History of Poverty


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This was my presentation in an English course supervised by AUC ( American University in Cairo) in 2009

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History of Poverty

  1. 1. The recent history of<br />Poverty<br />20th and the early of 21stcentury<br />By Marina Mamdouh Riad<br />
  2. 2. This presentation will cover the following points:<br /><ul><li> Definition of poverty.
  3. 3. Kinds of Poverty.
  4. 4. Causes of poverty.
  5. 5. Some population information about the following continents in the last 5 decades ( The most continents suffers from poverty):
  6. 6. Africa
  7. 7. Asia
  8. 8. Latin America
  9. 9. Some countries of each of the previous continents as examples.</li></ul>References:<br /><ul><li> wikipedia.com
  10. 10. UN statistics , maps and documentations.
  11. 11. A History of Wealth and Poverty (Why a Few Nations are Rich and Many Poor) by John P. Powelson.
  12. 12. Ministries of population in Egypt and India.
  13. 13. Historical Statistics for the World Economy: 1-2003 AD (Copyright Angus Maddison) an Excel file.</li></li></ul><li>The definition of poverty<br />The poverty occurs when a person or group of people suffers from the lack of the essential resources for minimum standards of well-being and life. Like material resources <br /><ul><li> Food
  14. 14. Safe drinking water</li></ul>or they may be social resources <br /><ul><li>access to information
  15. 15. Education
  16. 16. health care
  17. 17. Shelter
  18. 18. Social status
  19. 19. Political power</li></li></ul><li>Kinds of poverty<br />Absolute poverty:It is measured by thing called poverty line which is the minimum level of income in a given country. The official or common understanding of the poverty line is significantly higher in developed countries than in developing countries. The common international poverty line has been roughly $1 a day.<br />Relative poverty :It is the condition of having fewer resources or less income than others within a society or country, or compared to worldwide averages.<br />
  20. 20. Causes of poverty<br />The industrial revolution in 19th century made the cost of living rises.<br />Overpopulation and lack of access to birth control methods.<br />Corruption, weak rule of law.<br />Lack of work opportunities that will cause the talent people drives away leading to brain drains.<br />Poor health and education that affects passively on the productivity.<br />War and political instability.<br />
  21. 21. Population information of Africa<br /><ul><li> Total population in 1950 was 228.181 millions.
  22. 22. Total population in 2008 was 950.541 millions.
  23. 23. The average of population growth per decade ( 1950 to 2008 ) is 120.557 millions.
  24. 24. In 2006, 34 of the 50 nations on the UN list of least developed countries are in Africa. </li></li></ul><li>Egypt and poverty<br /><ul><li> Egypt population is 77.42 millions due to 2009 estimate.
  25. 25. In 1996, Human Development Report showed that around 13.7 million Egyptians live below the poverty line or 22.9% of population.
  26. 26. Living standards in Egypt are low by international standards, and have declined consistently since 1990.
  27. 27. According to 1996 estimate, the wealthiest 20 percent of Egyptians controlled 39 percent of the country's wealth, while the poorest 20 percent controlled only 9.8 percent of wealth.</li></li></ul><li>Population information of Asia<br /><ul><li> In 1950, total population was 1.382 billion.
  28. 28. In 2008, total population is 3.949 billions.
  29. 29. The average of population growth per decade ( 1950-2008 ) is 427.74 millions.</li></li></ul><li>India and poverty<br /><ul><li> The population is 1.198 billion due to 2009 estimate.
  30. 30. The World Bank estimates that 456 million Indians (42% of the total Indian population) now live under the global poverty line . The ratio is reduced since the ratio was 60% in 1980.
  31. 31. In 1951, 47% of India's rural population was below the poverty line. The proportion went up to 64% in 1954-55; it came down to 45% in 1960-61 but in 1977-78, it went up again to 51%.</li></li></ul><li>China and poverty<br /><ul><li> The population is 1,345 billion due to 2009 estimate.
  32. 32. Since the economy revolution that happened in the late 1970s, a remarkable increase in per capita income and a decline in the poverty is noticed rate from 64% at the beginning of reform to 10% in 2004.
  33. 33. China has been the most rapidly growing economy in the world over the past 25 years.</li></li></ul><li>China and poverty (cont.)<br /><ul><li> But there is a problem Income inequality has risen, there is a rural-urban income gap and by the growing disparity between highly educated urban professionals and the urban working class.
  34. 34. Not only in income but also in health and education outcomes. </li></li></ul><li>Population information of Latin America<br /><ul><li> The population in 1950 was 165.938 million.
  35. 35. The population in 2008 was 575.377 million.
  36. 36. The average population growth per decade is 68.239 million.
  37. 37. Latin America is the most unequal region in the world.
  38. 38. According to the World Bank, nearly 25% of the population lives on less than 2 USD a day.</li></li></ul><li>Colombia and poverty<br /><ul><li> According to 2009 estimate, the population is 44.928 millions.
  39. 39. A UN report included data about poverty in 35% of the general population and 17% extreme poverty, with an estimated 9,654,722 people living in extreme poverty.
  40. 40. Colombia has a high rate of unemployment and a work market dominated by informal jobs, with few significant prospects for the creation of new work opportunities.</li></li></ul><li>Colombia and poverty (cont.)<br /><ul><li> Colombia's measurement of inequality in wealth distribution was 0.51 in 2000 and 0.56 in 2006, making it the second-most unequal country in Latin America terms of wealth distribution, after Brazil.
  41. 41. About 32% of the people who do have work don’t have any formal work contract, nor access to the healthcare system.</li></li></ul><li>Final words<br />This presentation may have discussed a small part of poverty history in the world but from this small presentation we can recognize some points in every country we have discussed . The solution of any developing country is to<br /><ul><li> Build a strong economy(national or foreigner investments ).
  42. 42. Try to decrease its population by the force of the law.
  43. 43. Avoiding the participation in any war or civil war as possible.
  44. 44. Use all the talent people and scientists in the work market and make a good offers for them to override the brain drains .
  45. 45. The most important thing in my opinion is to study well all the problems in the past and avoid it in the future. </li></li></ul><li>Questions<br />
  46. 46. Thank you<br />