National problems and issues
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National problems and issues

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A presentation for initiating discussion among students

A presentation for initiating discussion among students
in a one-day seminar at Mahatma Vidyalaya School, Muthanallur, Anekal taluk, Bangalore Rural District

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National problems and issues Presentation Transcript

  • 1. National problems and issues M. S. Sridhar A presentation for initiating discussion among students in a one-day seminar at Mahatma Vidyalaya School, Muthanallur, Anekal taluk, Bangalore Rural District
  • 2. Glorious past Great achievements in religion, culture and art  Outstanding literature  Impressive diverse geography  Nationnal problems and issues S Sridhar M 2
  • 3. Glory  5,000 year old civilization  325 languages spoken – 1,652 dialects  18 official languages  29 states, 5 union territories  3.28 million sq. kilometers - Area  7,516 kilometers - Coastline  1.3 Billion population Nationnal problems and issues S Sridhar M 3
  • 4. Glory contd.  Parliamentary form of Government  Secular democratic constitution  Worlds largest democracy since 55 years  4th largest economy  Fastest growing IT super power  Indian Railways ,the biggest employer in the world. Nationnal problems and issues S Sridhar M 4
  • 5. Glory 5600 dailies, 15000 weeklies and 20000 periodicals in 21 languages with a combined circulation of 142 million.  GDP $576 Billion. (GDP rate 8%)  World-class recognition in IT, bio-technology and space.  Largest English speaking nation in the world.  3rd largest standing army force, over 1.5Million strong.  2nd largest pool of scientists and engineers in the World.  Nationnal problems and issues S Sridhar M 5
  • 6. Societal values Positive Family values ‘Duty-first’ value system of Indian culture  Negative Divided religious and communal differences Position of women Caste ideology & untouchability Evils of poverty, ignorance and illiteracy  Nationnal problems and issues S Sridhar M 6
  • 7. Individuals Declining ‘fearlessness’ in the fight against social and political injustice  Documented and widespread corruption  Problems of great religious, social, financial and political diversities  Poverty leading to backwater crime, prostitution, corruption, beggary; driving to cities  Nationnal problems and issues S Sridhar M 7
  • 8. Problems of youth Both constructed by youth & faced by youth  Adapt to new culture or support conventionality  Personal problems like introvert nature (society is either too harsh or too lenient with teenagers)  Struggle for ‘freedom of choice’ (concerning views, clothes, education, occupation, etc.)  Illiterate parents, remote village areas & poor economic conditions  Religious rigidity & sex discrimination  Unemployment  Nationnal problems and issues S Sridhar M 8
  • 9. Poverty  All simple and basic life styles are not necessarily inferior, but it becomes a dynamic evil when  it generates a suffering big injustices prevail and grow Human soul is exploited and abused   Population explosion  World’s richest in mid 16th century, but now home for 30% of world’s poor (half the population live under existence  minimum or 53 % live under a $ per day poverty line) Gap between rich and poor is rising at an alarming rate (richest 1/5 th have income 74 times that of poorest 1/5 th)  Lack of rural infrastructure ossify poverty and underdevelopment  Nationnal problems and issues S Sridhar M 9
  • 10. Poverty   …contd “The most dramatic fall in population and rise in living standards can only be achieved if Australia, Canada and the US receive large numbers of India’s poor on the same lines as they once offset the poverty and population explosion of Europe at the turn of the last [19th] century” “Liberalisation and globalisation without solving problem of poverty lead to Brazilian or Philippine type of development with tragic disparity in opportunity and income, poor health and degradation of the environment” Nationnal problems and issues S Sridhar M 10
  • 11. Women Notorious for gender disparity from foetal stage to old age  Largest share of world’s illiterate women  Literacy of tribal women is only 18.19%  20% of rural households headed by women due to widowhood, desertion or male migration  Nationnal problems and issues S Sridhar M 11
  • 12. Children 44 m school children toil on forms, factories & streets ( 15 m as slaves; debt slavery still exists) “The root cause is not poverty, but the caste prejudice and value systems of those who create and implement policy”  Unable to achieve compulsory eight-years of schooling for every rural child  Despite world’s largest cattle wealth and largest producer of milk, protein energy malnutrition and vitamin deficiencies prevail  Nationnal problems and issues S Sridhar M 12
  • 13. Food & Agriculture 2/3 rd work in agriculture, but account for only 25% of GDP  Despite monsoon dependence and famines for 4 decades, production increased faster than population growth  Self-sufficient agriculture, but lousy PDS  Second largest producer of rice, wheat, fruits and vegetables  Strong support to small-scale agriculture in 1980s helped reducing poverty to some extent  Nationnal problems and issues S Sridhar M 13
  • 14. Health Lowest human development indicator in the world  70% lack access to PHC; Elders, young women and children are worst affected  Expenditure is 1/3 rd the minimum prescribed by WHO  Half the male population over the age of 15 are smokers; Tobacco will, in due course, become the number one killer in India as well  HIV/ AIDS wide spreading with 7 in 1000 affected (3.7 m)  Nationnal problems and issues S Sridhar M 14
  • 15. Housing 40 m backlog of housing units require Rs. 1230 b Vs.  Banks unable to recover (write-off) Rs. 550 b bad debts of big business houses  Nationnal problems and issues S Sridhar M 15
  • 16. Education Lower castes and tribal communities make the bulk of the poorer masses ( ½ b dalits and tribal)  40 m unemployed  Third largest S&T manpower  Female literacy rate of Kerala is higher than every province of China. The only Kerala model of development is in Cuba  Nationnal problems and issues S Sridhar M 16
  • 17. Urbanisation Urban population has grown from 50 m (16% of population) to 459 m (34%) since independence  Inadequate infrastructure – water, electricity, roads (except communication)  World’s largest number of two-wheelers and other vehicles on poor roads cause pollution and choking  Cherrapunji, world’s heaviest precipitation suffers from water scarcity  Best part of the natural resources have already been consumed and genetic diversity destroyed ( to feel the affluence of OECD countries)  Nationnal problems and issues S Sridhar M 17
  • 18. Military World’s largest arms importer for many years  Bofors costed Rs. 14.3 b and Kargil Rs. 19.8 b  India and Pakistan together spend US $ 20 b annually on arms  Hypocritical cry of big countries ( except Denmark and Japan) on Nukes  Nationnal problems and issues S Sridhar M 18
  • 19. Industry One of the ten most industrialised countries  Lack of competition (till recent years) and subsidies of various kinds  Services account for 50% of GDP (2001-02)  Enormous investments in nuclear energy have not resulted in cheap and unlimited supply of power  Greatness is IT companies are world beaters  Nationnal problems and issues S Sridhar M 19
  • 20. Thank You Nationnal problems and issues S Sridhar M 20