Early Exploration Notes
Geographic Factors <ul><li>What were the geographic factors that fed the rise in exploration? </li></ul><ul><li>The Turks ...
Suppliers and Goods What goods were traded? <ul><li>Africa: (West) </li></ul><ul><li>Ghana—salt and gold </li></ul><ul><ul...
Technology <ul><li>What were technology changes that increased exploration? </li></ul><ul><li>Better ships </li></ul><ul><...
Other Factors   <ul><li>What other factors encouraged exploration of new trade routes? </li></ul><ul><li>Renaissance Perio...
The Leader <ul><li>Prince Henry “The Navigator” of Portugal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Started a school of navigation in 1420 <...
Other Ways They Prepared <ul><li>Many explorers read the Viking Sagas. </li></ul><ul><li>A  Saga  is a traditional story. ...
Portugal <ul><li>Bartholomeu Dias </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sent by King John II </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sailed to Cape of ...
Spain <ul><li>Christopher Columbus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sailed to Bahamas/Caribbean </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thought he...
Who Sailed for Whom? <ul><li>Portugal: </li></ul><ul><li>1487— </li></ul><ul><li>Bartholomeu Dias </li></ul><ul><li>1497— ...
Line of Demarcation (Treaty of Tordesillas) <ul><li>Pope Alexander drew an imaginary line running down the middle of the A...
Why wasn’t this line fair? <ul><li>Spain got all of the new world, and Portugal was left with mostly claimed land. </li></ul>
What Did I Do? (Portugal) <ul><li>Prince Henry  -started a sailing school in Portugal </li></ul><ul><li>Dias -Explored Afr...
What Did I Do? (Spain) <ul><li>Columbus - Did not find Americas first, explored islands in the Caribbean. </li></ul><ul><l...
Exploration in South America <ul><li>Spanish explorers were known as  conquistadors </li></ul><ul><li>They received  grant...
Why Did Spain Succeed So Easily? <ul><li>The natives thought they were gods… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Weapons the Indians had...
Explorer Motivation in Americas <ul><li>Personally--Gold, Jewels, status </li></ul><ul><li>For country—Land to claim, spre...
Exploration in North America <ul><li>Ponce de Leon-  (1513) Explored Florida, searched for the “Fountain of Youth” (St. Au...
French Exploration <ul><li>French explorers wanted to find a direct water route THROUGH North America.:  </li></ul><ul><li...
English Exploration <ul><li>England sent  John Cabot </li></ul><ul><li>He explored Newfoundland </li></ul><ul><li>England ...
Netherlands (Dutch) <ul><li>Sent Henry Hudson </li></ul><ul><li>He explored the Hudson River in present day New York  </li...
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Early exploration edited

  1. 1. Early Exploration Notes
  2. 2. Geographic Factors <ul><li>What were the geographic factors that fed the rise in exploration? </li></ul><ul><li>The Turks blocked the trade route from the Mediterranean Sea to the land route to Asia. </li></ul><ul><li>Crusades —European countries tried to regain control of holy sites that had been taken over by the Muslims and were exposed to trade items. </li></ul><ul><li>Portugal —They didn’t have a Mediterranean port location and needed an option. </li></ul><ul><li>Arabs’ prices were too high. (Middle Man) </li></ul>
  3. 3. Suppliers and Goods What goods were traded? <ul><li>Africa: (West) </li></ul><ul><li>Ghana—salt and gold </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Imposed taxes on goods, so traders found new routes over time </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mali—gold </li></ul><ul><li>Songhai—skins, ivory </li></ul><ul><li>China and India: </li></ul><ul><li>Spices, sugar, silk, cotton, porcelain </li></ul>
  4. 4. Technology <ul><li>What were technology changes that increased exploration? </li></ul><ul><li>Better ships </li></ul><ul><ul><li>triangular sail, sturdy rudder </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Better tools </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Astrolabe, magnetic compass </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Better maps </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cartographer —a person who makes/studies maps Included ocean currents and latitude lines </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Other Factors <ul><li>What other factors encouraged exploration of new trade routes? </li></ul><ul><li>Renaissance Period </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Renaissance means “new birth” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Period of time when the wealthy studied classical books or ancient Greece and Rome </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Rise of monarchs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Countries were ruled by kings and queens and they paid for the exploration trips </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. The Leader <ul><li>Prince Henry “The Navigator” of Portugal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Started a school of navigation in 1420 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Didn’t sail, but planned voyages and analyzed their reports </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Astronomers, geographers, mathematicians shared info with Portuguese sailors and shipbuilders. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Expert mapmakers updated maps/charts </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Other Ways They Prepared <ul><li>Many explorers read the Viking Sagas. </li></ul><ul><li>A Saga is a traditional story. </li></ul><ul><li>Christopher Columbus read the written works of Ptolemy, an ancient Greek Astronomer. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Portugal <ul><li>Bartholomeu Dias </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sent by King John II </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sailed to Cape of Good Hope, tip of Africa </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Vasco Da Gama </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sailed around Africa to India </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Pedro Alvares Cabral </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Swung wide to Africa and reached Brazil first </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Established important forts for trade </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Spain <ul><li>Christopher Columbus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sailed to Bahamas/Caribbean </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thought he had found India </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Amerigo Vespucci </li></ul><ul><ul><li>South America </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Americas are named after him </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Vasco Nunez de Balboa </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hiked over mountains to see the Pacific Ocean </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ferdinand Magellan </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sailed through a strait (narrow waterway) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Named the Pacific Ocean (pacifico-peaceful) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>circumnavigate —sail around the world </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Who Sailed for Whom? <ul><li>Portugal: </li></ul><ul><li>1487— </li></ul><ul><li>Bartholomeu Dias </li></ul><ul><li>1497— </li></ul><ul><li>Vasco da Gama </li></ul><ul><li>1497— </li></ul><ul><li>Pedro Alvares Cabral </li></ul><ul><li>*Columbus sailed for both countries! </li></ul><ul><li>Spain: </li></ul><ul><li>1492— </li></ul><ul><li>Christopher Columbus </li></ul><ul><li>1502— </li></ul><ul><li>Amerigo Vespucci </li></ul><ul><li>1513— </li></ul><ul><li>Vasco Nunez de </li></ul><ul><li>Balboa </li></ul><ul><li>1520— </li></ul><ul><li>Ferdinand Magellan </li></ul>
  11. 11. Line of Demarcation (Treaty of Tordesillas) <ul><li>Pope Alexander drew an imaginary line running down the middle of the Atlantic from the North Pole to the South Pole. </li></ul><ul><li>Spain got the West and Portugal got the East. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Why wasn’t this line fair? <ul><li>Spain got all of the new world, and Portugal was left with mostly claimed land. </li></ul>
  13. 13. What Did I Do? (Portugal) <ul><li>Prince Henry -started a sailing school in Portugal </li></ul><ul><li>Dias -Explored Africa to its southern tip </li></ul><ul><li>Da Gama -Rounded tip of Africa, sailed to India </li></ul><ul><li>Cabral -Swung wide, explored coast of Brazil, set up trade forts in India </li></ul>
  14. 14. What Did I Do? (Spain) <ul><li>Columbus - Did not find Americas first, explored islands in the Caribbean. </li></ul><ul><li>Vespucci -Explored South American coast, Americas named after him </li></ul><ul><li>De Balboa -Hiked mountains and saw Pacific Ocean first </li></ul><ul><li>Magellan -Circumnavigated the world by sailing through a strait near the tip of S. America, named the Pacific Ocean— pacifico (peaceful) </li></ul>
  15. 15. Exploration in South America <ul><li>Spanish explorers were known as conquistadors </li></ul><ul><li>They received grants , or special permission, to explore and claim land. </li></ul><ul><li>Cortez -(Mexico) Conquered the Aztecs in the city of Tenochtitlan, put the Aztec emperor, Montezuma in prison. </li></ul><ul><li>Pizarro -(Peru) Conquered the Incas, executed their leader, Atahualpa. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Why Did Spain Succeed So Easily? <ul><li>The natives thought they were gods… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Weapons the Indians had never seen, guns and cannons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Horses the Indians had never seen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shiny armor/uniforms </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The natives didn’t like their Aztec rulers… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sided and fought with Spanish for “freedom” </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Explorer Motivation in Americas <ul><li>Personally--Gold, Jewels, status </li></ul><ul><li>For country—Land to claim, spread religion </li></ul><ul><li>Seven Cities of Cibola </li></ul><ul><li>(National Treasure Movie!) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The natives told the story of cities of gold </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Exploration in North America <ul><li>Ponce de Leon- (1513) Explored Florida, searched for the “Fountain of Youth” (St. Augustine) </li></ul><ul><li>De Vaca and Estevanico- (1528) Explored Florida to the Southwest (Mexico), became medicine men to survive </li></ul><ul><li>De Soto- (1541) Explored Western North America, died and was dumped into the Mississippi River. </li></ul><ul><li>Coronado- (1540) Explored Colorado River and Kansas, wanted to find Cibola. </li></ul>
  19. 19. French Exploration <ul><li>French explorers wanted to find a direct water route THROUGH North America.: </li></ul><ul><li>The Northwest Passage </li></ul><ul><li>Jacques Cartier explored the St. Lawrence River near Canada </li></ul>
  20. 20. English Exploration <ul><li>England sent John Cabot </li></ul><ul><li>He explored Newfoundland </li></ul><ul><li>England used his voyage to claim parts of the East coast of America </li></ul>
  21. 21. Netherlands (Dutch) <ul><li>Sent Henry Hudson </li></ul><ul><li>He explored the Hudson River in present day New York </li></ul><ul><li>New York was the Dutch settlement of New Amsterdam before the English took it over </li></ul>

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