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Role of NGOs in development

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Role of NGOs in development

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Role of NGOs in development

  1. 1. ROLE OF NGOS IN DEVELOPMENT Mansour Esmaeil Zaei (PhD Research Scholar) Department of Public Administration, Panjab University Chandigarh, India. m.esmaeilzaei@gmail.com
  2. 2. • Which is the biggest NGOs in the world? Red Cross • What is NGO boom? India witnessing NGO boom, there is 1 for every 600 people - Times of India said.
  3. 3. DEFINITION – WORLD BANK “The diversity of NGOs strains any simple definition. They include many groups and institutions that are entirely or largely independent of government and that have primarily humanitarian or cooperative rather than commercial objectives. They are private agencies in industrial countries that support international development; indigenous groups organized regionally or nationally; and member-groups in villages. NGOs include charitable and religious associations that mobilize private funds for development, distribute food and family planning services and promote community organization. They also include independent cooperatives, community associations, water-user societies, women’s groups and pastoral associations. Citizen groups that raise awareness and influence policy are also NGOs”
  4. 4. DEFINITION • Impossible to give one unique answer, but NGOs have following characteristics: • Engaging in suffering relief activities • Promoting interest of the poor • Protecting the environment • Providing basic social services • Advocating community development
  5. 5. CATEGORIES OF NGOS • The term NGO is very broad and encompasses many different types of organizations • The main Categories of NGOs include; • i) operational NGOs • whose primary purpose is the design and implementation of development-related projects (Centre for Development & Population Activities) • ii) advocacy NGOs • whose primary purpose is to defend or promote a specific cause and who seek to influence the policies and practices of countries (Amnesty International) • iii) humanitarian NGOs • whose primary purpose is to provide aid in disaster areas, and alleviate suffering from poverty and disease (e.g. red cross)
  6. 6. TYPES OF NGOS • By orientation • Charitable orientation • Service orientation • Participatory orientation • Empowering orientation • By level of operation • Community-based organizations (CBOs) • City-wide organizations • National NGOs • International NGOs
  7. 7. TARGET OF NGOS • Community health promotion and education (such as hygiene and waste disposal). • Managing emerging health crises (HIV/AIDS, Hepatitis B). • Community social problems (juvenile crimes, run-away, street children, prostitution). • Environmental (sustainable water and energy resources). • Economic (micro loans, skills training, financial education and consulting). • Development (school and infrastructure construction). • Women‟s issues (women‟s and children‟s rights, counseling, literacy issues).
  8. 8. IMPACT OF THE NGO SECTOR • It is now estimated that over 15 percent of total overseas development aid is channelled through NGOs (World Bank) Total NGO numbers are hard to pin down for good reason; • Current estimates put the number of NGOs around; • 6,000 and 30,000 national NGOs in developing countries • 29,000 approximate international NGOs • Community based organizations across the developing and developed world that number in the hundreds of thousands (World Bank, Economist)
  9. 9. TRENDS IN THE NGO SECTOR • Over the past several decades, NGOs have become major players in the field of international development • Since the mid-1970s, the NGO sector in both developed and developing countries has experienced exponential growth • According to the World Bank, from 1970 to 1985 total development aid disbursed by international NGOs increased ten-fold • This trend peaked in 1992 with $7.6 billion dollars being distributed by NGOs to developing countries
  10. 10. ADVANTAGES • Can go places and undertake missions in areas where governments can’t go • More cost efficient than governments • Strong grassroots links: A more “human” face • Field-based development expertise • The ability to innovate and adapt • Participatory methodologies and tools: More community involvement • Long-term commitment and emphasis on sustainability • Less pressure from change in politics • Small scale projects • Can be individually tailored to meet specific community needs • Higher “success” rate • Less bureaucratic
  11. 11. LIMITATIONS OF NGOS • limited financial and management expertise • limited institutional capacity • low levels of self-sustainability • isolation/lack of inter-organizational communication and/or coordination • small scale interventions • lack of understanding of the broader social or economic context • Possible lack of legitimacy • Difficult to regulate • Can lack transparency and accountability
  12. 12. MILLENNIUM DEVELOPMENT GOALS (MDGS) • To eradicate extreme poverty and hunger • To achieve universal primary education • To promote gender equality and empower women • To reduce child mortality • To improve maternal health • To combat HIV/AIDS, malaria, and other diseases • To ensure environmental sustainability • To develop a global partnership for development
  13. 13. NGOS MAJOR PLAYERS IN THE FIELD OF DEVELOPMENT IN DEVELOPMENT • Promoting democracy • Advocating for human rights • Promoting sustainable socio-economic development • Providing humanitarian relief • Supporting educational and cultural renewal (Rice & Ritchie, 1995).
  14. 14. NGOS WORK CATEGORIES IN DEVELOPMENT • Implementer • Catalyst • Partner
  15. 15. THE ROLE OF NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS IN DEVELOPMENT • Providing goods and services • Assisting the government achieve its development • Helping citizens to voice their aspirations, concerns and alternatives for consideration by policy makers • helping to enhance the accountability and transparency of government and local government programs and of officials.
  16. 16. ROLE OF NGOS IN GLOBALIZING WORLD Per Boutros-Ghali in 1995 “ Non-governmental organizations are a basic element in the representation of the modern world. And their participation in international organizations is in a way a guarantee of the latter’s political legitimacy…From the stand point of global democratization, we need the participation of international public opinion and the mobilizing powers of non-governmental organizations.”
  17. 17. CHECK THESE OUT! Bansal, P. (2010). Role of Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) in the Developmental Process in Punjab (PhD Thesis). Panjab University. Bava, N. (Ed.) (2008). Non-Governmental Organizations in Development. New Delhi: Kanishka Publishers. Heredia, R. C. (1998). Voluntary Action and Development: Towards a Praxis for Non- Governmental Agencies. New Delhi: Concept Publishing Company. Hilhorst, D. (2003). The Real World of NGOs: Discourses, Diversity and Development. London: Zed Books Ltd. Kuriakose, P. T. (1989). In Quest of Development: Role of Non-Governmental Organizations. New Delhi: Kalpana Printing House. Lewis, D., & Kanji, K. (2009). Non-Governmental Organizations and Development. London: Routledge. Niranjan Pani, N., & Sahu, P. K. (2010). Non-Governmental Organizations: Development Actors. New Delhi: Mahamaya Publishers Abbey, E. M. (2008). Constructive Regulation of Non-government Organizations. The Quarterly Review of Economics and Finance, 48, 370–376.
  18. 18. CHECK THESE OUT! Streeten, P. (1997). Nongovernmental organizations and development. Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 554, 193-210. Pawar, S. N., Ambekar, J. B., & Shrikant, D. (Ed.) (2004). NGOs and Development: The Indian Scenario. New Delhi: Rawat Publications. Jacob, K. C. (2010). Role of Non-Governmental Organizations in the Economic and Community Development of Kerala: A Case Study of Peermade Development Society (PhD Thesis). Mahatma Gandhi University. Aslam, H. D., & Rafi, A. (2011). NGO Management in Patten Development Organization. Directory of Human Resource Management e.Publications, 1(1). Retrieved from www.hrmars.com/admin/pics/42.pdf on 8th March 2015. Role of Governments and Nongovernmental Organizations. Retrieved from www.sagepub.com/.../52625_ch_9.pdf on 8th March 2015. Definition of an NGO. Retrieved from www.undp.org/ppp/library/files/maslyu01.html on 8th March 2015. Union of International Associations. Retrieved from www.uia.org/uiafaqs/faqorg.htm#NGO on 8th March 2015.

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