul><li>Ontology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ontologies (re)used (namespaces) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Object types, attributes, relations </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Triples </li></ul><ul><ul><li>On the fly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Triple store </li></ul></ul>
  70. 70. Publishing library data as linked data <ul><li>Bibliographic information: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>FRBR Work/Expression/Manifestation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>FRAD Authors/Creators </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>FRSAD Subjects </li></ul></ul>Ideally only once, no redundancy LoC New Bibliographic Framework Not unique Publishers
  71. 71. Publishing library data as linked data <ul><li>Holdings information: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Holdings per library </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>FRBR Items </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Usage data </li></ul>Unique Approved
  72. 72. Publishing library data as linked data <ul><li>Special collections </li></ul><ul><li>= </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural heritage </li></ul><ul><li>Archives </li></ul><ul><li>Museums </li></ul>Unique Approved
  73. 73. Publishing - What’s needed <ul><li>System development skills/staff </li></ul><ul><li>Linked Data features added to existing library systems </li></ul><ul><li>New generic linked data information systems, tools, online services </li></ul>
  74. 74. Recommendations <ul><li>Cooperate! </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Libraries, Archives, Museums </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consortia </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ask library systems vendors to adapt (next gen) systems: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>FRBR/RDA/Linking architecture/infrastructure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>LOD/RDF/URI Publishing options </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>LOD/RDF/URI Consuming options </li></ul></ul>
  75. 75. Existing library system vendors adding publishing options authority files - VIAF working with user group
  76. 76. Linked Open Data: Systems and tools <ul><li>Develop your own systems/open source </li></ul><ul><li>Use existing commercial systems </li></ul><ul><li>Consortia infrastructures </li></ul><ul><li>National platforms </li></ul><ul><li>Use free tools </li></ul>
  77. 77.
  78. 78.
  79. 79.
  80. 80.
  81. 81.
  82. 82.
  83. 83. Library Linked Data documentation <ul><li>W3C Library Linked Data Incubator Group, </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Report: </li></ul></ul><ul><li>IGeLU 2011 session Linked Data and Ex Libris products, </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Summary slides: </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Tutorial publishing linked open data by DEN: </li></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul>